EJE, vol. 112 (2015), issue 3

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Qiu-Ning LIU, Dan-Dan Bian, Sen-Hao JIANG, Bao-Ming GE, Chun-Lin ZHOU, Bo-Ping TANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 399-408, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.055

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined to be 15,329 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region. The AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly negative and the nucleotide composition was also biased toward A+T nucleotides (81.00%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which was initiated by CGA. Five of the 13 PCGs have the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The A+T-rich region...

A survey of Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and other bacteria in parthenogenetic and non-parthenogenetic phasmid (Phasmatodea) species


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 409-418, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.061

The ecological and genetic mechanisms that determine Phasmatodea reproductive biology are poorly understood. The order includes standard sexual species, but also many others that display distinct types of parthenogenesis (tychoparthenogenesis, automixis, apomixis, etc.), or both systems facultatively. In a preliminary survey, we analysed Wolbachia and Spiroplasma infection in 244 individuals from 28 species and 24 genera of stick insects by bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplification. Our main aim was to determine whether some of the bacterial endosymbionts involved in distinct reproductive alterations in other arthropods, including...

First report on a multiple sex chromosome system (X1X2X30) and population variations in the frequency of ring bivalents in Pyrrhocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

Harbhajan KAUR, Kalchana GABA

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 419-425, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.063

The family Pyrrhocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) is characterized by a modal diploid chromosome number of 16 (♂) ranging from 12 to 33 and simple (X0), multiple (X1X20) and neo-sex chromosome systems (neoX-neoY). Out of about 340 known species, only 22 species belonging to 7 genera have to date been cytogenetically analysed. In the present study, the chromosome complement and meiotic details of one species, Odontopus nigricornis Stål has been revised, whilst that of another species, Antilochus russus Stål has been cytogenetically analyzed for the first time. The diploid chromosome complement of O....

A two-variable approach used to distinguish between aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) that were reared on different varieties of cotton

Yong-Sheng ZHANG, Fang OUYANG, Zhe-Ming YUAN, Jing CAO, Feng GE

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 426-431, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.057

Identifying the plants aphids have fed on can increase our understanding of their roles in food webs, and help in improving management and implementation control strategies in agricultural systems. Field sampling and laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15 N) in three different varieties of cotton and the aphids (Aphis gossypii) that fed on these varieties. The results were used to test the hypothesis that stable isotope signatures of aphids that have fed on different varieties of cotton differ. Two-dimensional plots of stable isotope signatures...

Temporal variations in the life-cycles of aphids (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) and their coccinellid predators

Mohamed El Fodhil AROUN, Bahia DOUMANDJI-MITICHE, Daniel PETIT, Zahr-Eddine DJAZOULI

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 432-439, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.060

Aphids are either monoecious living either on trees or herbaceous plants, or heteroecious, which involves host alternating between a tree (primary host) and a herbaceous plant (secondary host). We described the temporal variations in abundance and richness of aphids in an Algerian orchard, over a 6 month period. We recorded the choice of basin colour, the relative height of traps, and monthly Barycenter of winged populations. We also recorded temporal variations in the structure of ladybird communities. Tree-living species of aphids are the last to be caught with most caught by the yellow traps, possibly because of the predominant greenness of the...

Influence of different species of aphid prey on the immature survival and development of four species of aphidophagous coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 440-445, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.056

This study was on the effect of three species of aphids (Aphis fabae, Macrosiphoniella sanborni, Brevicoryne brassicae) on the survival, growth and development of the immature stages of the aphidophagous coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata, Ceratomegilla undecimnotata, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata and Oenopia conglobata. The percentage survival was lowest, immature development most prolonged and the adults the lightest when these predators were fed on B. brassicae. In addition, C. septempunctata and C. undecimnotata performed better when fed on M. sanborni (74.1 and 72.0%...

Effects of diet on development and reproductive fitness of two predatory coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 446-452, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.051

Studies of prey suitability are needed to develop efficient mass rearing programs for generalist predators and to understand their potential contribution to integrated pest management. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the development and reproductive success of two predatory coccinellids, Oenopia conglobata (L.) and Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius), reared on diets of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer, the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) or a reference diet of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs. Development and reproductive performance of the two coccinellids...

Demographic parameters of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) recorded in the context of D. noxia infesting resistant and susceptible cultivars of wheat


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 453-459, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.053

The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is a serious pest of small grains and can cause losses of about 80% in wheat yields. Chemical control is ineffective against this pest so the combined use of host plant resistance and biological control is seen as a possible better means of controlling this pest. In this study, the potential effect of Omid (resistant) and Sardari (susceptible) cultivars of wheat on life table parameters and daily fecundity of RWA and its predator, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), were determined using the age-stage two-sex life table theory. The results indicate that the rm, R0,...

