EJE, vol. 114 (2017)

Acceptance of alien queens by the ruby ant Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Gene flow by queen flow


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 230-234, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.028

Social insect colonies, especially of ants, often include several egg-laying queens that are not always closely related to each other. At least in some cases, the ants seem to accept non-related queens into their colonies. Here I test whether the colony queen status (with or without a queen), genetic and geographic differences between source and recipient nests and the average relatedness of the workers in the recipient colony affect the acceptance of alien queens. I used field collected ruby ant Myrmica rubra colonies as a model system. Only the queen status significantly affected the acceptance process. Colonies without queens accepted alien...

Fitness traits of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) after long-term laboratory rearing on different diets


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 222-229, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.027

Nutrition is one of the most important environmental factors that influence the development and growth in Drosophila. The food composition strongly affects their reproduction, welfare and survival, so it is necessary for flies to search for a mixture of macronutrients that maximizes their fitness. We have five D. melanogaster strains, which were reared for 13 years on five different substrates: standard cornmeal-agar-sugar-yeast medium and four substrates modified by adding tomato, banana, carrot and apple. This study was aimed at determining how such long-term rearing of flies on substrates with different protein content affects fitness...

Do the arthropod communities on a parasitic plant and its hosts differ?


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 215-221, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.026

Parasitic plants growing on tree branches may be a novel niche and phytoresource for arthropods. The spatial continuity between hosts and their parasites in canopies might provide a homogeneous environment for arthropod communities, but differences in mistletoe leaves and host needles could be exploited by different species of arthropods. Therefore, it is important to determine insect-community assemblages in order to discover the role of parasitic plants as a different habitat for arthropods. Thus, we aim to evaluate the level of similarity between the arthropod community on mistletoe (Viscum album) and that on its two principal pine hosts,...

Structure of scuttle fly communities (Diptera: Phoridae) in two habitats on a Mediterranean mountain


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 203-214, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.025

Phoridae (scuttle flies) are widely distributed, occur in many types of habitats and are ecologically versatile, which makes them an excellent bioindicator group for evaluating faunal diversity. The structure of scuttle fly communities was compared in two Mediterranean habitats in the Montseny Natural Park (Catalonia, Spain) that differ in vegetation and microclimate: beech forest and highland scrubland. 3684 male individuals belonging to 135 species of scuttle flies were identified. Scuttle flies were more abundant in beech forest than scrubland. Observed and estimated species richness were lower in scrubland than in beech forest, while diversity...

Expression of heat-shock protein genes in Apis mellifera meda (Hymenoptera: Apidae) after exposure to monoterpenoids and infestation by Varroa destructor mites (Acari: Varroidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 195-202, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.024

Heat shock proteins (hsps) protect proteins in eukaryotic cells from damage. Expression of hsps in insects subject to different environmental stimuli is poorly characterized. Here, levels of expression of the hsps genes (hsp40, hsp70, and hsp90) were recorded in Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of thymol, eucalyptol, α-pinene, trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and infestation with Varroa mites. Our results show a dose-dependent up-regulation in the levels of all the hsps tested after the bees were treated with thymol,...

Improving knowledge of the subgenus Agrodiaetus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatus) in Eastern Europe: Overview of the Romanian fauna

Vlad DINCĂ, Levente SZÉKELY, Zsolt BÁLINT, Marius SKOLKA, Sergiu TÖRÖK, Paul D.N. HEBERT

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 179-194, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.023

The butterfly subgenus Agrodiaetus of the genus Polyommatus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is distributed in the western and central Palaearctic and represents a taxonomically challenging group due to its rapid diversification coupled, in many cases, with very limited availability of morphological diagnostic characters. In this study we provide a detailed overview of this subgenus in the Romanian fauna, a country where scattered, poorly documented records suggest the presence of three species: Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) damon, P. (A.) admetus and P. (A.) ripartii. By analyzing material...

Double strand RNA-mediated RNA interference through feeding in larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 170-178, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.022

RNA interference (RNAi) technology uses dsRNAs to silence specific targeted genes by downregulating their expression. It has become a potent tool for functional and regulatory studies of insect genes and has potential to be applied for insect control. Though it has been challenging to generate effective RNAi in lepidopteran insects, in the current study this technology was applied to develop specific RNAi-based molecular tools that could be used to negatively impact the invasive lepidopteran forest pest, gypsy moth (GM). GM midgut-specific genes were selected for dsRNA design from larval transcriptome profiles. Two methods were used to produce specific...

