EJE, vol. 110 (2013), issue 3

A karyological study of four European species of Roncus (Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 393-399, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.052

We present the results of the first study on the karyotypes of four European species of Roncus: Roncus alpinus L. Koch, 1873, Roncus lubricus L. Koch, 1873, Roncus transsilvanicus Beier, 1928 and Roncus sp. The diploid number was 2n = 23 in Roncus sp., 2n = 43 in R. alpinus and R. transsilvanicus and 2n = 45 in R. lubricus. Telocentric autosomes predominate in species with a high chromosome number and metacentric autosomes in Roncus sp. We assume that the ancestral situation for this genus is a high number of chromosomes. A low number of chromosomes is very likely...

BOOK REVIEW: Stockmann R. & Ythier E. 2010: Scorpions of the World

Franti¹ek ©«ÁHLAVSKÝ

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 400, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.053

Stockmann R. & Ythier E. 2010: Scorpions of the World. N.A.P. Editions, Verrières-le-Buisson, 565 pp. ISBN 978-2913688117. Price GBP 68.00.

Cytogenetic characterization of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid wasp used as a biological control agent


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 401-409, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.054

Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a parasitoid wasp widely used in the biological control of fruit flies. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the karyotype of this species based on the results of classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. The cytogenetic analysis confirmed the male and female chromosome numbers previously reported (n = 20, 2n = 40). The entire short arm of most chromosomes is made up of a large constitutive heterochromatic segment. The high heterochromatin content differentiates D. longicaudata from other braconid species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using autologous...

Chromosomal location of rDNA clusters and TTAGG telomeric repeats in eight species of the spittlebug genus Philaenus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aphrophoridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 411-418, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.055

A cytogenetic investigation was performed in eight species of the spittlebug genus Philaenus using silver-NOR (AgNOR)-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes. This is the first application of FISH technique in the Auchenorrhyncha, a suborder of the Hemiptera. FISH along with the rDNA probe revealed differences between species in the number and chromosomal location of major ribosomal RNA gene sites, the so-called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). However, we found a lack of perfect correlation between the results of AgNOR-staining and rDNA-FISH in the detection of NORs....

Bumblebee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) sample storage for a posteriori molecular studies: Interactions between sample storage and DNA-extraction techniques

António S. MOREIRA, Finbarr G. HORGAN, Tomás E. MURRAY, Thomais KAKOULI-DUARTE

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 419-425, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.056

A global decline in pollinator abundance and diversity has demanded increased research attention to the ecology and genetics of bumblebees. However, as progressively more restrictions are placed on sampling for insects, researchers are increasingly obliged to use archival specimens collected for purposes other than genetic analyses. In this study we assessed the suitability, for population genetic studies, of popular, low-cost methods for preservation and storage of bumblebee specimens. Specimens of Bombus terrestris L. were held under six storage regimes for up to two years. DNA was extracted from the samples using three extraction protocols...

Comparative study of mtDNA in species of the genus Adalia (Coleoptera: Cocinellidae) and origin of ancient mitochondrial haplotypes in the gene pool of Adalia bipunctata


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 427-433, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.057

Fifteen different mitochondrial haplotypes of the mtDNA gene COI encoding cytochrome C oxidase subunit I were identified in the 127 individuals of Adalia bipunctata studied. Two mitochondrial haplotypes, H9 and H10, differed greatly from the others. The mitochondrial polymorphism in A. bipunctata is ancient, though its age remains to be evaluated. It is shown that mitochondrial haplotypes H9 and H10 and others coexisted in the original population of A. bipunctata before it spread throughout Eurasia from Western Europe to the Baikal Area, and before the differentiation of the subspecies A. bipunctata fasciatopunctata,...

Sexual differences in spectral sensitivity and wing colouration of 13 species of Japanese Thecline butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 435-442, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.058

The correlation between dorsal wing colours and spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of 13 species of thecline butterflies, consisting of 8 sexually monomorphic and 5 dimorphic species, was investigated. Spectral reflectance of the dorsal surfaces of the wings was measured using a spectrophotometer and spectral sensitivities using electroretinography. All 13 species examined showed a common basic pattern of spectral sensitivity with a primary peak at a wavelength of 440-460 nm. Detailed analyses of the deviations in sensitivity from the basic pattern revealed a correlation in monomorphic species with conspicuous wing hues, especially in males.

Relationships between locomotor activity, oxidative damage and life span in males and females of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

Marcela BURICOVA, Magdalena HODKOVA

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 443-449, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.059

In this study we addressed a question of whether experimental manipulations that increase life span also reduce physical activity and molecular oxidative damage. We used three phenotypes of male and female Pyrrhocoris apterus that survive for different lengths of time, diapausing insects, reproductive insects and insects from which the corpus allatum, the source of juvenile hormone, was surgically removed. Protein carbonyl content of the thoracic muscles was used as an index of molecular oxidative modification. Diapause or ablation of the corpus allatum (allatectomy) was associated with an extended life span of both sexes, but only those individuals...

