EJE, vol. 111 (2014), issue 2

Biochemistry and biosynthesis of insect pigments

Gulsaz SHAMIM, Sanjeev K. RANJAN, Dev M. PANDEY, Ranganathan RAMANI

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 149-164, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.021

The functional role and commercial importance of insect pigments have been studied for well over a century. They are classified into those synthesized by insects, which include anthraquinones, aphins, pterins, tetrapyrroles, ommochromes, melanins and papiliochromes, and those sequestered from their host plants, the antioxidative carotenoids and water-soluble flavonoids. They can also be categorized into those that are produced by cyclization of linear precursors, e.g. anthraquinones, aphins and tetrapyrroles and those derived from cyclic precursors such as pterins, ommochromes, melanins and anthocyanins. Anthraquinones and aphins are derived by cyclization...

Karyotype evolution in progress: A new diploid number in Belostoma candidulum (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae) from Argentina leading to new insights into its ecology and evolution

Mónica G. CHIRINO, María J. BRESSA

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 165-174, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.027

A novel chromosome complement (2n = 14 = 12 + XY/XX; male/female sex chromosomes), male meiosis behaviour, heterochromatin characterization, and frequency and distribution of chiasmata are described for the first time in specimens from a natural population of the giant water bug, Belostoma candidulum Montandon, 1903 (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae) from Argentina. To date, specimens of B. candidulum have been reported by other authors in a sample from a natural population from Brazil. Our results demonstrate that Argentinean and Brazilian populations have different diploid numbers and chromosomal features. During male meiosis, autosomal...

A goodbye letter to alcohol: An alternative method for field preservation of arthropod specimens and DNA suitable for mass collecting methods

Pavel POKLUDA, Luká¹ ÈÍ®EK, Eva STØÍBRNÁ, Luká¹ DRAG, Julius LUKE©, Vojtìch NOVOTNÝ

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 175-179, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.024

Despite its limitations, ethanol remains the most commonly used liquid for the preservation of arthropod specimens and their DNA in the field. Arthropod ecology and taxonomy have witnessed a substantial increase in the use of various trapping and molecular methods in the past two decades. However, the methods of collecting and the preservation liquids most widely used in arthropod traps do not properly preserve DNA. Trap-collected specimens are typically of limited utility for molecular studies due to the poor preservation of DNA. A stable and cheap substance that can be used to trap arthropods in and preserve their DNA is therefore needed. Here we...

Inhibitory effects of plant extracts on growth, development and α-amylase activity in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 181-188, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.022

The bioinsecticidal effects of methanolic extracts of the leaves of castor bean, Ricinus communis, and papaya, Carica papaya, on the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, were studied. More specifically, larval weight, larval mortality, percentage pupation, percentage adult emergence and F1 progeny production were recorded. We also studied the effects of the extracts on α-amylase activity and amylase gene expression in T. castaneum. The extracts of R. communis and C. papaya, which were administered in a diet, increased larval mortality and extended the durations of the larval and pupal periods....

Comparison of the mating behaviour of a bush cricket in the laboratory and the field: Calling activity and mating frequency of a long-winged species, Phaneroptera falcata (Ensifera: Tettigoniidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 189-197, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.019

Bush crickets are a model group for testing hypotheses in sexual selection, but much of the information is based on laboratory observations on wingless or short-winged species, which may restrict their generality. Here we describe aspects of the mating behaviour of the long-winged European bush cricket Phaneroptera falcata (Poda, 1761). Both in the laboratory and the field, diel calling followed a normal, though slightly left-skewed distribution, peaking about three hours after sunset or lights-off. Under bright greenhouse conditions, when the light was suddenly switched off, calling occurred only after the onset of darkness. Decreasing light...

Effect of temperature on population growth and life table parameters of Nephus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 199-206, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.017

The development, reproduction and life table parameters of the predator Nephus arcuatus Kapur (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the most important predator of the spherical mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied at five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 14L : 10D). The duration of total pre-adult stage was found to decrease with increase in temperature from 60.0 days at 20°C to 15.3 days at 35°C. The oviposition period lasted 58.5, 44.7, 53.2 and 24.5 days at 20, 25, 30 and 35°C, respectively,...

Does the prediction of the time of egg hatch of Thaumetopoea processionea (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) using a frost day/temperature sum model provide evidence of an increasing temporal mismatch between the time of egg hatch and that of budburst of Quercus robur due to recent global warming?