An early suitability assessment of two exotic Ophraella species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) for biological control of invasive ragweed in Europe


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 160-169, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.021

Classical biological control is an important means of managing the increasing threat of invasive plants. It constitutes the introduction of natural enemies from the native range of the target plant into the invaded area. This method may be the only cost-effective solution to control the rapidly expanding common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in non-crop habitats in Europe. Therefore, candidate biocontrol agents urgently need to be assessed for their suitability for ragweed control in Europe. A previous literature review prioritized the host-specific leaf beetle Ophraella slobodkini as a candidate agent for ragweed control in Europe,...

The diversity of feeding habits recorded for water boatmen (Heteroptera: Corixoidea) world-wide with implications for evaluating information on the diet of aquatic insects

Christian W. HÄDICKE, Dávid RÉDEI, Petr KMENT

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 147-159, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.020

Food webs are of crucial importance for understanding any ecosystem. The accuracy of food web and ecosystem models rests on the reliability of the information on the feeding habits of the species involved. Water boatmen (Corixoidea) is the most diverse superfamily of water bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha), frequently the most abundant group of insects in a variety of freshwater habitats worldwide. In spite of their high biomass, the importance of water boatmen in aquatic ecosystems is frequently underestimated. The diet and feeding habits of Corixoidea are unclear as published data are frequently contradictory. We summarise information on the feeding...

Biodiversity - economy or ecology? Long-term study of changes in the biodiversity of aphids living in steppe-like grasslands in Central Europe

Barbara OSIADACZ, Roman HAŁAJ, Damian CHMURA

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 140-146, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.019

This paper examines the changes in the species composition of aphids living in dry calcareous grasslands in Central Europe over a 25-year period. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis of this type in the world that takes into account both previous and current data on species richness as well as groups of aphids that are distinguishable on the basis of biological and ecological criteria such as host-alternation and feeding types, life cycle, ecological niche, symbiosis with ants and their ecological functional groups. Over the period of more than 25 years, there has been a significant decrease in aphid α-diversity, from 171 to...

Adaptive significance of the prolonged diapause in the western Mediterranean lycaenid butterfly Tomares ballus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 133-139, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.018

Diapause is a common dormancy strategy exhibited by many species of invertebrates and insects to temporarily avoid seasonally recurring unfavourable conditions for their development, most usually in winter. Less frequently, a prolonged diapause lasting two or more years is described in species living in unpredictable environments where it is adaptive, but with significant costs. In this paper we examine the occurrence of prolonged diapause in the lycaenid butterfly Tomares ballus. Pupae of this species undergo an obligate diapause from mid-May to late January the following year. However, during our rearing experiments (from 2009 to 2016)...

A comparison of methods for sampling aquatic insects (Heteroptera and Coleoptera) of different body sizes, in different habitats using different baits


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 123-132, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.017

Although various methods exist for sampling aquatic Heteroptera and Coleoptera in standing water, there are very few comparisons of their performance in different types of habitat. In this study, we evaluated and compared the efficiency and selectivity of three sampling methods: hand netting, bottle traps baited with canned tuna and bottle traps baited with canned cat food. The methods were compared over the period 2010-2012 in two different habitats (temporarily flooded areas and canals) in the Nature Park Kopački rit, a floodplain on the banks of the River Danube. The results show that the effectiveness of the method differed in the two habitats....

Movement, demography and behaviour of a highly mobile species: A case study of the black-veined white, Aporia crataegi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

Jure JUGOVIC, Mitja ČRNE, Martina LU®NIK

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 113-122, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.016

We studied the demography, movement, behaviour and choice of nectar plants by adults of Aporia crataegi. This study was done in a dense network of different types of habitats (total size of study area 16.26 ha) from open landscape to shrubland, the latter being a result of abandonment of traditional agricultural practices such as extensive mowing and grazing. Total population size was estimated to be approximately 1700 and 2700 for females and males, respectively. Median and maximum distances moved by males were 134 and 3493 m, and by females 138 and 3165 m, respectively. The average lifespan was ca. 7.1 and 7.5 days, with maximum recorded lifespans...

Effect of ant attendance on aphid population growth and above ground biomass of the aphid's host plant


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 106-112, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.015

Ant-aphid mutualism is considered to be a beneficial association for the individuals concerned. The population and fitness of aphids affected by ant attendance and the outcome of this relationship affects the host plant of the aphid. The main hypothesis of the current study is that ant tending decreases aphid developmental time and/or increases reproduction per capita, which seriously reduces host plant fitness. The effect of attendance by the ant Tapinoma erraticum (Latreille, 1798) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on population growth and duration of different developmental stages of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were...

Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of female Isoceras sibirica (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) to volatiles produced by the plant, Asparagus officinalis

Hongxia LIU, Zhixiong LIU, Haixia ZHENG, Zerong JIN, Jintong ZHANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 101-105, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.014

In herbivorous insects plant volatiles have an important role in locating mates and oviposition sites. The aim of this study was to test the antennal and behavioural responses of females of Isoceras sibirica Alpheraky (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) to the volatiles produced by Asparagus officinalis L. Electroantennographs (EAG) revealed that the antennae of I. sibirica respond in a dose dependent way to hexanal, limonene, 2-ethyl-2-hexenal, linalool and α-terpineol. In flight tunnel experiments, 2-ethyl-2-hexenal, α-terpineol, hexanal, ρ-cymene and geraniol were significantly more attractive to females of I. sibirica...

Succession in ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in deciduous forest clear-cuts - an Eastern European case study

Ioan TĂUŞAN, Jens DAUBER, Maria R. TRICĂ, Bálint MARKÓ

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 92-100, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.013

Clear-cutting, the main method of harvesting in many forests in the world, causes a series of dramatic environmental changes to the forest habitat and removes habitat resources for arboreal and epigeal species. It results in considerable changes in the composition of both plant and animal communities. Ants have many critical roles in the maintenance and functioning of forest ecosystems. Therefore, the response of ants to clear-cutting and the time it takes for an ant community to recover after clear-cutting are important indicators of the effect of this harvesting technique on the forest ecosystem. We investigated ground-dwelling ant communities during...

Field and laboratory studies on drought tolerance and water balance in adult Pergalumna nervosa (Acari: Oribatida: Galumnidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 86-91, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.012

We studied the water balance, body fluid osmolality and survival of the oribatid mite, Pergalumna nervosa, when exposed to drought in field and laboratory experiments. In a replicated field experiment we artificially lowered the soil water content by putting roofs over selected plots, which reduced soil water potential to levels well below the permanent wilting percentage for plants (i.e. below -1.5 MPa). Even though a slight decrease in the abundance of P. nervosa (only found in the 0-5 cm soil layer) was recorded during the most severe drought stress (ca. -3.5 MPa), the majority of adult mites clearly survived these conditions for 3...

Fungi associated with Ips acuminatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Ukraine with a special emphasis on pathogenicity of ophiostomatoid species

Kateryna DAVYDENKO, Rimvydas VASAITIS, Audrius MENKIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 77-85, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.011

Conifer bark beetles are well known to be associated with fungal complexes, which consist of pathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi as well as obligate saprotroph species. However, there is little information on fungi associated with Ips acuminatus in central and eastern Europe. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of the fungal communities associated with the pine engraver beetle, I. acuminatus, in the forest-steppe zone in Ukraine and to evaluate the pathogenicity of six associated ophiostomatoid species by inoculating three-year-old Scots pine seedlings with these fungi. In total, 384 adult beetles were collected from under...

Do flower mixtures with high functional diversity enhance aphid predators in wildflower strips?

Séverin HATT, Roel UYTTENBROECK, Thomas LOPES, Pierre MOUCHON, Julian CHEN, Julien PIQUERAY, Arnaud MONTY, Frédéric FRANCIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 66-76, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.010

Among the semi-natural elements in agricultural landscapes, wildflower strips sown at field margins or within fields are potential habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests. As insects are sensitive to a variety of flower traits, we hypothesized that mixtures with high functional diversity attract and support a higher abundance and species richness of aphid flower visiting predators than mixtures with low functional diversity. During a field experiment, repeated over two years (2014 and 2015) in Gembloux (Belgium), aphid predators (i.e., lacewings, ladybeetles and hoverflies) were pan-trapped in five sown flower mixtures (including a control...

Silk recycling in larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Haq Abdul SHAIK, Archana MISHRA, Frantiąek SEHNAL

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 61-65, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.009

Galleria mellonella larvae spin protective tubes, which they use until they finish feeding, when they spin cocoons. A feeding choice experiment showed that some of the silk produced by feeding larvae was consumed in addition to the standard diet (STD). To determine the effect of feeding on silk, last instar larvae were fed for 24 h on foods based on STD but modified by replacing the dry milk component (10% of the diet) with equal amounts of different kinds of silk. While each control larva consumed 21 ± 0.5 mg of the STD and produced 4.5 ± 0.1 mg of silk, larvae that ate the food that contained larval silk consumed 10 ± 0.4 mg...

