EJE, vol. 112 (2015), issue 2

Evidence for TTAGG telomere repeats and rRNA gene clusters in leafhoppers of the genus Alebra (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 207-214, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.045

The leafhopper genus Alebra Fieber, 1872 comprises a complex of morphologically similar species. The chromosome complements (karyotypes) of five Alebra species, i.e. A. albostriella, A. coryli, A. viridis, A. wahlbergi and a new, yet undescribed species, provisionally named Taxon 1, were here investigated, three of these species (A. coryli, A. viridis, and Taxon 1) for the first time. The techniques applied included standard chromosome staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S rDNA and telomeric repeats (in every species), C-banding, AgNOR-banding and CMA3/DAPI-...

Identification of heat shock protein genes hsp70s and hsc70 and their associated mRNA expression under heat stress in insecticide-resistant and susceptible diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Lin Jie ZHANG, Kuan Fu WANG, Yu Pu JING, Hua Mei ZHUANG, Gang WU

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 215-226, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.039

To gain further insight into the molecular features of the ubiquitous Hsp70 family of conserved heat shock proteins, total nine full-length cDNA sequences of inducible hsp70s (Px-hsp69-1, -2a, -2b, -3, -4, Px-hsp72-1a, -1b, -2 and -3) and one constitutive hsc70 (Px-hsc70(C)) were isolated and characterized in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, collected from Fuzhou, China. The nine Px-hsp70s cDNAs encoded the protein of between 629-669 amino acids with molecular weight ranging from 69.00-72.58 kDa and were derived from four hsp70 genes...

Population genetics and demographic history of guava fruit fly Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northeastern Thailand


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 227-234, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.033

Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) is among the most destructive fruit fly pests of the genus Bactrocera. This species infests 62 species of plants belonging 30 families, many of which are commercially important. In this study, the genetic structure, diversity and demographic history of B. correcta in Thailand were inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences. High genetic diversity was recorded in the 171 samples collected from 15 locations. This was due largely to the existence of two divergent lineages (I, II) revealed by median joining (MJ) network analysis. Genetic structure analysis revealed an overall...

Immunochemical detection of the crustacean cardioactive peptide in the cephalic ganglia of cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 235-244, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.035

In insects, the crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) is involved mainly in the regulation of ecdysis and is both a hormone secreted into the haemolymph and a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter in the nervous system. However, this peptide has only been recorded in the brains of a few species of insects. The present study examined the distribution of CCAP in the cephalic ganglia of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two kinds of specific antibodies. The antibody directed against synthetic CCAP detected a large number of CCAP-immunoreactive neurons in the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, tritocerebrum, suboesophageal ganglion, optic lobes,...

Destruction of peritrophic membrane and its effect on biological characteristics and activity of digestive enzymes in larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 245-250, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.046

The mid gut in insects is usually lined with a peritrophic membrane (PM), which protects it from microbial infections and physical contact with ingested food. Calcofluor is an optical brightener that has strong chitin-binding properties, which disrupt the chitin-protein structure of PM. In this study, we investigated the effects of calcofluor on the structure of the PM, activity of some common digestive enzymes and biological characteristics of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Twenty hours after feeding on a calcofluor-containing diet, the PM was completely eliminated. We recorded significant effects of calcofluor...

Nutrient-specific food selection buffers the effect of nutritional imbalance in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Myung Suk RHO, Kwang Pum LEE

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 251-258, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.030

Ingesting nutritionally imbalanced food can cause a significant reduction in fitness in insects. Insects can avoid the negative consequences of nutritional imbalances by selectively foraging for nutritionally complementary foods. We investigated the ability of the omnivorous beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to redress nutritional imbalances by selecting complementary foods. Beetles were fed one of three synthetic diets that varied in their protein: carbohydrate balance (p0:c42, p21:c21 or p42:c0) for 16 days and then allowed to select between two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary diets (p0:c42 vs. p42:c0) for 18...

Phylogeography of Trigonaspis synaspis (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) from Anatolia based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences

Serap MUTUN, Gamze ATAY

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 259-269, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.036

Sequence data for the nuclear ITS2 region and part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were used to reveal intraspecific phylogeography and population genetic structure of the oak gall wasp Trigonaspis synaspis from Anatolia. One hundred and sixty six individuals representing 21 populations yielded 50 unique cyt b haplotypes and 15 ITS2 alleles. Genetic diversity estimates indicated the existence of high molecular variation, with average gene diversities of 0.85541 and 0.3119 for cyt b and ITS2 respectively. Likewise, nucleotide diversity was 0.01346 for cyt b and 0.0015 for ITS2. Pairwise divergence ranged from 0.2 to 3.1% between cyt b...

