EJE, vol. 110 (2013), issue 4

Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a host of the parasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales, Laboulbeniaceae): A case report and short review


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 549-557, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.075

Hesperomyces virescens is an ectoparasite of some Coccinellidae, which until the mid-1990s was relatively rarely only reported from warm regions in various parts of the world. Analysis of the host and distribution data of H. virescens recorded in the Western Palaearctic and North America reveals several trends in the occurrence and abundance of H. virescens: (1) it has recently been much more frequently recorded, (2) most of the recent records are for more northerly (colder) localities than the early records and (3) the recent records are mostly of a novel host, the invasive harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis). While...

Antibacterial activity of lysozyme in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

Amr A. MOHAMED, Mohamed ELMOGY, Moataza A. DORRAH, Hesham A. YOUSEF, Taha T.M. BASSAL

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 559-565, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.076

The ability of biocontrol agents to overcome the immune defense of pests is a crucial issue. This is the first study of lysozyme activity as an inducible humoral component of the defense of Schistocerca gregaria, which depends on the recognition of the elicitor molecules of pathogens and not on epidermal wounding or a spiking effect. The level of lysozyme activity in fat body, haemocytes and haemolymph plasma of naïve and immunologically challenged 5th instar S. gregaria was evaluated using the zone of inhibition test against Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well...

Molecular analysis of the gut contents of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a method for detecting intra-guild predation by this species on aphidophagous predators other than coccinellids

Brecht INGELS, Alexandre AEBI, Louis HAUTIER, Thomas VAN LEEUWEN, Patrick DE CLERCQ

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 567-576, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.077

Several studies have demonstrated that the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis is a strong intra-guild predator of native species of ladybird. Laboratory studies have shown that H. axyridis can be an intra-guild predator of aphid predators other than coccinellids, including the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus and lacewing Chrysoperla carnea. However, little is known about the effect of intra-guild predation (IGP) by H. axyridis on hoverfly and lacewing populations in the field. In the present study molecular analyses were used to detect the DNA of E. balteatus and C. carnea in the gut contents of H....

The occurrence in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae), of a short-winged morph with no obvious fitness advantages over the long-winged morph


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 577-583, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.078

A short-winged morph, whose occurrence is controlled by a simple recessive Mendelian unit, was recently discovered in Locusta migratoria. The existence of trade-offs between flight capability associated with wing length and other fitness-related traits are often documented for insects. The present study investigated the evolutionary significance of the short-winged and long-winged morphs of this locust using two laboratory strains showing wing dimorphism. The life-history traits examined included nymphal development, adult body weight, percentage adult survival, age at first reproduction, egg production and hatchling body weight. The results...

Diapause and post-diapause quiescence demonstrated in overwintering Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in northwestern Europe


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 585-591, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.079

The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is regarded as an invasive species in many parts of the world. In a previous study we hypothesised that H. axyridis enters diapause at the end of October and then shifts to a quiescent state in December in northwestern Europe. In the present study we test this idea of a short, early period of diapause by sampling beetles from their hibernation sites immediately after their migratory flights in October, subsequently keeping them in outdoor cages, and then, after certain time-intervals, measuring the pre-oviposition time under optimal egg-laying laboratory conditions...

Coccinellidae captured in blacklight traps: Seasonal and diel pattern of the dominant species Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Christine A. NALEPA

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 593-597, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.080

Two blacklight traps were operated in a non-agricultural setting in Cary, North Carolina, USA, from spring through fall in 2004 and 2005 and all Coccinellidae collected and identified. More than 1300 lady beetles were collected in each of the two years, with Harmonia axyridis dominant (> 98%) and collected consistently over the course of the trapping period. Although other coccinellid species were observed in the vicinity of the traps during photophase, their appearance in blacklight traps was negligible. Harmonia axyridis exhibited a distinct diel periodicity in appearance at the traps, beginning approximately an hour after...

Effect of host species on larval growth differs between instars: The case of a geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

Helen VELLAU, Siiri-Lii SANDRE, Toomas TAMMARU

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 599-604, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.081

Although the effects of host plant quality on the performance of polyphagous herbivores are largely uniform across insect taxa, there are various exceptions to this rule. In particular, there are scattered reports of cases in which the relative quality of different hosts differs among larval instars of a single insect species. Such cases are explained either in terms of differences in the susceptibility of different aged larvae to plant defences or, alternatively, age-specific nutritional demands. Here we report the results of experiments that show that young larvae of the polyphagous common heath moth Ematurga atomaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)...