Eiko WAGENHOFF, Annika WAGENHOFF, Rainer BLUM, Holger VEIT, Daniel ZAPF, Horst DELB

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 207-215, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.030

Thaumetopoea processionea is a serious defoliator of oak and of medical concern whose abundance has consistently increased throughout Europe during the past two decades. This study validates a previously published frost day/temperature sum model for predicting time of egg hatch of this species using five years of recent field data from South-West Germany. This model proved satisfactory for predicting the time of egg hatch of T. processionea. Hence, the model was used to retrospectively predict the time of egg hatch of T. processionea in the Karlsruhe area, which indicates that the time of egg hatch has fluctuated over the past...

Longevity of starved bumblebee queens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is shorter at high than low temperatures


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 217-220, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.035

Northern bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with annual lifecycles depend both on energy stores remaining in their fat body after diapause and a few spring flowering plants. Most temperate bumblebees emerge gradually over several months after winter depending on the species and within species on the location of the overwintering chamber (hibernaculum). Weather can either delay or promote emergence and nectar resources are needed to fuel flight at low ambient temperatures to find a nest site. Several phoretic mites use queens for transportation and have synchronized life cycles with their host species. Their presence on the body of bumblebees is usually...

Comparative suitability of aphids, thrips and mites as prey for the flower bug Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 221-226, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.031

The predatory bug Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important biological control agent in Asia that is often released on field crops and in greenhouses to control pests on vegetable and ornamental plants. This study compared the developmental and reproductive performance of O. sauteri on monotypic diets of four aphid species, western flower thrips, and two-spotted spider mite. Thrips emerged as the optimal prey type, consistent with findings for many other Orius spp. A diet of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) yielded the fastest development, largest adult body size, shortest pre-oviposition period,...

Invasive Prunus serotina - a new host for Yponomeuta evonymellus (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)?


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 227-236, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.026

Introduction of non-native species of plants affects the existence and feeding preferences of herbivorous insects. The bird cherry ermine moth (Yponomeuta evonymellus) is considered a typical monophagous insect, which feeds only on bird cherry (Prunus padus) leaves. However, in recent years, we have observed Y. evonymellus larvae feeding on leaves of the non-native (in Europe) and highly invasive black cherry (Prunus serotina). We hypothesized that this insect can feed on P. serotina leaves with no negative effects on its growth and development and that the main reason why it does not accept this plant as a host is...

Aphid honeydew: An arrestant and a contact kairomone for Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae) larvae and adults

Pascal D. LEROY, Raki ALMOHAMAD, Sabrine ATTIA, Quentin CAPELLA, François J. VERHEGGEN, Eric HAUBRUGE, Frédéric FRANCIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 237-242, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.028

Predator searching efficiency increases in response to a variety of environmental cues associated with its prey. The sugary excretion of aphids (honeydew) has been found to act as a prey-associated cue for many aphid natural enemies. In the present study, the honeydew excreted by Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) was identified as an arrestant and a contact kairomone for young larvae and adults of a common predatory hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae). First and second instar larvae increased their foraging behaviour in the honeydew-treated area. When plants were sprayed with crude honeydew, the speed of movement...

Shifted migration of the rape stem weevil Ceutorhynchus napi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) linked to climate change


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 243-250, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.018

A multi-model ensemble of 15 climate change projections from regional climate models was used to assess the impact of changes in air temperature and precipitation on the phenology of pest species in agriculture. This allowed the bandwidths of expected changes in both meteorological variables to be calculated, forming the basis for assessing and clearly communicating the uncertainties related to the model results. More specifically, we investigated the potential impact of regional climate change effects on the crop invasion of the rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Central Europe (Luxembourg). Multisite...

Life table parameters of the woolly whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoid Cales noacki (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 251-256, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.020

Biological parameters of the woolly whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoid Cales noacki (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were determined at 25.0 ± 2.0°C, 50.0 ± 10.0% RH and a photoperiod of 14L : 10D on three different Citrus host plants. The percentage survival of A. floccosus ranged between 40.23 and 44.44%. The highest mortality was recorded in the first nymphal instar with mortalities ranging between 36.36 and 39.39%. On C. aurantifolia the total development time was 39.83 ± 0.68 days and the pre-oviposition,...

Functional response and predatory interactions in conspecific and heterospecific combinations of two congeneric species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Bhupendra KUMAR, Geetanjali MISHRA, OMKAR*

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 257-265, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.025

In the present study, the predatory interactions between two locally abundant large lady beetles, Coccinella septempunctata L. (C7) and Coccinella transversalis F. (Ct) provided with either an extremely scarce, scarce, sub-optimal, optimal or abundant supply of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were investigated. For this, three 2-predator combinations (conspecific C7 + C7 and Ct + Ct, and heterospecific C7 + Ct) of 10-day-old unmated adult females were used. The relationships between the proportion of prey consumed by the predators in the conspecific and heterospecific combinations when provided with five different abundances...

