EJE, vol. 111 (2014), issue 1

Identification and abiotic stress response of a glutamine synthetase gene (AccGS) from the Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Xiuling WANG, Yuzhen LI, Yan YAN, Baohua XU, Xingqi GUO

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 1-9, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.001

Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an essential detoxification enzyme that plays an important role in stress responses; however, little information regarding the function of this enzyme in hymenopteran insects is available. In the present study, we isolated and characterized the gene encoding GS in the Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana cerana. Multiple alignments and a phylogenetic analysis of GS sequences showed that AccGS belongs to the GSII superfamily and clusters with invertebrate GSs. Real-time quantitative PCR data demonstrated that AccGS is expressed at all developmental stages and in all tissues, with the highest expression observed in...

Inhibitory effects of plant latex on trehalase activity and trehalase gene expression in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 11-18, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.002

Plant latex contains proteins and other components that defend plants against herbivorous insects. We determined the inhibitory activity of methanolic extracts of latex obtained from three species of plant: mulberry, Morus alba; jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus; and weeping fig, Ficus benjamina, against trehalase in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We also determined the changes that occurred throughout the life of the insect in the enzymatic activities of soluble and membrane-bound trehalase and the expression profiles of the genes encoding the two types of trehalase. Soluble trehalase activity was higher than...

Do male-derived substances affect female mating receptivity and release of sex pheromone by females of the sorghum plant bug Stenotus rubrovittatus (Hemiptera: Miridae)?

Keiko OKU, Takashi YAMANE

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 19-23, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.003

In insects, male-derived substances transferred during copulation often alter female physiology. Thus these substances may affect female behaviour, including mating receptivity and release of sex pheromone. In the sorghum plant bug Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Miridae), males transfer a spermatophore into the bursa copulatrix of females during copulation. Mated females of S. rubrovittatus do not mate again for at least 3 days and release lower amounts of sex pheromone than virgin females. A previous study indicates that females that receive a spermatophore are less likely to be sexually receptive to males. Therefore,...

Pollen types collected by Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in dry vegetation in Northeastern Brazil

Jaílson Santos De NOVAIS, Maria Lúcia ABSY, Francisco De Assis Ribeiro Dos SANTOS

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 25-34, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.004

Knowing the floral origin of the pollen collected by native bees in Neotropical ecosystems enables us to understand the dynamics of the interdependent relationships between the insects and the native flora. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the spectrum of plant species from which pollen is collected by Tetragonisca angustula in caatinga (dry vegetation) areas in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil; (ii) identify pollen types that could be used as regional geographical markers and (iii) determine the pollen niche breadth and the pattern of use of floral resources by this stingless bee. In total, 23 samples of...

Modelling the effects of global warming on the ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) fauna of beech forests in Bavaria, Germany


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 35-49, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.005

We studied the effects of global warming and rising temperatures on the ground beetle fauna of Bavarian beech forests using the space for time approach at two geographical scales. The first was a Bavarian-wide gradient of 50 plots in beech forests and the second a regional gradient in the Bavarian Forest in the mountains in eastern Bavaria consisting of 48 plots, which also included subalpine spruce forests. For purposes of validation, we used backdrop data from 413 additional plots all across Bavaria from a wide range of forest habitats. We found five species that would be favoured and six species that would be disadvantaged by rising temperatures...

Diversity and abundance of arboreal psocids (Psocoptera) along latitudinal gradients in northern Europe

Jussi KANERVO, Mikhail V. KOZLOV

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 51-58, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.006

Psocids are small insects that feed primarily on fungi, algae, lichens and organic detritus. Although they are relatively common in forest ecosystems, the general patterns in their abundance and diversity in boreal forests are still poorly known. We report records of 20 species of psocids quantitatively collected from four species of woody plants (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pubescens and B. pendula) at 50 sites in northern Europe, located between 59° and 70°N and between 10° and 60°E. Seven species were found only on conifers, seven other species only on birches and six species inhabited both birches and conifers. The overall...

Ground spider assemblages (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) along an urban-rural gradient in the city of Heraklion, Greece


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 59-67, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.007

The responses of gnaphosid spiders to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas) were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in Crete, Greece, from October 2010 to October 2011. Our results indicate that richness and abundance of species of spiders decreased from the rural area to the center of the city, but not significantly so. Temporal beta diversity was significantly higher in urban areas, which indicates a high temporal variability in species composition of gnaphosid assemblages in the center of the city that takes the form of complementary rather than synchronized phenologies of co-occurring species, as expected...

The efficiency of pitfall traps as a method of sampling epigeal arthropods in litter rich forest habitats


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 69-74, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.008

Pitfall trapping is an approved self-sampling method for capturing epigeal arthropods for ecological and faunistic studies. Capture efficiency of pitfall traps may be affected by external factors and the design of the trap. Pitfall traps set in forests are usually protected with covers or wire grids, but the effect of these constructions on sampling efficiency as well as their practicability and necessity have so far received little attention. During the present study pitfall traps of four different designs (covers, wire grids, litter exclosure, open) were tested in terms of their efficiency in capturing ground-dwelling arthropods (Acari, Araneae,...