Effect of temperature and species of plant on the consumption of leaves by three species of Orthoptera under laboratory conditions

Spyridon A. ANTONATOS, Nikolaos G. EMMANUEL, Argyro A. FANTINOU

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 605-610, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.082

In the Mediterranean area the orthopterans Calliptamus barbarus barbarus, Dociostaurus maroccanus and Tettigonia viridissima are considered to be pests of major economic importance crop plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the area of leaf of vine, cotton and potato plants consumed by these Orthoptera at two temperatures. Leaf area was determined for each plant species before the leaves were provided to the insects. Virgin male and female adults were allowed to feed on a leaf of each plant species and the area of leaf consumed was determined after 24h at 25 and 30°C. Results showed that temperature had a significant...

Utilization of the nutrients in the soluble and insoluble fractions of fungal mycelium by larvae of the stag beetle, Dorcus rectus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 611-615, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.083

Larvae of the stag beetle, Dorcus rectus, feed on decaying wood, which they digest with the aid of symbiotic yeasts; however, they can be successfully reared on artificial diets containing only fungal tissue. In this study we tested whether D. rectus larvae can utilize fungal cell walls, which are an insoluble component of mycelium. Lyophilized Bjerkandera adusta mycelium cultured in potato-dextrose liquid medium consisted of a 47.6% hot-water insoluble fraction by mass, which contains 53.7% of the total nitrogen in the mycelium. D. rectus larvae that hatched from surface-sterilized eggs were reared for 14 days on agar-based...

Relation between plant water status and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) population dynamics on three cultivars of tomato

Anna R. RIVELLI, Vincenzo TROTTA, Irene TOMA, Paolo FANTI, Donatella BATTAGLIA

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 617-625, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.084

Deficit irrigation scheduling is used to increase the efficiency with which water is used in many crops including tomato, however a water deficit is predicted to favour phloem feeding insects. We tested if and how different cultivars of tomato grown under water deficit conditions affect the population growth of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Three tomato cultivars (Scintilla, Beefmaster and Rio Grande) were used in the experiments. The results for three watering regimes were compared with those of a control, which was well watered every three days: stressed plants received one third of the water supplied to the control over each three-day...

Causes of polymorphic melanism and its thermoregulatory function in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Yosuke ABE, Takuma NISHIMURA, Kaoru MAETO

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 627-632, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.085

We investigated the variation in body colour and its thermoregulatory function in Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid wasp of Spodoptera and other free-living lepidopteran larvae. We show that the body colour of adult wasps darkens when cocoons are kept at low temperatures. The range in the variation in colour, however, differs for different parts of the body and among uniparental (thelytokous) strains. This melanism enables these wasps to attain a body temperature in sunshine up to 2°C. Moreover, this small gain in body temperature can markedly increase the flight activity of wasps at low ambient...

A question of adaptability: Climate and habitat change lower trait diversity in butterfly communities in south-western Germany

Katharina J. FILZ, Martin WIEMERS, Anne HERRIG, Matthias WEITZEL, Thomas SCHMITT

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 633-642, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.086

Invertebrate diversity has rapidly declined throughout Europe during the last century. Various reasons for this decrease have been proposed including human induced factors like climate change. Temperature changes alter distributions and occurrences of butterflies by determining habitat conditions at different scales. We evaluated changes in the composition of butterfly communities recorded at nine areas of fallow ground in south-western Germany in 1973, 1986, 2010 and 2012 using Pollard's transect technique. To demonstrate the importance of climatic changes in affecting butterfly communities, we calculated the community temperature index (CTI) for...

Molehills as important larval habitats for the grizzled skipper, Pyrgus malvae (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), in calcareous grasslands


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 643-648, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.087

Small-scale soil disturbance, such as animal mounds created by subterraneous ecosystem engineers are important microhabitats for species of conservation concern. There are many studies on the effects of ecosystem engineers on plant species diversity and soil properties, but the influence of such organisms on other taxa, such as insects, are rarely analyzed. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the role of molehills produced by the European Mole (Talpa europaea) (Linnaeus, 1758) as a larval habitat for a threatened butterfly species within central European calcareous grasslands. We selected the grizzled skipper (Pyrgus malvae)...

