EJE, vol. 110 (2013), issue 2

The central-marginal hypothesis in acridid Orthoptera: A critique of Colombo's (2012) article

Claudio J. BIDAU, Dardo A. MARTÍ

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 181-185, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.028

We discuss and criticise the contention of Colombo (2012) that the central-marginal model does not apply to three species of chromosomally polymorphic acridid grasshoppers, and that chromosomal clines in these species are a consequence of temperature gradients. We also discuss Colombo's interpretation of our own results on the South American melanopline grasshopper, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner.

Ancient and modern hybridization between Lucilia sericata and L. cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Kirstin WILLIAMS, Martin H. VILLET

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 187-196, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.029

There are important but inconsistent differences in breeding site preference between the blow flies Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) and L. cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) that have significance for medical and veterinary science. These inconsistencies might arise from hybridisation. The species are difficult to distinguish using external morphology, although the male genitalia are distinctive and there are reliable molecular markers. Molecular evidence of modern hybridisation, derived from a newly developed nuclear marker, the period (per) gene, is presented here. This has implications for identifications...

Endosymbiont-free ants: Molecular biological evidence that neither Wolbachia, Cardinium or any other bacterial endosymbionts play a role in thelytokous parthenogenesis in the harvester ant species, Messor barbarus and M. capitatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 197-204, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.030

Thelytokous parthenogenesis is a type of sex determination in which females are produced from unfertilized eggs. Genetic and endosymbiont-induced forms of thelytoky have been described in the Hymenoptera. Our study has revealed that Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and other endosymbionts are probably absent in Iberian populations of harvester ants, Messor barbarus and Messor capitatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) and are thus not involved as factors in the sex determination of these two species. Our results lend weight to previous suggestions that bacterial parthenogenesis induction in Hymenoptera is probably...

Genetic analysis of quantitative trait loci for cocoon and silk production quantity in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

Bing LI, Xiuye WANG, Chengxiang HOU, Anying XU, Muwang LI

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 205-213, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.031

Silk production quantity is the most economically important characteristic of the domesticated silkworm moth, Bombyx mori. It is controlled by multiple loci. The cocoon and silk production quantity of silkworm strains Jingsong and Lan10 have significantly diverged. A backcross population (BC1) was bred using Jingsong and Lan10 as parents to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for silk quality. In this research, a genetic linkage map of the silkworm was constructed using the BC1 mapping population. The map contained 85 sequence-tagged site markers, 80 simple sequence repeat markers, and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms....

Nucleotide diversity based on csd gene of the black giant honey bee, Apis laboriosa (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Huan WANG, Zi-Long WANG, Zhi-Jiang ZENG, Xiao-Bo WU, Wei-Yu YAN

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 215-220, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.095

The mechanism of sex determination is common for all honeybee species (Apis spp.) by the complementary sex determi-nation (csd) gene. The csd gene has been studied in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana F.) and the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata F.), whereas no studies had been conducted on the high altitude Himalayan or black giant honey bee, Apis laboriosa Smith. In the present study, we cloned the genomic exon 6 to exon 9 region of the A. laboriosa csd gene, and identified 13 csd haplotypes. The data was analyzed and compared with the other aforementioned...

Role of juvenile hormone in the hypermetabolic production of water revealed by the O2 consumption and thermovision images of larvae of insects fed a diet of dry food


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 221-230, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.032

The young larvae of insects living on dry food produce large amounts of water by the metabolic combustion of dietary lipids. The metabolic production of water needed for larval growth, previously known as hypermetabolic responses to juvenile hormone (JH), is associated with a 10- to 20-fold increase in the rate of O2 consumption (10,000 µl O2/g/h in contrast to the usual rate of 500 µl O2/g/h). Growing and moulting larvae are naturally hypermetabolic due to the endogenous release of JH from the corpora allata. At the last, larval-pupal or larval-adult moult there is no JH and as a consequence the metabolic...