Female sex pheromone gland of the boxwood leafminer, Monarthropalpus buxi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): Morphological and behavioural evidence

Paola RIOLO, Sara RUSCHIONI, Roxana L. MINUZ, Roberto ROMANI, Nunzio ISIDORO

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 75-81, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.009

Morphological studies were carried out to determine whether females of the boxwood leafminer, Monarthropalpus buxi (Laboulbene) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have a pheromone gland, its position and ultra-structure. In addition, the reproductive behaviour of this gall midge was studied in the laboratory in a wind-tunnel. The source of the sex pheromone was identified as the epidermis of the inter-segmental membrane between the 8th and 9th abdominal segments of females. The epidermis there was hypertrophied and consisted of a unicellular layer of secretory cells with ultra-structural features that include a well developed smooth endoplasmic...

Accumulation and effects of cyanobacterial microcystins and anatoxin-a on benthic larvae of Chironomus spp. (Diptera: Chironomidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 83-90, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.010

Larvae of Chironomidae are distributed world-wide and are very abundant in eutrophic water bodies affected by cyanobacterial blooms. However, there is little information on the effect of cyanobacteria and their metabolites on these aquatic organisms. Our studies revealed that benthic species of Chironomus inhabiting a hypertrophic lake where blooms of microcystin (MC) and/or anatoxin-a (ANTX)-producing filamentous Planktothrix agardhii, Dolichospermum spp. and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi occur, fed on these cyanobacteria and accumulated cyanotoxins. Up to 3.2 µg MCs g-1 F.W. and up to 185 µg ANTX g-1...

Endosymbiotic microorganisms of aphids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea): Ultrastructure, distribution and transovarial transmission


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 91-104, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.011

Aphidoidea, endosymbiotic bacteria, bacteriocytes, transovarial transmission of endosymbiotic bacteria The ultrastructure, distribution and transovarial transmission of endosymbiotic bacteria in representatives of six aphid families: Eriosomatidae (Pemphigus spyrothecae, Prociphilus fraxini), Anoeciidae [Anoecia (Anoecia) corni], Drepanosiphidae [Mindarus abietinus, Sipha (Rungsia) maydis, Clethrobius comes, Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) walshii], Thelaxidae (Thelaxes dryophila), Aphididae (Delphiniobium junackianum, Aphis viburni, Cavariella theobaldi, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria) and Lachnidae (Schizolachnus...

Revision of the genus Figura (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with descriptions of new species


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 105-119, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.012

The African genus Figura Ukrainsky, 2006 is revised. A detailed redescription of its morphology is presented. Three new species are described, F. bitalensis sp. n., F. lineata sp. n. and F. ruwenzorica sp. n. All species are illustrated. A key to all species and a map showing the distribution of the genus Figura are provided.

Evaluation of criteria for species delimitation of bagworm moths (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)

Veronica CHEVASCO, Jelmer A. ELZINGA, Johanna MAPPES, Alessandro GRAPPUTO

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 121-136, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.013

Accurate identification of species is fundamental for biological research and necessary for species conservation. DNA barcoding is particularly useful when identification using morphological characteristics is laborious and/or unreliable. However, barcodes for species are dependent on the availability of reference sequences from correctly identified specimens. The traditional use of morphology to delimit the species boundaries of Finnish bagworm moths (Lepidoptera: Psychidae: Naryciinae: Dahliciini) is controversial because there is overlap in their morphological characteristics. In addition, there are no suitable molecular markers. We verified the...

Termites (Isoptera) from the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary: Evidence for the longevity of their earliest genera


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 137-141, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.014

The earliest termite of the extant genus Mastotermes, is herein recorded in the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) transitional beds of Chernovskie Kopi in Transbaikalian Russia along with Santonitermes of an uncertain family. These records represent the earliest eusocial organisms. No termites have ever been recorded among the hundreds of thousands of fossil insects in the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary Beds of China and Mongolia or in prior time periods. Both genera indicate that the early termites survived for an extremely long period of time. The present find both provides evidence of the greatest ghost range (60 Mya) of any winged stem cockroach...

Pollen resources used by Chrysoperla agilis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in the Azores, Portugal


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 143-146, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.015

There are approximately 1200 described species of Chrysopidae, many of which are predators of agricultural pests. Species of Chrysoperla are mass-produced and sold for use as biological control agents of agricultural pests in Europe, Asia, North and South America. Chrysoperla agilis, a member of the "carnea group" of Chrysoperla, has the potential to be biocontrol agent and is native to the Azores, and therefore a local candidate for use in IPM of pests, such as aphids and scale insects. Given that many adult Chrysopidae feed on pollen and honeydew and the biology of Ch. agilis is not well understood, we studied the preferences...



Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (1): 147, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.016

LANCASTER J. & DOWNES B.J. 2013: AQUATIC ENTOMOLOGY. First Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 296 pp. ISBN 978-0-19-957321-9 (hbk.), ISBN 978-0-19-957322-6 (pbk). Prices: EBook: USD 48.29, Hardcover: USD 95.98, Paperback: USD 62.83.