Aphis pomi and Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) in Europe - new information on their distribution, molecular and morphological peculiarities


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 270-280, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.043

Aphid species Aphis pomi (de Geer, 1773) is oligophagous on pomoideous host plants, whilst Aphis spiraecola Patch, 1914 is a polyphagous species alternating between Spiraea spp., its primary host, and a wide variety of secondary hosts, also including pomoideous species. Despite the biological distinction, these species are difficult to separate using their morphological characters. Partial sequences of mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF-1α genes were analyzed for samples from Central and Eastern Europe, Germany, Bulgaria, Italy, Turkey, China together with available data from GenBank. Interspecific pairwise sample divergences...

Effects of host size and laboratory rearing on offspring development and sex ratio in the solitary parasitoid Agrothereutes lanceolatus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

Takatoshi UENO

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 281-287, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.048

Agrothereutes lanceolatus is a solitary ectoparasitoid attacking mature larvae, prepupae and pupae of tortricid and pyralid moths, including Homona magnanima, which is an important pest of tea. Adult A. lanceolatus are sexually dimorphic and vary considerably in size in the wild, suggesting they parasitize a variety of hosts of different sizes. Here, the effects of host size on offspring survival, size and sex ratio in A. lanceolatus were investigated. Wild-caught and laboratory-reared parasitoids were used to identify the effects of laboratory rearing on the above three biological parameters. The percentage of hosts producing...

Increase in dark morphs and decrease in size during a range extension of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 289-294, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.029

The ladybird beetle Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) is widely distributed throughout the intermediate latitudinal and equatorial regions. It exhibits elytral colour polymorphism with a geographical cline showing increased prevalence of melanic morphs with increasing latitude. Over the past 100 years, this species has extended its distribution towards higher latitudes in Japan because of climatic warming. In this study, long-term changes in the frequency of different morphs and adult body size of this species during this range extension were analyzed based on a survey of specimens in collections. First, we examined specimens collected from...

Electrophysiological and oviposition responses of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to compounds rinsed from the surfaces of sugarcane and maize leaves

Xing-Chuan JIANG, Wen-Xia DONG, Bin CHEN, Chun XIAO, Fu-Rong GUI, Nai-Sheng YAN, Lei QIAN, Zheng-Yue LI

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 295-301, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.042

The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is one of the most important pests of maize (Zea mays) in China. However, the mechanism by which intercropping sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and maize controls this pest via compounds rinsed from leaf surfaces is still unclear. Electrophysiological and oviposition responses of the Asian corn borer to compounds rinsed from leaf surfaces of sugarcane and maize were studied. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed that O. furnacalis responds to 21 compounds, which are present in both the compounds rinsed from leaf surfaces of sugarcane...

Evidence of forage distance limitations for small bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Ivan R. WRIGHT, Stuart P.M. ROBERTS, Bonnie E. COLLINS

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 303-310, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.028

The distribution of ground-nesting bees was investigated using transects of water traps in a mosaic of nesting and forage habitats at Shotover Hill in Oxfordshire, UK. The site includes a large area of ground-nesting bee activity and is adjoined on three sides by floristic hay meadows. This study showed that the females of small bee species (< 1.5 mm intertegular span) that were foraging in the hay meadows demonstrated a functional limitation to their homing range. The abundance of small bees declined rapidly with increasing distance from areas of high density nesting; declining more rapidly than might be expected from uniform dispersal into the...

Relationships between the geographic distribution of phytophagous insects and different types of vegetation: A case study of the flea beetle genus Chaetocnema (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the Afrotropical region

Maurizio BIONDI, Fabrizia URBANI, Paola D'ALESSANDRO

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 311-327, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.040

This study analyses the geographic distributions of 95 endemic and sub-endemic species of Chaetocnema (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) found in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, in order to compare and correlate their pattern of the geographic range (chorotype) and the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems in Africa and Madagascar. The data compiled for the species of Chaetocnema are based on records for 1639 collecting localities. Most of the species of Chaetocnema have restricted geographical ranges (67.3%), whereas relatively few species (11.6%) are very widely distributed. The latitudinal and longitudinal gradients in the numbers...

Ability of males of two theclini species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) to discriminate between sexes and different types of females based on the colour of their wings


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 328-333, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.034

Many territorial species of butterfly are sexually dimorphic in their wing colours, and males of such species frequently fight each other, probably attracted by the rival's wing colour. On the other hand, male behaviour should be directed to acquiring mates to increase their fitness, and thus should be sensitive to (usually cryptic) female wing colour. The present experiments aimed to determine whether the conspicuous male colour or cryptic female colour is more attractive to the territorial males of two lycaenid species, Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus and Neozephyrus japonicus. A pair of female and male wing models was presented simultaneously...

