EJE, vol. 110 (2013), issue 1

Cytogenetic variability among Bradyporinae species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 1-12, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.001

Chromosomes of six European species (one with two subspecies) of Orthoptera belonging to the tribes Ephippigerini and Bradyporini were analyzed using C-banding, Ag-NOR, DAPI (AT-rich)/CMA3 (GC-rich) staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes with the aim to better understand chromosomal organization and evolutionary relationships between genera and subgenera within and across both tribes. The evolution of karyotypes was studied in terms of changes in chromosome number (2n) and morphology (FN, the fundamental number - i.e. the number of chromosome arms including...

Bioinformatics analysis on structural features of microRNA precursors in insects

Jisheng LI, Wei FAN, Zhengying YOU, Boxiong ZHONG

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 13-20, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.002

To date, thousands of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their precursors (pre-miRNAs) have been identified in insects and their nucleotide sequences deposited in the miRBase database. In the present work, we have systematically analyzed, utilizing bioinformatics tools, the featural differences between human and insect pre-miRNAs, as well as differences across 24 insect species. Results showed that the nucleotide composition, sequence length, nucleotides preference and secondary structure features between human and insects were different. Subsequently, with the aid of three available SVM-based prediction programs, pre-miRNA sequences were evaluated and given corresponding...

Molecular cloning and characterization of the S6K-p70 gene in Chinese honeybees, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Yingqi CAI, Taobo AI, Xiaoli YU, Baohua XU, Xingqi GUO

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 21-30, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.003

The ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) plays a pivotal role in developmental processes and cell survival by participating in protein synthesis relevant signaling pathways. In the present study, an S6K gene (AccS6K-p70) was isolated and characterized from the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), an important economic insect in the agricultural industry. The cDNA of AccS6K-p70 was 1683 bp in length and predicted to encode a protein of 467 amino acid residues. Sequence and structure analysis showed that there was a conserved catalytic domain in AccS6K-p70, whilst a phosphorylation site was...

Developmental temperature, body size and male mating success in fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 31-37, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.004

Body size is one of the most investigated traits in studies of sexual selection in fruit flies of the genus Drosophila. In D. melanogaster, size has often been correlated with male mating success, i.e. larger males were more successful in achieving copulations both in laboratory and field conditions. In the present paper, we investigated if male body size is a sexually selected trait in competitive conditions, when full-sibs that developed at two different temperatures (18 and 25°C) competed for females. Males developed at a lower temperature were significantly larger than those reared at a higher temperature, but they were not more successful...

Expression of cytochrome P450 CYP6B6 in the different developmental stages of the insect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Xuetao ZHANG, Dan YUAN, Li DING, Pan LI, Fen LI, Xiaoning LIU

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 39-45, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.005

In order to determine when during the development of H. armigera CYP6B6 is expressed, we measured the width of the head capsule, the length of the body and weight of the different life stages of the cotton bollworm reared under laboratory condition. The larvae took about 20 d to complete their development under these conditions, the pre-pupae about 4 d, pupae about 9 d, and the adults lived for about 9 d and the eggs took about 4 d to hatch. Knowing this it was possible to determine the pattern of cytochrome P450 CYP6B6 expression at different stages in the life cycle of H. armigera using real-time quantitative polymerase chain...

Gas exchange patterns in Platynus assimilis (Coleoptera: Carabidae): Respiratory failure induced by a pyrethroid


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 47-54, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.006

Discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) is the main (23 individuals) breathing mode in resting adult Platynus assimilis. Few of the beetles tested (13 individuals) displayed a pattern of cyclic gas exchange or CGE. The burst of CO2 release in DGE and CGE was always accompanied by abdominal pumping (active ventilation or V). Seven individuals displayed a pattern of continuous respiration, characterized by regular abdominal pumping. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) in continuously breathing beetles was higher than in those using DGE and CGE. After treatment with sub-lethal doses of alpha-cypermethrin DGE ceased. Treated beetles were characterized...

