EJE, vol. 109 (2012), issue 3

The functional significance of mantis peering behaviour


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 295-301, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.039

The aim of this review is to explain the functional significance of mantis peering behaviour from an entomological perspective. First the morphological and optical features of the mantis compound eye that are important for spatial vision are described. The possibility that praying-mantises use binocular retinal disparity (stereopsis) and other alternative visual cues for determining distance in prey capture, are discussed. The primary focus of the review is the importance of peering movements for estimating the distance to stationary objects. Here the following aspects are examined: (1) Direct evidence via object manipulation experiments of absolute...

Immunomodulation in insects post-treatment with abiotic agents: A review


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 303-316, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.040

The effects of different abiotic agents that may modulate the activity of an insect's immune system are reviewed. These agents include insecticides, chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone analogues, inert particles, antibiotics, heavy metals, radiation and miscellaneous substances. The significance of studying immunomodulation in insects treated with abiotic agents in relation to both insect control and insect-borne parasitic diseases and the link between immunomodulation in insects post-treatment with both abiotic and biotic agents are discussed.

Against the central-marginal model: Three cases in chromosomally polymorphic grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 317-324, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.041

The central-marginal model is widely accepted in chromosomally polymorphic species of Drosophila. In fact, geographically and ecologically central populations of Drosophila show higher levels of polymorphism for paracentric inversions, whereas marginal populations tend to be monomorphic. This fact has been variously explained. Chromosomal polymorphisms in grasshoppers have also been attributed to show such geographical structuring, as in the case of the South-American grasshopper Dichroplus pratensis Bruner (Orthoptera: Acrididae). However, in three other cases involving Acrididae - Leptysma argentina Bruner, Trimerotropis...

The potential role of FoxO transcription factor during postembryonic periods in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

Jin Kim HEE, Jae-Sun CHOI, Mi Young KIM, Hwa Young SONG, Bong Lee HEE

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 325-330, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.042

The Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors, including FoxO1, FoxO3a, and FoxO4, have been implicated in the regulation of several biological processes, including stress resistance, metabolism, and apoptosis. In the present study, FoxO1 and FoxO3a patterns and their role in the regulation of the insulin signalling and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were analyzed after starvation in the fat body cells of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. FoxO1 and FoxO3a are localized to the nuclei. It was found that the levels of the insulin receptor and phosphoryated kinase Akt (p-Akt) increased when the animals ceased feeding. Starvation conditions...

Characterization and evaluation of microsatellite markers in a strain of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), with a genetic sexing character used in sterile insect population control


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 331-338, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.043

The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a key economic insect pest reducing fruit yield and generating constraints in the international market. The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) continues to reveal areas where new technologies can improve the effectiveness of fruit fly control. One such advancement concerns insect strains. In the present study, a mass-reared strain of the fly with a translocation-based genetic sexing character (Salaya1) based on a brown-white pupal colour dimorphism was genetically characterized using 11 microsatellite DNA markers. Subsequently, these markers were used to evaluate the maintenance...

Does monogeny enable gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to regulate their sex ratio?

Seyed Mohammad TABADKANI, Ahmad ASHOURI, Farhad FARHOUDI

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 339-343, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.044

Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, is widely recorded in gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Theoretical models propose that the adjustment of offspring sex ratio by females may pre-dispose the evolution of monogeny in gall midges however empirical studies in this field are superficial. Expressed more simply, monogeny may enable individual female gall midges to decrease or increase the number of male and female progeny they produce in response to changes in environmental conditions. Host quality/size is repeatedly reported to influence sexual investment in insects in terms of sex ratio adjustment. In this paper, we...

Aphid-plant interactions affect the suitability of Myzus spp. as prey for the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 345-352, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.045

A laboratory study was conducted to examine tritrophic effects on the suitability of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and tobacco aphid, Myzus persicae nicotianae (Blackman & Eastop), as prey for the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (L.), when the aphids were reared on either sweet pepper or tobacco. Significant host plant-aphid interactions were evident for every component of development (juvenile survival, developmental time, adult mass at emergence) and reproduction (pre-oviposition period, fecundity, fertility). By almost all measures, the suitability of each aphid species was improved by rearing on...

Laboratory studies on intraguild predation and cannibalism among coccinellid larvae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Gabriele RONDONI, Andrea ONOFRI, Carlo RICCI

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 353-362, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.046

Intraguild predation (IGP) and cannibalism occur in the field and could affect the dominance structure of guilds of coccinellid species. The exotic biological control agent Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is now well established in most areas of Northern and Central Italy, but it is unclear what effect this species could have on native dominant and non-dominant coccinellids with which it co-occurs. In order to predict the trophic interactions in coccinellid guilds and the likely effect of H. axyridis, the incidence of IGP and cannibalism among the following six species were evaluated under laboratory conditions:...