Trophobiosis in the arboricolous ant Liometopum microcephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 231-239, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.033

The arboricolous dolichoderine ant Liometopum microcephalum (Panzer, 1798) is considered to be mainly predatory, although there are some reports of it tending aphids. The main objective of the present study was to confirm that this ant has a trophobiotic relationship with aphids and assess seasonal differences in its utilization of honeydew. We hypothesized that the worker ants on trees where they have their nest (nest tree) and trees where they are foraging (foraging trees) should differ in gaster mass and sugar content depending on their direction of movement, and that both should be highest in spring. From spring to summer 2009, ascending...



Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 240, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.034

Choe J. 2012: SECRET LIVES OF ANTS. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 156 pp. ISBN-13-978-1-4214-0428-8 (hard cover). Price USD 34.95.

Differential accumulation of energy by the colour morphs of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) mirrors their ecological adaptations

Seyed Mohammad AHSAEI, Seyed Mohammad TABADKANI, Vahid HOSSEININAVEH, Hossein ALLAHYARI, Mahdieh BIGHAM

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 241-245, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.035

The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this polymorphism is an adaptive response to environmental factors, in particular natural enemies and host plant quality. We hypothesized that these adaptations are directly mirrored in the energy reserves accumulated by the different colour morphs during their pre-adult stages and reflect their specialization for particular ecological roles. We quantitatively measured the different energy reserves of red and...

BOOK REVIEW: Bauernfeind E. & Soldán T. 2012: The Mayflies of Europe (Ephemeroptera).


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 246, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.036

Bauernfeind E. & Soldán T. 2012: The Mayflies of Europe (Ephemeroptera). Apollo Books, Ollerup, Denmark, 781 pp. ISBN 978-87-88757-45-3. Price EUR 138.00.

Behavioural and toxicological responses of Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) to monoterpenes

Raúl A. ALZOGARAY, Valeria SFARA, Ariadna N. MORETTI, Eduardo N. ZERBA

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 247-252, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.037

Certain monoterpenes produced by aromatic plants are known to have lethal and sublethal effects on insects. As there is a need to replace conventional pesticides (organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids) with biorational pesticides, we evaluated the behavioural and toxicological responses of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, exposed to the following monoterpenes, namely (+)-a-pinene, (-)-a-pinene, limonene, menthone, linalool, menthyl acetate and geraniol. Locomotor activity and repellency were quantified using a video tracking system. To study the effect on locomotor activity, larvae were exposed to filter papers treated with concentrations...

Effects on lepidopteran herbivores of feeding on leaves of transgenic birch (Betula pendula) expressing the sugar beet chitinase IV gene


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 253-262, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.038

Transgenic lines of silver birch (Betula pendula) carrying the sugar beet chitinase IV gene were used to study the effects of the heterologous expression of a transgenic chitinase on the performance of lepidopteran herbivores. The effect of wounding the leaves of birch on the performance of lepidopteran larvae and the growth of trees was also studied. Larvae of Orgyia antiqua L., Lymantriidae, and Phalera bucephala L., Notodontidae, were separately fed on the leaves of transgenic and wild-type birch, and their performance measured using nutritional indices. The relative growth rate (RGR) of O. antiqua larvae fed transgenic...

Cold storage affects mortality, body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Juracy Caldeira LINS Jr., Vanda Helena Paes BUENO, Livia Alvarenga SIDNEY, Diego Bastos SILVA, Marcus Vinicius SAMPAIO, Janser Moura PEREIRA, Quintiliano Siqueira Schroden NOMELINI, Joop C. van LENTEREN

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 263-270, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.039

The possibility of storing natural enemies at low temperatures is important for the mass production of biological control agents. We evaluated the effect of different periods of cold storage on immature mortality, mummy body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of the parasitoid Praon volucre (Haliday). One-day-old mummies of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) containing pre-pupae of P. volucre were stored in a climatic chamber at 5°C and 70 ± 10% RH in the dark for different periods of time (5, 10, 15 and 20 days). The control consisted of mummies kept at 22 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and a 12 h photophase....

Seasonal cues mediate host behaviour modification and cocoon polymorphism in Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Shu-Ping LUO, J.P. MICHAUD, Jian-Cheng LI, Jing ZHANG, Xiao-Xia LIU, Qing-Wen ZHANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 271-276, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.040

Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of photoperiod and temperature on the pupation behaviour of the parasitoid, Microplitis mediator (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitizing larvae of Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A combination of long photoperiod (14 + h L) and warm temperatures (20-24°C) caused parasitized caterpillars to climb to upper plant parts where the parasitoid produced a green, non-diapausing cocoon on a green leaf, initially retaining the dying caterpillar host as a protective covering. In contrast, short photoperiod (8-10 h L) and low temperature (16-18°C) induced host...