Response of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae from differently adapted populations to allelochemical stress: Effects of tannic acid


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 55-63, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.007

The effects of tannic acid on mean values and genetic variation in fitness-related traits (mass, relative growth rate) and specific activities of digestive enzymes (total proteases, a-glucosidase and lipase), and genetic variation in their plasticity, were investigated in fifth instar larvae of Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) originating from two populations with different host use histories (oak and locust-tree). The two populations did not differentiate with respect to fitness-related traits, i.e. adverse effects of tannic acid were similar in both populations. However, Robinia larvae, which originated from the locust-tree...

Stable isotopes reveal dietary divergence between dispersal phenotypes in Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 65-70, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.008

In some species of insects, individuals with fully developed wings and capable of flying coexist with flightless individuals that lack functional wings. Their diets may differ if long-winged individuals are more mobile and therefore likely to be better at finding and utilizing high quality food resources, or if they have different food preferences or physiological requirements. Despite its potential importance, differences in the diet of dispersal phenotypes have not been unequivocally demonstrated under natural conditions. To test for dietary divergence, we compared natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d13C and...

Behavioural evidence for a putative oviposition-deterring pheromone in the butterfly, Phengaris (Maculinea) teleius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 71-80, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.009

Larvae of the endangered Scarce Large Blue butterfly, Phengaris (Maculinea) teleius, are initially endophytic, feeding upon developing seeds of Sanguisorba officinalis, but complete their development as social parasites preying on the brood of Myrmica ants. Females show very specific preferences, laying eggs exclusively in young flower heads of the food plant. In the present contribution we report the results of a detailed study of female behaviour at three sites differing in size and abundance of S. officinalis. Tracked individuals switched between feeding on nectar (nectaring), flight and oviposition. They...

Influence of linear versus network corridors on the movement and dispersal of the bush-cricket Metrioptera roeseli (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in an experimental landscape


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 81-86, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.010

Linear landscape elements are generally considered beneficial for promoting the movements of species between isolated habitats. However, relatively little consideration has been given to the effect of interconnections (nodes) between these elements: e.g. a simple linear element offers limited options for movement, whereas a network of such structures provides an exponential increase in potential pathways. In this pilot study we compared two experimental landscapes (single versus a lattice of four interconnected linear elements) in terms of their effect on the movement of males of Roesel's bush-cricket (Metrioptera roeseli) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)....

Variation in male and female mating behaviour among different populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Penelope R. HADDRILL, Michael E.N. MAJERUS, David M. SHUKER

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 87-93, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.011

Investigating the function of both male and female mating behaviours is essential in our attempts to understand the evolution of mating systems. Variation in mating behaviours among different populations within a species provides a useful opportunity to explore how behaviours may co-vary, although comparative studies are still rather few in number. Population variation in mating behaviour may also have important implications in terms of the evolution of reproductive isolation, the distribution of genetic diversity within and between populations, and the associated ability of those populations to adapt. Here we consider male and female mating behaviour...



Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 94, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.012

Hodek I., van Emden H.F. & Honìk A. (eds): ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR OF THE LADYBIRD BEETLES (COCCINELLIDAE). Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2012, 561 pp. ISBN 978-1-4051-8422-9. Price GBP 120.00, EUR 143.50.

Influence of photoperiod on the development of diapause in larvae and its cost for individuals of a univoltine population of Dendrolimus punctatus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

Ju-Ping ZENG, Yong WANG, Xing-Ping LIU

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 95-101, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.013

Larvae of Dendrolimus punctatus overwinter in diapause. In the Yangtze River Region, this species is multivoltine at altitudes below 400 m and univoltine above 700 m a.s.l. The photoperiodic response of the univoltine population, investigated at five day lengths (11.5, 12.5, 13.5, 14.5 and 15.5 h) at 27 + 1°C, indicates that D. punctatus is a long-day species. Diapause was induced in 95-100% of the individuals by three short photophases (11.5-13.5 h), while diapause incidence decreased steeply with increase in day length down to 10% at 15.5 h. The critical daylength (CDL = day length resulting in a 50% incidence of diapause) is 14.6 h....

Occurrence of arrhenotoky and thelytoky in a parasitic wasp Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae): Effect of endosymbionts or existence of two distinct reproductive modes?