The family Nicoletiidae in the Canary Islands, with description of new taxa (Insecta: Zygentoma)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 267-274, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.032

The knowledge of the family Nicoletiidae in the Canary Islands was limited to two reports of Proatelurina pseudolepisma (Grassi, 1887), a species which belongs to the subfamily Atelurinae. This study provides new data on the occurrence of representatives of Nicoletiidae on these islands and descriptions of two endemic troglobic taxa: Canariletia holosterna gen. n. et sp. n., from the island of Gran Canaria, and Coletinia majorensis sp. n., found in Fuerteventura. The latter belongs to a group of species whose males have asymmetric antennae, so it is compared with those Coletinia of this group. Canariletia gen. n....

A comparison of the external morphology and functions of labial tip sensilla

Jolanta BRO¯EK, Herbert ZETTEL

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 275-297, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.033

The present study provides new data on the morphology and distribution of the labial tip sensilla of 41 species of 20 gerromorphan (sub)families (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) obtained using a scanning electron microscope. There are eleven morphologically distinct types of sensilla on the tip of the labium: four types of basiconic uniporous sensilla, two types of plate sensilla, one type of peg uniporous sensilla, peg-in-pit sensilla, dome-shaped sensilla, placoid multiporous sensilla and elongated placoid multiporous sub-apical sensilla. Based on their external structure, it is likely that these sensilla are thermo-hygrosensitive, chemosensitive and mechano-chemosensitive....

First fossil tooth-necked fungus beetle (Coleoptera: Derodontidae): Juropeltastica sinica gen. n. sp. n. from the Middle Jurassic of China

Chenyang CAI, John F. LAWRENCE, Adam ¦LIPIÑSKI, Diying HUANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 299-302, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.034

The first fossil tooth-necked fungus beetle, Juropeltastica sinica gen. n. sp. n., is described and illustrated based on a single impression fossil from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou beds (ca. 165 Ma) of northeastern China. It represents the first definitive fossil belonging to the extant family Derodontidae. Juropeltastica is placed in Derodontidae based on its overall body shape and size, head with complex systems of tubercles and grooves, pronotum with dentate lateral carinae, open mesocoxal cavities bordered by mesepimeron and metanepisternum, excavate metacoxae, and 5-segmented abdomen. The occurrence of a reliable derodontid fossil...

First cytogenetic study of Coleorrhyncha: Meiotic complement of Xenophyes cascus (Hemiptera: Peloridiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 303-306, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.023

Cytogenetic information on the hemipteran suborder Coleorrhyncha is here provided for the first time. The New Zealand peloridiid species, Xenophyes cascus Bergroth, 1924 (Hemiptera: Coleorrhyncha: Peloridiidae), was found to display testes with a single follicle each, holokinetic chromosomes (like other Hemiptera), a karyotype of 2n = 26 + X(0) and a single chiasma per bivalent in male meiosis. Comparative analysis of sex chromosome systems in all four hemipteran suborders (Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, Heteroptera and Coleorrhyncha) allowed inference that an X(0) sex determining system was ancestral within the Hemiptera, whilst the XY-system...

Prevalence of male-killer in a sympatric population of two sibling ladybird species, Harmonia yedoensis and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 307-311, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.029

In predatory ladybirds male embryos in clutches of eggs infected with male-killing bacterial endosymbionts do not hatch and are consumed by female hatchlings. Moreover, it is predicted that infection with male-killing bacteria should be prevalent in a ladybird population if the fitness advantage to female ladybirds due to the resulting reallocation of resources is high. We compared male-killer bacterial prevalence in two sibling species of the ladybird genus Harmonia that use different host ranges. Harmonia yedoensis feeds mostly on the highly elusive pine aphid and its hatchlings can greatly enhance their ability to capture prey and...

Book review: Nartshuk E.P. & Andersson H. 2013: The Frit Flies (Chloropidae, Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark.


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (2): 312, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.036

Nartshuk E.P. & Andersson H. 2013: The Frit Flies (Chloropidae, Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, vol. 43, Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden, 277 p. ISBN 978-90-04-16710-0 (hard back), ISBN 978-90-04-19066-5 (e-book). Price: EUR 181.00, USD 248.00.