Is host age an important factor in the bionomics of Apanteles myeloenta (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)?

Hossein Kishani FARAHANI, Seyed Hossein GOLDANSAZ

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 277-283, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.041

The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a serious pest and causes a considerable loss of yield of pomegranate in Iran. Apanteles myeloenta (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is the dominant parasitoid of this pest parasitizing it more than 30% in recent years. This parasitoid is a candidate for augmentative biological control program to reduce the level of the infestation of fruit overwinter. The objective of this research was to optimize the mass production of A. myeloenta. The mean developmental time of females was 28 days and of males 27 days. Pupal development lasted 7 days. The second instar was the preferred...

Occurrence of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in field crops


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 285-292, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.042

The Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is known to thrive principally in shrubby and arboreal habitats. This study focuses on the occurrence of this exotic species and its seasonal abundance in various field crops. The abundance of adults, larvae and pupae of H. axyridis was evaluated over a three-year period, from 2009 to 2011, in four important agronomical crops (wheat, corn, broad bean and potato) in Belgium. From May to September, 48 1-m2 quadrats were visually inspected in each of the fields sampled on several farms every seven days. H. axyridis colonized and reproduced...

Muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) - an overview of distribution, biology and breeding


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 293-300, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.096

Muga silkworm (Antheraea assamensis Helfer) is endemic to Assam and adjoining areas in North-Eastern India, and naturally produces golden silk. From time immemorial, many ethnic and tribal groups have produced muga silk. Muga silkworms are mostly wild unlike the mulberry silkworm, which is completely domesticated. The muga silkworm is a single species with little genetic variation among populations, survives harsh climatic conditions and is subject to various diseases, pests and predators. Due to the high incidence of disease and natural enemies, and variations in climatic conditions, the production of muga silk has recently declined dramatically....

Monitoring of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) and its natural enemies in Spain using sticky tapes and pheromone traps


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 301-310, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.043

The maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae), occurs in the western part of the Mediterranean basin and is a sap sucking insect that feeds only on maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). It causes damage in SE France and Italy, where it was accidentally introduced. In Spain information is scarce and, moreover, almost nothing is known about the predators of this species. This study was designed to determine the seasonal trends in abundance of M. feytaudi and its major predators, which might help to improve the biological control of this pest in other areas. Natural P. pinaster stands...

How fine is fine-scale? Questioning the use of fine-scale bioclimatic data in species distribution models used for forecasting abundance patterns in butterflies

Katharina J. FILZ, Thomas SCHMITT, Jan O. ENGLER

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 311-317, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.044

The use of species distribution models (SDMs) to predict the spatial occurrence and abundance of species in relation to environmental predictors has been debated in terms of species' ecology and biogeography. The predictive power of these models is well recognized for vertebrates, but has not yet been tested for invertebrates. In this study, we aim to assess the use of SDMs for predicting local abundances of invertebrates at a macroscale level. A maximum entropy algorithm was used to build SDMs based on occurrence records of 61 species of butterflies and bioclimatic information with a 30 arc second resolution. Predictions of habitat suitability were...

Response of Orthoptera to clear-cuts in beech forests

Anna SLIACKA, Anton KRIŠTÍN, Ladislav NAĎO

Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 319-326, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.045

Various disturbances in forests often result in the formation of open habitats with characteristics that are distinctly different from those of the original forest (microclimate, illumination, stand age and composition). These disturbances affect the habitat heterogeneity in time and space and seem to drive forest succession and changes in biodiversity in forests. Little is known about how the colonization of deforested habitats by Orthoptera is influenced by environmental factors. We studied the association between the structure of orthopteran assemblages and the age of clear-cuts, vegetation structure and other environmental parameters (size, elevation,...