Vincent FORAY, Hélène HENRI, Sonia MARTINEZ, Patricia GIBERT, Emmanuel DESOUHANT

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 103-107, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.014

Endosymbiotic organisms are known to manipulate the reproductive biology of their hosts. Incomplete prevalence of endosymbiont inducing thelytokous parthenogenesis results in the coexistence of sexual and asexual individuals, and could account for the maintenance of sexual reproduction in certain populations or species. In the parasitoid Venturia canescens, arrhenotokous ("sexual") and thelytokous ("asexual") individuals occur sympatrically. We aimed to determine whether endosymbionts are implicated in the thelytoky of V. canescens. After screening females of the two reproductive modes for several reproductive parasites: bacteria (Wolbachia,...

Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 109-113, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.015

Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a type II functional response at all three temperatures. The search rates were uninfluenced by temperature whereas handling times differed significantly between 17°C and 25°C, and between 17°C and 30°C, but not between 25°C and 30°C. This study is a first-step in the evaluation of the effectiveness of D. rapae as a biocontrol agent of Brevicoryne...

Do long- and short-winged adult females of the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) differ in lifespan and reproductive capacity?

Radomír SOCHA

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 115-121, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.016

In the present study we tested whether long-winged (macropterous) and short-winged (brachypterous) adult females of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) differ in their reproductive capacity and length of life. The following seven physiological markers were measured in these females: lengths of the pre-oviposition period (pre-OP), inter-ovipositon period (inter-OP) and post-oviposition period (post-OP), and the mean number of eggs per batch, total number of eggs, mean total number of egg batches laid and lifespan of the females. The results showed that macropterous and brachypterous females significantly differed in the length of the pre-OP,...

The ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a possible predator of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae)

Susanne KÖGEL, Manuela SCHIELER, Christoph HOFFMANN

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 123-128, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.017

The ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas 1773) has been used for biological control in several countries. However, it became invasive in some of those countries. Coccinella septempunctata (Linné 1758) is a native species in Europe. It feeds mainly on aphids and can be very abundant. As far as is known there are no effective natural enemies of the grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch 1855) in Europe. The potential of the above two ladybird species for reducing the abundance of the grapevine pest D. vitifoliae has not been previously investigated. In this study, the consumption and developmental parameters...

The occurrence and preference of Botanophila flies (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) for particular species of Epichloë fungi infecting wild grasses


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 129-134, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.018

Specific associations between species frequently occur in ecological interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the preferences of anthomyiid flies of the genus Botanophila for particular species of fungi as sites for laying eggs and as food for both larvae and adults. The associations of their eggs, larvae and flies with the stromata of different species of Epichloë fungi infecting 7 species of grass in Poland were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface of their eggs and an analysis of the genetic sequences of their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COII) were used to identify the taxa of the flies studied....

The effects of oviposition site on the development of the wood borer Coraebus florentinus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 135-144, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.019

Coraebus florentinus (Herbst) is one of the most important wood borer pests of oaks in forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Region. It is considered to be a heliophilous species as it prefers the sunniest parts of the canopy of isolated trees. The biological significance of this preference is still unknown. Recently, the effect of temperature on the preimaginal development of this insect was established: high temperatures increase its probability of survival and shorten its developmental time. Continuing this line of research, this study was designed to determine whether C. florentinus exhibits selective oviposition behaviour and how variation...

How much care does a shrub-feeding hairstreak butterfly, Satyrium spini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), need in calcareous grasslands?


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 145-152, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.020

Many butterfly target species are associated with early successional stages of grasslands. The Blue-spot Hairstreak, Satyrium spini (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775), is a target species of grasslands. However, it feeds on Common Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), which is associated with late successional stages of grasslands. If S. spini would also be restricted to late seral stages, there might be a management dilemma due to the contrasting requirements of S. spini and other target species. The aim of this study was to determine the oviposition preference of S. spini in calcareous grasslands, and to...