Effect of cold storage on the biological fitness of Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

Dawit KIDANE, Nian-Wan YANG, Fang-Hao WAN

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 460-469, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.066

Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is an important bio-control agent of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Storage at low temperature is a valuable method used in the mass rearing of biological control agents to ensure the availability of sufficient parasitoids when needed. However, storing parasitoids at a low temperature may lead to a decrease in their fitness. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of constant low temperature storage on the fitness traits of the above parasitoid. The effect of storage at three temperatures (4, 8 and 12 ± 1°C, RH =...

An optimized method for mass rearing the tiger-fly, Coenosia attenuata (Diptera: Muscidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 470-476, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.059

The tiger-fly Coenosia attenuata Stein (Diptera: Muscidae) is a predator that is currently thought to be a useful biological control agent in greenhouses, especially in the Mediterranean region. Here, we present a method for rearing this predator in the laboratory by feeding it on fungus gnats (fed on Pleurotus ostreatus fungus) and drosophilids (Diptera). Over the past two years, this method has been continuously used to successfully produce predators for bioecological studies in the laboratory. Rearing cages with one, five or 10 male-female pairs, either of laboratory or field origin, were compared using females that were either unmated...

Evaluation of the diet of a carabid predator using fluorescent marking of prey


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 477-485, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.054

We present a UV-fluorescent dye-based prey marking technique, using three different dyes, with later detection of the dyes in the guts of predators using a micro-plate fluorescent reader. By using this new method of detecting dyes based on their different excitation and emission characteristics it is possible to simultaneously screen 96 samples for multiple fluorescent-markers in less than 30 minutes. The marking is stable, cheap, non-toxic and had no effect on the choice of the carabid predator Pterostichus melanarius between marked and unmarked fly larvae (Musca domestica). Different fluorescent dyes provide variable detection intervals...

How does Oedipoda germanica (Orthoptera: Acrididae) cope on the northern edge of its distribution? A demographical study of a completely isolated population

Stanislav RADA, Lucie ©TĚPÁNOVÁ, Jan LOSÍK, Jan ©IPO©, Jaroslav HOLU©A, Tomáą KURAS

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 486-492, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.062

We studied a population of the Red-winged grasshopper Oedipoda germanica, which is a highly stenotypic and endangered species in Central Europe. The locality studied is completely isolated and at the northern limit of this species distribution (north-west of the Czech Republic). We used capture-mark-recapture in 3 consecutive years (2008-2010). We estimated the total population size using POPAN software to be 136 adults in 2008, 70 in 2009 and 122 in 2010. Estimated daily survival rate (Ф) ranged from 0.950 to 0.987. We constructed linear mixed models to test for apparent survival in relation to temperature data. Temperatures (i.e....

Oviposition-site preferences of a declining butterfly Erebia medusa (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae) in nutrient-poor grasslands


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 493-499, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.067

Butterflies belong to one of the most intensively studied invertebrate groups. However, detailed information on the larval ecology is still lacking in many species. This is especially true for the grass-feeding subfamily Satyrinae, to which our study species, the Woodland Ringlet (Erebia medusa Fabricius, 1787), belongs. At the habitat level, E. medusa exhibits a clear preference for abandoned grasslands with litter accumulation. In this study, we assessed the host-plant and oviposition preferences of E. medusa at the microhabitat level, i.e., within occupied habitat patches, in the Diemel Valley (Central Germany). Only two species of grass, Festuca...

Preference of antlion and wormlion larvae (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae; Diptera: Vermileonidae) for substrates according to substrate particle sizes


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 500-509, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.052

Sand-dwelling wormlion and antlion larvae are predators with a highly specialized hunting strategy, which either construct efficient pitfall traps or bury themselves in the sand ambushing prey on the surface. We studied the role substrate particle size plays in these specialized predators. Working with thirteen species of antlions and one species of wormlion, we quantified the substrate particle size in which the species were naturally found. Based on these particle sizes, four substrate types were established: fine substrates, fine to medium substrates, medium substrates, and coarse substrates. Larvae preferring the fine substrates were the wormlion...

Measuring saproxylic beetle diversity in small and medium diameter dead wood: The "grab-and-go" method

Anna L.M. MACAGNO, Sönke HARDERSEN, Gianluca NARDI, Giuseppe LO GIUDICE, Franco MASON

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 510-519, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.049

Saproxylic organisms play a key role in a variety of forest ecosystem functions, which result in an increase in overall forest productivity and biodiversity. At present, dead wood is frequently removed from exploited forests. Estimating the effect of current forest management on biodiversity, and what gain in biodiversity would result from implementing restoration programs, requires the use of standardized sampling protocols. These protocols need to be suitable for use in different sampling areas and cost effective. In this paper, we developed, tested, and optimized a method for sampling saproxylic insects during a single visit to a sample site (i.e.,...