Comparative analysis of maternal and grand-maternal photoperiodic responses of Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Natalia D. VOINOVICH, Nina P. VAGHINA, Sergey Ya. REZNIK

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 451-460, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.060

Maternal and grand-maternal photoperiodic responses of Trichogramma buesi, T. embryophagum, T. evanescens, T. piceum, T. principium, and T. telengai were investigated in laboratory conditions. During the experiment, grand-maternal and maternal generations developed at 20°C and one of the 4 photoperiodic regimes: L : D = 12 : 12, 14 : 10, 16 : 8, and 18 : 6 (in total, 16 combinations) while the progeny developed at L : D = 12 : 12 and one of the 3 thermal regimes: 13, 14, and 15°C. The proportion of diapausing individuals in the progeny of all the studied species was significantly dependent on the direct...

The effects of larval diet on adult life-history traits of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 461-468, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.061

Larvae of Hermetia illucens feed on different types of decomposing organic matter and their development depends on the quality and quantity of food ingested. In this study the effect of three artificial diets was analyzed, namely hen feed, meat meal and a mixture of these two diets. The effects of diet on ovarian development, size, mortality, duration of the larval and pupal stages and sex ratio were studied. Results indicate that the meat meal diet was the worst of the three diets in terms of percentage mortality and duration of the larval and pupal stages. We conclude that food ingested by the black soldier fly larvae determines both the physiological...

Key factors affecting the predation risk on insects on leaves in temperate floodplain forest

Michaela DROZDOVÁ, Jan ©IPO©, Pavel DROZD

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 469-476, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.062

The predation on insects on leaves was measured by direct observation using live larvae of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as bait placed on 15 common species of woody plants in a floodplain forest in the temperate region. The predation rate was measured in terms of the proportion of the larvae that were missing or had been attacked after 30 min of exposure on leaves. Despite the fact that the important predators differed during the course of a season, the most frequently recorded predators were birds and ants and less frequently recorded wasps and spiders. Analysis of the pattern in the distribution of the attacks confirmed that...

A new method for the release of Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in young apple orchards


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 477-482, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.063

The use of phytoseiid species in biological plant protection is widespread. However, the techniques used to release them differ. The possible release of Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, 1959) using a new method was tested. High numbers of this mite overwinter in the ground litter in Hungarian orchards. By transferring such ground litter to plots in young orchards, the population density was found to be significantly increased in the release compared to control plots; A. andersoni became the dominant phytoseiid species in the new orchard. Due to the rate at which it spreads, this species was also recorded in the control plots towards the end...

High-altitude migration of Heteroptera in Britain

Don R. REYNOLDS, Bernard S. NAU, Jason W. CHAPMAN

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 483-492, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.064

Heteroptera caught during day and night sampling at a height of 200 m above ground at Cardington, Bedfordshire, UK, during eight summers (1999, 2000, and 2002-2007) were compared to high-altitude catches made over the UK and North Sea from the 1930s to the 1950s. The height of these captures indicates that individuals were engaged in windborne migration over distances of at least several kilometres and probably tens of kilometres. This conclusion is generally supported by what is known of the species' ecologies, which reflect the view that the level of dispersiveness is associated with the exploitation of temporary habitats or resources. The seasonal...

Imperfections in perfect architecture: The orb web of spiders


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 493-500, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.065

Among animal constructions, the orb webs of spiders are perfect geometrical architectural models. Webs are constructed by means of a succession of behaviours, which are often considered as instinctive and stereotyped. Anomalies in web structure are considered to be a consequence of variability in behaviour. In order to assess the variability in web structure, the spider Zygiella x-notata was allowed to build webs in the laboratory under standardized conditions. Webs (n = 127) were examined for anomalies, which were defined as modifications in the geometrical structure. Ten anomalies in the structure of webs produced by females, aged from 16...

Araneae communities associated with the canopies of chestnut trees in the northeastern part of Portugal: The influence of soil management practices

Jacinto BENHADI-MARIN, José Alberto PEREIRA, José-Antonio BARRIENTOS, Albino BENTO, Sónia A.P. SANTOS

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 501-508, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.066

Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is one of the economically more important trees in the north of Portugal. Spiders, as generalist predators, are potential controlling agents of pests, yet the composition of the community of spiders associated with this crop is only poorly known. The objective of this study was to determine the spider communities in the canopies of chestnut trees subject to three different soil management practices in northeastern Portugal. Three chestnut groves each subject to a different agricultural practice (grazed, tilled or untilled) were studied in 2008 and 2009. The Araneae communities were sampled by beating the branches...