Long-term partitioning of space between two territorial species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their effect on subordinate species


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 327-337, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.046

Competition is a major force organizing ant communities and results in co-occurring species evolving different strategies for foraging and use of space. Territorial species, as top dominants exclude each other, while shaping the local ant communities both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this study we examined how two territorial species, Formica polyctena and Lasius fuliginosus, can coexist in adjacent territories over long periods of time, and whether they affect co-occurring species of ants in different ways. Field observations in the absence and in the presence of baits were carried out around a L. fuliginosus nest complex...

Specialized feeding of Euconnus pubicollis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae) on oribatid mites: Prey preferences and hunting behaviour


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 339-353, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.047

Prey preferences and feeding-related behaviour of a Central European species of Scydmaeninae, Euconnus pubicollis, were studied under laboratory conditions. Results of prey choice experiments involving 50 species of mites belonging to 24 families of Oribatida and one family of Uropodina demonstrated that beetles feed mostly on ptyctimous Phthiracaridae (over 90% of prey) and only occasionally on Achipteriidae, Chamobatidae, Steganacaridae, Oribatellidae, Ceratozetidae, Euphthiracaridae and Galumnidae. The average number of mites consumed per beetle per day was 0.27 ± 0.07, and the entire feeding process took 2.15-33.7 h and showed a clear...

Analysis of the number of sensilla on the labrum and the diet of grasshoppers belonging to the family Pamphagidae (Orthoptera)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 355-364, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.097

We studied the diet of 10 species of grasshopper belonging to the family Pamphagidae over a period of 3 years at 6 localities in North Eastern Algeria. The species of plants consumed by the grasshoppers was determined by comparing slide mounted specimens of the pieces of plant epidermis in their faeces with those in a reference collection of identified plants collected from the same localities. The percentages of occurrence of the different species of plants in the faeces of the grasshoppers were not related to the abundance of the plants at the sites studied. All the grasshoppers were polyphagous but differed in the percentage of Poaceae in their...

Revision of Pseudoparicana (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Tropiduchidae) with description of a new species


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 365-377, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.048

The planthopper genus Pseudoparicana Melichar, 1914 is revised. Three previously known species, P. curvifera (Distant, 1907), P. sanguinifrons Muir, 1931 and P. tepida Melichar, 1914 are re-described and P. analoga Wang & Malenovský sp. n. is described as new. Lectotypes are designated for P. curvifera and P. tepida. An identification key and illustrations of diagnostic characters, including male and female genitalia, are provided for all taxa and the systematic position of this genus and the asymmetry of the genitalia of the species are briefly discussed. As far as known, the distribution...

Phylogenetic relatedness of Erebia medusa and E. epipsodea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) confirmed


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 379-382, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.049

The extensive genus Erebia is divided into several groups of species according to phylogenetic relatedness. The species Erebia medusa was assigned to the medusa group and E. epipsodea to the alberganus group. A detailed study of the morphology of their copulatory organs indicated that these species are closely related and based on this E. epipsodea was transferred to the medusa group. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) confirm that E. medusa and E. epipsodea are closely related. A possible scenario...

Characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite markers for an endangered butterfly Argynnis niobe and their cross-species utility in the closely related species A. adippe (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 383-387, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.098

The Niobe Fritillary, Argynnis niobe, is a habitat specialist and as a consequence is highly endangered in contemporary Europe. To investigate its genetic diversity and population structure, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed and characterized, using a recently developed pyrosequencing method. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 21, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.17 to 0.53 and from 0.24 to 0.92, respectively. These loci were also successfully used to study the genetic diversity of a closely related species, the High Brown Fritillary, Argynnis adippe, and will be used in future...



Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 389-390, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.050

Strausfeld N.J. 2012: ARTHROPOD BRAINS. EVOLUTION, FUNCTIONAL ELEGANCE, AND HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge and London, xvi + 830 pp., 175 color illustrations, 24 halftones, glossary, extensive notes. ISBN 978-0-674-04633-7, hardbound. Price USD 65.00.



Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (2): 391-392, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.051

WARCHALOWSKI A. 2010: THE PALAEARCTIC CHRYSOMELIDAE. IDENTIFICATION KEYS. VOL. 1 & 2. Natura Optima Dux Foundation, Warszawa, 1212 pp., 102 colour plates. ISBN 978-83-918040-9-4. Price EUR 240.00.