Suction sampling of grassland invertebrates using the G-vac: Quantifying and avoiding peripheral suction effects


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 520-524, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.058

Abstract. Suction sampling with modified garden leaf-blowers (G-vacs) is a widely used method for research on invertebrates in agricultural and grassland habitats. Approaches vary from sweeping the collecting nozzle across the surface of the vegetation within a known area, applying the nozzle firmly to the ground to delimit a sample area equal to nozzle crosssection, or applying the nozzle repeatedly within a larger open-ended cylinder placed on the ground. These approaches vary in potential for the inadvertent capture of specimens from outside of the sample area as a result of air being drawn into the nozzle from adjacent vegetation....

The Balkan Psorodonotus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): Testing the existing taxa confirmed presence of three distinct species

Sarp KAYA, Dragan P. CHOBANOV, Josip SKEJO, Klaus-Gerhard HELLER, Battal ÇIPLAK

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 525-541, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.050

A review of the Balkan representatives of the genus Psorodonotus was made with the aim of revealing the relationships between taxa and their systematic arrangement. For this purpose we used morphological (qualitative and quantitavive), acoustic (amplitude-temporal song parameters) and molecular (mtDNA COI gene sequence) data. The analyses and comparisons with other taxa of Psorodonotus support the distinction of three species occurring on the Balkan Peninsula: P. fieberi, P. illyricus and P. macedonicus. Analysis of the COI sequences suggested the following relationships: outgroups + (P. illyricus + (P. fieberi...

Molecular evidence resolving the confusion of two species of Spilopteron (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) caused by marked geographical colour variation

Masato ITO, Kyohei WATANABE, Kaoru MAETO

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 543-556, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.068

The delimitation of two ichneumonid species, Spilopteron apicale (Matsumura) and S. tosaense (Uchida), was investigated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rRNA genes, as well as adult morphology. The two species have long been confused and were until recently speculated to be the same species with continuous colour variation. Our molecular and morphological studies reveal that there are two distinct species: a dark species confined to northern or high latitude localities (S. apicale) and a widely distributed species with a marked geographical gradient in body colour (S. tosaense) across the Japanese...

Strategy for sneaking into a host's home: The cuckoo wasp Omalus biaccinctus (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) inserts its eggs into living aphids that are the prey of its host


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 557-559, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.064

Parasitic Hymenoptera usually need to have direct access to their host or its offspring or to be able to enter and place their offspring in a nest of their host, where their progeny develop at the expense of the host. In the case of the cleptoparasitic cuckoo wasps (Chrysididae) their main target is the nest of the host and they have various strategies for locating and entering their host's brood cells for ovipositing. The chrysidid Omalus biaccinctus (Buysson, 1893), a parasitoid of aphid hunting crabronid wasps, was observed apparently inserting its eggs into living aphids at the hunting site of their host and the presence of the parasitoid's...

Preference of two populations of Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for Aphis fabae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 560-563, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.065

Prey preference of natural enemies is an important parameter used in studies on their efficiency. Feeding preferences of individuals from two populations of Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for the essential prey items, Aphis fabae Scopoli, 1763 and Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Homoptera: Aphididae) were evaluated in the laboratory using Manly's β preference index (β). For the predator preference experiment, equal numbers of A. fabae and A. gossypii were offered to the predator. The experiment was conducted on a broad bean leaf disc with 20 replicates. After 24...

Book review: Sonenshine D.E. & Roe R.M. 2013: Biology of Ticks. 2nd ed.


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 564, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.069

Sonenshine D.E. & Roe R.M. 2013: BIOLOGY OF TICKS. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York. Vol. 1: ISBN 978-0-19-974405-3 (hard cover), 560 pp., price USD 133.00, GBP 97.00; Vol. 2: ISBN 978-0-19-974406-0 (hard cover), 496 pp., price USD 133.00, GBP 97.00.

Book review: Thorp J.H. & Rogers D.C. (eds) 2015: Ecology and General Biology. Thorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates.


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 565-566, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.070

Thorp J.H. & Rogers D.C. (eds) 2015: Ecology and General Biology. Thorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates. Vol. 1. 4th ed. Academic Press, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Boston, Heidelberg, London, New York, Oxford, Paris, San Diego, San Francisco, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo, 1118 pp. ISBN 9780123850263 (Print Book), 9780123850270 (eBook). Prices: Print Book + eBook: EUR 210.95 (currently reduced to EUR 126.57); Hardcover EUR 118.00; eBook EUR 92.95.