Patterns in diurnal co-occurrence in an assemblage of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 649-656, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.088

In this study we analyzed the inter-specific relationships in assemblages of syrphids at a site in northern Italy in order to determine whether there are patterns in diurnal co-occurrence. We adopted a null model approach and calculated two co-occurrence metrics, the C-score and variance ratio (V-ratio), both for the total catch and of the morning (8:00-13:00) and afternoon (13:00-18:00) catches separately, and for males and females. We recorded discordant species richness, abundance and co-occurrence patterns in the samples collected. Higher species richness and abundance were recorded in the morning, when the assemblage had an aggregated structure,...

Spatial distribution of Cynips quercusfolii (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on leaves and within the crowns of oak trees


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 657-661, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.089

The factors that affect oviposition and consequently spatial distribution of the galls of many gall makers are poorly understood. Knowledge of these factors could result in a better understanding of the mechanisms that initiate and regulate the development of galls. We tested the hypotheses that, regardless of tree height, galls of Cynips quercusfolii L. produced agamically are distributed randomly in the crowns and on the veins of leaves of oak trees. This study was done in Poland on 15 pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) trees of various heights. We measured the areas of 1659 leaves, including 192 leaves with galls, and the distances along...

Phylogeny of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) based on their external morphology


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 663-675, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.090

External morphological characters were used to reconstruct a phylogeny of the mite family Syringophilidae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea), which are permanent parasites inhabiting the quills of bird feathers. A total of 53 syringophilid genera and 79 characters were included in the data matrix; maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analyses (BA) were performed to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The consensus of unweighted MP trees was weakly resolved. Only four generic groups were recognized: Aulonastus + Krantziaulonastus (i) and (Creagonycha + Kethleyana) + (Megasyringophilus + Selenonycha) (ii) - both with low Bremer support...

Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania: Hic sunt Aenictopecheidae. The first genus and species of Afrotropical Aenictopecheidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Enicocephalomorpha)

Pavel ©TYS, Petr BAÒAØ

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 677-688, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.091

A new genus and species of Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Enicocephalomorpha: Aenictopecheidae: Aenictopecheinae, Ulugurocoris grebennikovi gen. et sp. n., based on micropterous females from Tanzania, Uluguru Mts, Budunki, is described and differentiated. The males are probably macropterous. Some general aspects of morphology of U. grebennikovi are discussed in a broader context, such as presence of cephalic trichobothria (suggested to be a groundplan character of Heteroptera), presence of "gular sulci" (suggested to have an ecdysial function), lack of cephalic neck (symplesiomorphy with other Hemiptera), presence of posterior lobe of pronotum...

Patterns of hind-wing degeneration in Japanese riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae)

Masakazu HAYASHI, Simon D. SONG, Teiji SOTA

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 689-697, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.092

We conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and nuclear 28S rRNA gene sequences of species of Japanese elmids (23 species from 12 genera) and examined the hind-wings of 24 species in order to determine the incidence of hind-wing degeneration among species and the presence of dimorphic species with respect to hind-wing degeneration. Based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis, we determined that the previously separated winged and wingless species, Stenelmis vulgaris and S. miyamotoi, and Leptelmis gracilis and L. parallela, are two forms of the same species....

First record of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Caucasus

Natalia A. BELYAKOVA, Sergey Ya. REZNIK

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 699-702, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.093

This is the first record of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) occurring in the Caucasus (Sochi region of Krasnodar territory, Russia). All the adults collected in the field there and reared from collected eggs, larvae and pupae, and their progeny were H. axyridis f. succinea, which is the most common morph in natural populations in South-Eastern Asia and the Russian Far East as well as in invasive populations in the Americas and Europe. In contrast in Western Siberia f. axyridis predominates and this indicates that an occasional introduction from the closest native range in Siberia...

BOOK REVIEW: Karjalainen S. & Hämäläinen M. 2013: Demoiselle Damselflies: Winged Jewels of Silvery streams.


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 703, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.094

Karjalainen S. & Hämäläinen M. 2013: Demoiselle Damselflies: Winged Jewels of Silvery streams. Caloptera, Helsinki, 223 pp. (bilingual, Finnish and English). ISBN 978-952-93-1045-6. Price EUR 36.00 (hardcover).