The pheromone verbenone and its function in Dendroctonus armandi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

Mingzhen ZHAO, Lulu DAI, Yaya SUN, Danyang FU, Hui CHEN

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 53-60, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.008

The Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li is a native species of bark beetle and one of the most destructive in much of western China. Little is known about the characterization of the pheromones trans-verbenol and verbenone, and their functions in D. armandi are unknown. Electroantennogram tests (EAG) and olfactory assays (Y-tube assays) in the laboratory revealed that (1) trans-verbenol may be an anti-aggregation pheromone for male and an aggregation pheromone for female D. armandi and (2) female beetles are more attracted to controls (hexane) than low concentrations of verbenone and male beetles...

Spatial variability in the level of infestation of the leaves of horse chestnut by the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and in the number of adult moths and parasitoids emerging from leaf litter in an urban environment

Michal KOPAČKA, Rostislav ZEMEK

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 42-52, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.007

The horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was first recorded in Europe near lake Ohrid in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in 1985 since when it has spread throughout the whole of Europe. The reasons for its spread are well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the population density of the first generation of C. ohridella at eight sites in the urban area of České Budějovice, Czech Republic in two consecutive years. The density was estimated visually in terms of the damage done to horse chestnut leaves by C. ohridella larvae at each site during the vegetative...

Effect of temperature on rate of development, survival and adult longevity of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 35-41, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.006

The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), both in the field and storehouses. The rate of development and survival of P. operculella, reared on potato tubers cv. Spunta at eight constant temperatures (17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5 and 35°C), were studied in the laboratory. The duration of development of the immature stages was recorded. Adult longevity was also recorded under the same conditions. Developmental time decreased significantly with increase in temperature within the range 17.5-32.5°C. No development occurred...

Book Review: Löbl I. & Löbl D. (eds) 2015: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Hydrophiloidea-Staphylinoidea. Vol. 2. Revised and updated edition.


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 34, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.005

Löbl I. & Löbl D. (eds) 2015: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Hydrophiloidea-Staphylinoidea. Vol. 2. Revised and updated edition. Brill, Leiden, Boston, xxvi + 1702 pp. ISBN 978-90-04-28992-5 (print book), ISBN 978-90-04-29685-5 (e-book). Price USD 245.00.

Assessing the efficiency of UV LEDs as light sources for sampling the diversity of macro-moths (Lepidoptera)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 25-33, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.004

Light trapping is the most widely used tool for determining the diversity of nocturnal Lepidoptera, but UV LEDs have yet to be used as light sources for the large-scale monitoring of Lepidoptera. We assessed the efficiency of this novel light source for sampling moths using a Heath type moth equipped with a strip of 150 high brightness UV LEDs (emission peak 398 nm, ~ 15 W) powered by a 12 V battery. We compared the number of individuals, the number of species and the Geometridae / Noctuidae ratio recorded for the samples collected using UV LED traps with those collected in two monitoring programs carried out in the same geographic region using two...

Polygalacturonase gene expression and enzymatic activity in salivary glands of laboratory reared and wild populations of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 16-24, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.003

Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois, 1818) (tarnished plant bug) is a serious pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Delta region as compared to cotton in the Hills region of the state of Mississippi in USA. The reason for this is unclear but it was hypothesized that the plant cell wall degrading polygalacturonase enzyme system in the salivary glands of L. lineolaris from the Delta could be better adapted for cotton, which is grown more predominantly in the Delta region than in the Hills region. Expression analysis of three primary polygalacturonase genes (LlPG1, LlPG2 and LlPG3) was conducted in laboratory...

Abnormal development in larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resulting from baculovirus-mediated overexpression of a JHE-related gene (SnJHER)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 7-15, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.002

The Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has a unique and recently multiplied juvenile hormone esterase gene family (SnJHER) with particular transcriptional profiles and functional characteristics. Unlike conventional juvenile hormone esterase genes (JHEs), the SnJHER gene family seems to have been recently evolved from a common ancestral JHER gene. SnJHERs seem to be regulated by both ecdysone agonists and xenobiotics, while their real role in development remains to be exploited. In this study we transiently expressed the major SnJHER isoform in Bm5 and Hi5 cell lines. The...

Development and survival of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) at low temperatures in the laboratory and the field


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 1-6, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.001

The European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) is a highly destructive pest of spruce monocultures. Adult spruce bark beetles are well-adapted to survive over winter however, the ability of sub-adult stages to overwinter has not been clearly established. The increase in average temperature recorded over the last three decades has resulted in an increase in voltinism by one generation, but due to insufficient time the last generation may not complete its development. It is crucial to investigate the survival and development of sub-adult stages at low temperatures in order to predict the effect of increased voltinism on the population dynamics...