Biology, affinity and description of an unusual aquatic new genus and species of Isotomidae (Collembola) from high altitude lakes in Tasmania


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 334-343, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.032

A new species of Isotomidae (Collembola) was collected from submerged stones on the edge of nine lakes on Tasmania's Central Highland Plateau. Because it did not comply fully with the characters of any existing genus, a new genus, Chionobora gen. n. is erected for it here. An Antarctic species, Desoria klovstadi (Carpenter), has characters which conform with the new genus so is formally transferred to the new genus here. The Antarctic Continent and Tasmania were last in proximity 60 million years b.p. so it is suggested both species are relicts persisting in probable ice-free refugia during glacial cycles. Gut contents of specimens...

Larval morphology and phylogenetic position of Drusus balcanicus, D. botosaneanui, D. serbicus and D. tenellus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae: Drusinae)

Johann WARINGER, Wolfram GRAF, Miklós BÁLINT, Mladen KUČINIĆ, Steffen U. PAULS, Ana PREVIŠIĆ, Lujza KERESZTES, Halil IBRAHIMI, Ivana ŽIVIĆ, Katarina BJELANOVIĆ, Vladimir KRPAČ, Simon VITECEK

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 344-361, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.037

In a recent 3-gene phylogeny of the trichopteran subfamily Drusinae Banks 1916, molecular data clearly correlated with the morphology and feeding ecology of larvae. The largest of three main groups, the Drusinae grazer clade, exhibits an unusual larval feeding ecology for Limnephilidae, and is the most diverse group. In this paper we describe four previously unknown Drusinae larvae included in this clade: Drusus balcanicus Kumanski, 1973 (micro-endemic to Eastern Balkans), Drusus botosaneanui Kumanski, 1968 (Dinaric Western Balkans, Hellenic and Eastern Balkan, Asia Minor), Drusus serbicus Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1971 (micro-endemic...

Development, reproduction, host range and geographical distribution of the variegated caper bug Stenozygum coloratum (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 362-372, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.041

The variegated caper bug (CB) Stenozygum coloratum (Klug, 1845) is common in the Eastern Mediterranean region and a minor agricultural pest. CB eggs were recently shown to serve as alternative hosts for Ooencyrtus pityocampae Mercet, 1921, an important natural enemy of the pine processionary moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams, 1924 (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae). In this study various aspects of the life history of CB were studied, including its distribution, host range, development, reproduction and ability to develop on various cultivated species of plants. CB occurs in almost all areas and habitats in Israel, except in the...

New fossil Procercopidae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha) from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China

Jun CHEN, Bo WANG, Haichun ZHANG, Xiaoli WANG, Xiaoting ZHENG

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 373-380, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.044

Anthoscytina Hong, 1983 is the largest genus within the Mesozoic Procercopidae, the stem group of the superfamily Cercopoidea. Herein, we describe two new species from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, northeast China. Anthoscytina brevineura Chen, Wang & Zhang, sp. n. and Anthoscytina elegans Chen, Wang & Zhang, sp. n. are established on the basis of new well-preserved fossils. Although these two new species are very similar, some stable differences in tegminal venation and colour patterns confirm their species status. Sinotettegarcta longa Hong, 1986 is transferred to Anthoscytina, and to avoid secondary...

New fossil taxa of Monophlebidae (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) from Baltic amber

Ewa SIMON, Dagmara ŻYŁA

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 381-388, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.038

The family Monophlebidae is distributed worldwide and is classified as one of the "archaeococcoid" families. After almost 160 years since Germar & Berendt (1856) described the first and so far only fossil monophlebid species, Monophlebus irregularis, two new fossil species of a new and undoubtedly monophlebid genus Palaeophlebus gen. n. are described from Baltic amber. Morphological features of the new genus and its two species, P. hoffeinorum sp. n. and P. kotejai sp. n., are discussed.

Characterisation of sixteen additional polymorphic microsatellite loci for the spreading but locally rare European butterfly, Brenthis ino (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 389-392, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.047

Whilst the overall geographic range of the lesser marbled fritillary, Brenthis ino (Rottemburg, 1775), is currently expanding, this species is patchily distributed at a local spatial scale due to its use of flower rich semi-natural meadows and the aggregated distribution of its host plant. Therefore, understanding the dispersal patterns of this butterfly and the effect of increasing fragmentation of the landscapes in central and Western Europe on its population dynamics is key to determining whether this patchy distribution can lead to metapopulation structuring and dynamics. One way to determine the degree to which local populations are isolated...

Potential pollinator of Vanda falcata (Orchidaceae): Theretra (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) hawkmoths are visitors of long spurred orchid


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 393-397, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.031

Vanda falcata is a species of orchid native to China, Korea and Japan. While it is arguably one of the most celebrated orchids in Japan there is no information on its pollinators. Although most species of the subtribe Aeridinae, to which V. falcata belongs, have a short spur, V. falcata has a long spur. The results of the current study provide strong evidence that V. falcata is pollinated by long-tongued hawkmoths (Theretra spp.), which indicates that the evolution of long spurs in V. falcata could be an adaptation to pollination by long-tongued moths.