Polyphagous predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) induce winged morphs in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Adalbert BALOG, Mohsen MEHRPARVAR, Wolfgang W. WEISSER

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 153-157, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.021

A number of aphid species have been shown to produce winged dispersal morphs in the presence of natural enemies. Previous studies tested specialized aphid predators such as ladybirds or lacewing larvae. We confronted colonies of pea aphids with the polyphagous rove beetles, Drusilla canaliculata and Tachyporus hypnorum. For both predators we found that the percentage of winged morphs increased in predator-attacked pea aphid colonies compared to a control. The behaviour of the two rove beetles species was noticeably different. D. canaliculata mostly foraged on the ground and rarely on the plant, while T. hypnorum was...

Male mandible trimorphism in the stag beetle Dorcus rectus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 159-163, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.022

Males in many beetles show horn or mandible dimorphism. The stag beetle Dorcus rectus was assumed to have dimorphic males, but in this species there are not two but three visually distinct mandibular phenotypes. The aim of this study is to determine if the three phenotypes represent an allometric trimorphism in this species by studying the scaling relationship between body length and mandible length in 148 adult males and 31 adult females. The relationship was fitted using the following four statistical models; a simple line, a logistic curve, a continuous segmented line and a discontinuous line. The best-fitting model for the males was...

BOOK REVIEW: Jones R.: Mosquitoes


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 164, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.023

Jones R.: Mosquitoes. Reaction Books Ltd., London, 2012, 256 pp., semi-soft cover, 190 × 135 mm. ISBN 978-1-86189-923-1. Price: GBP 9.99, USD 19.95.

Life in two dimensions or keeping your head down: Lateral exuvial splits in leaf-mining larvae of Pachyschelus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Cameraria (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 165-172, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.024

This paper describes previously unreported lateral cuticle splits occurring during the moulting of larvae of the leaf-miners Pachyschelus laevigatus (Say, 1839) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Cameraria sp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). In these species the cuticle does not split dorsally during the larval/larval moults as in most insects, but laterally, thus permitting the larva to leave its exuviae sideways rather than vertically. This previously overlooked phenomenon is hypothesized to have evolved independently in both taxa and is an adaptation to life in the vertically limited space of their mines and, therefore, might be found in...

Biological and distributional overview of the genus Eledonoprius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Rare fungus-feeding beetles of European old-growth forests

Giuseppe M. CARPANETO, Stefano CHIARI, Paolo A. AUDISIO, Piero LEO, Andrea LIBERTO, Nicklas JANSSON, Agnese ZAULI

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 173-176, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.025

All the information on the genus Eledonoprius was gathered to provide an up to-date overview of the geographical distribution and ecology of its species, and to assess their association with old-growth forests. Based on recent samples collected in deciduous forests and woodlands of Italy, the authors outline the habitats of these rare species and give an account of their trophic relations with bracket fungi. E. armatus is recorded in Central Italy and Sardinia for the first time; E. serrifrons is new to Basilicata (Southern Italy) and Syria.

Cost to the cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of overwintering aboveground

S³awomir MITRUS

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 177-179, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.026

Most species of ants inhabiting the temperate zone overwinter underground, whereas those of the genus Temnothorax remain in nests aboveground. I studied the cost of aboveground overwintering. Workers of Temnothorax crassispinus survived in higher numbers (median = 88%) in artificial nests experimentally buried at a depth of 5 cm than those in nests on the surface (48%) of the soil. The results support the hypothesis that overwintering aboveground could be a consequence of a limited supply of nests and/or the advantage of being able to respond quickly to warm temperatures in spring.

ERRATUM: Kukalová-Peck J. & Beutel R.G. 2012: Is the Carboniferous †Adiphlebia lacoana really the


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 180, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.027

Kukalová-Peck J. & Beutel R.G. 2012: Is the Carboniferous †Adiphlebia lacoana really the "oldest beetle"? Critical reassessment and description of a new Permian beetle family. Eur. J. Entomol. 109(4): 633-645.

Legend to Fig. 6 in the above paper failed to state the source of the photograph used in Fig. 6A. The source was the same paper by Béthoux et al. (2010) as for Fig. 6B. We reprint below the corrected legend for Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. †Strephocladidae: †Homocladus grandis Carpenter, 1966, Late Carboniferous, Mazon Creek, Illinois. A - Fore wing, holotype, Fig. 1 from Béthoux et al. (2010) with...