Forest moth assemblages as indicators of biodiversity and environmental quality in a temperate deciduous forest

Jeong-Seop AN, Sei-Woong CHOI

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 509-517, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.067

The aim of the present study was to find groups of moths suitable for estimating changes in the abundance and richness of local and regional biodiversity in a temperate forest. We captured macro-moths from May to October over a 5-year period (2005-2009) at various sites in Mt. Jirisan National Park (JNP) in southern Korea. Six taxa were selected based on a strong correlation between the number of species in these taxa and total number of species of large moths: Ennominae (Enn), Arctiinae (Arc), Hermininae (Her), Notodontidae (Not), Drepanidae (Dre) and Ophiderinae (Oph). Of these, combinations of four groups were found to have the best predictive capability....

BOOK REVIEW: Marshall S.A. 2012: Flies: The Natural History and Diversity of Diptera.


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 518, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.068

Marshall S.A. 2012: Flies: The Natural History and Diversity of Diptera. Firefly Books, New York (U.S.A.) and Richmont Hill (Canada), hardcover, 616 pp., more than 2,000 colour photographs, pictorial key to fly families, glossary, bibliography, index. ISBN 978-1-77085-100-9. Price USD 125.00.

Morphometric indicators for quality assessment in the aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Braconidae: Aphidiinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 519-525, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.069

Body size is a standard criterion of quality control in insect rearing and often assumed to correlate with fitness in parasitoid wasps, but various metrics of body size can be used. The purpose of this study was to determine which morphological feature provides the best correlation with body size and egg load in a thelytokous population of the parasitoid wasp, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall), when reared on Aphis fabae Scopoli under standardized conditions in a growth chamber (21 ± 1°C, 60-70% RH, and 16L : 8D). Candidate metrics included head width, length and width of the pronotum, length and width of the right forewing, and length...

Ovaries of Puto superbus and Ceroputo pilosellae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea): Morphology, ultrastructure, phylogenetic and taxonomic implications


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 527-534, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.070

Ovaries of Puto superbus and Ceroputo pilosellae are composed of numerous short telotrophic ovarioles that are arranged around the distal part of the lateral oviduct. An individual ovariole consists of a distal trophic chamber (= tropharium) and proximal vitellarium. The tropharia enclose individual trophocytes (= nurse cells) and early previtellogenic oocytes termed arrested oocytes. A single oocyte develops in each vitellarium. Analysis of serial sections has shown that ovarioles of P. superbus contain from 16 to 51 germ cells (13-43 trophocytes, 2-7 arrested oocytes, 1 developing oocyte) while those of C. pilosellae from...

Morphological variation and sex-biased frequency of wing dimorphism in the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 535-540, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.071

Dimorphism in wing length is well known in many insect species. It is generally believed that a trade-off between dispersal and reproduction exists, with the long-winged (LW) morph being a better disperser due to its superior flight capability. The short-winged (SW) morph is less mobile and it is hypothesised that females of this morph invest more of their energy reserves in producing offspring. We determined the variation in body and wing size in the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae). The results of the morphological study support the occurrence of two clearly distinct wing morphs in both sexes. SW individuals, especially...

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the mud-dauber wasp Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) albitarse (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 541-543, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.072

This paper describes the characterization of a set of nine microsatellite markers for the pipe-organ mud-dauber wasp, Trypoxylon albitarse F. (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae), a common solitary wasp species in Brazil. Eight of the nine loci described were found to be polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from three to 11. Observed and expected heterozygosity on the population level ranged from 0.135 to 0.891 and 0.177 to 0.865, respectively. Genotypic analyses revealed no deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or linkage disequilibrium after sequential Bonferroni correction. Cross-species amplification was also tested for nine related species...

BOOK REVIEW: Lancaster J. & Briers R.A. (eds) 2008: Aquatic Insects: Challenges to Populations. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society's 24th Symposium.


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 544, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.073

Lancaster J. & Briers R.A. (eds) 2008: Aquatic insects: challenges to populations. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society's 24th symposium. Cab International, Wallingford, UK, x + 332 pp. ISBN 978-1-84593-396-8. Price GBP 85.00, USD 170.00, EUR 135.00.

Pollination of Sedirea japonica (Orchidaceae) by Bombus diversus diversus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 545-548, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.074

There are no records of the pollinators of many orchids even though the Orchidaceae are often cited as the example of an intimate relationship between plants and their pollinators. We recorded the insects visiting the flowers of Sedirea japonica that might be pollinators of this species by using digital cameras to take photographs automatically of the flowers. Based on our evidence of pollinia being attached or removed from flowers, we conclude that Sedirea japonica can be pollinated by Bombus diversus diversus.