Effect of presence and semiochemicals of conspecific stages on oviposition by ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Geetanjali MISHRA, Neha SINGH, Mohd. SHAHID, OMKAR

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 363-371, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.047

Reduced oviposition by ladybirds in the presence of tracks of fourth instar larvae owing to the presence of oviposition deterring pheromones is well established across many genera. However, deterrence, if any, by other life stages has not been well investigated, in particular the effect of conspecific presence. The present study investigates the effects of conspecific presence and semiochemicals of conspecific life stages (eggs, fourth instar larvae, pupae, adult males and females) on oviposition by five ladybird (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, viz. Coccinella septempunctata, Coccinella transversalis, Cheilomenes sexmaculata,...

Role of leaf mines in host location and pupation in Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

De Yu ZOU, Hong Yin CHEN, Li Sheng ZHANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 373-379, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.048

Diglyphus isaea Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an important ectoparasitic wasp of many leaf miners. Ability of D. isaea to find hosts placed in artificial mines and for its larvae to pupate when the larva is not in a mine was studied. Artificial mines consisted of slits cut in index card sandwiched between two cover slips. Almost 80% of the neonate larvae of D. isaea located host larvae in artificial mines compared to only 50% of those not in a mine. Mature larvae removed from mines did not construct normal pupal chambers. Nonetheless, they pupated and emerged successfully. Larvae of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae)...

Ant diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and predation by ants on the different stages of the sugarcane borer life cycle Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

Roseli De Fátima De OLIVEIRA, Luiz Carlos De ALMEIDA, Débora Rodrigues De SOUZA, Catarina Bortoli MUNHAE, Odair Correa BUENO, Maria Santina De Castro MORINI

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 381-387, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.049

The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is an important pest of sugarcane and ants are one of its main predators. The practice of burning sugarcane straw in situ after harvest has been gradually replaced in Brazil by other practices. However, it is unknown whether ants can control the abundance of this borer in the presence of straw. In this study, we assessed the diversity and species composition of ants attacking different stages of the pest's life cycle. Specifically, we asked whether the species richness and abundance of ants varies during the course of day and a year. We established one-hectare plots at random locations in a sugarcane...

Temporal variation in elytral colour polymorphism in Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Alois HONEK, Zdenka MARTINKOVA, Pavel SASKA, Anthony F.G. DIXON

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 389-394, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.050

Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are a classical group for studying the mechanisms that determine local and temporal trends in colour polymorphism. Here we report long term trends in variation in the percentage of different morphs in a population of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) at Štúrovo, Slovakia (47°48´N, 18°43´E). The morphs differ in the number and location of the spots on their elytra. Beetles were sampled from stands of herbaceous plants using a standard method each year in August over a period of 74 years from 1937 to 2011. Twenty two morphs (out of 74 possible) were recorded in a total sample of 6,984 individuals. Four dominant...

Differences in the nocturnal flight activity of insect pests and beneficial predatory insects recorded by light traps: Possible use of a beneficial-friendly trapping strategy for controlling insect pests

Gang MA, Chun-Sen MA

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 395-401, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.051

The use of light traps for controlling insect pests is restricted since they kill both pests and beneficial insects. It may be a possible to reduce the numbers of beneficial insects trapped by adjusting nightly trapping time based on differences recorded in the timing of the nocturnal flight peaks of target pests and beneficials. To test this, insects were collected hourly over night using black light traps at three locations in China from 2003 to 2005. Groups of lepidopteran and coleopteran pests were selected as the target pests that we would control by trapping and groups of beneficial predatory insects the catches of which needed to be reduced....

Is colour an important factor influencing the behaviour of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea)?


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 403-410, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.052

Coloured Moericke water pan traps were used to determine the effect of colour on the preference behaviour of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea) over the period 2001 to 2003 in grassland habitats in Eastern Slovakia (Košická kotlina basin). A total of 912 individuals belonging to 53 species and 7 families of butterflies were trapped. The colour of the traps that caught the most butterflies was white, followed by blue, violet, yellow and finally the least were caught by red coloured traps. Ordination analysis showed that some butterfly families and species were more likely to be caught by traps of a specific colour. Measurements of...

Vibratory territorial signals in caterpillars of the poplar lutestring, Tethea or (Lepidoptera: Drepanidae)

Jaclyn L. SCOTT, Jayne E. YACK

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 411-417, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.053

Caterpillars of the poplar lutestring moth, Tethea or, construct leaf shelters that they defend against intruding conspecifics using a combination of vibratory signals and physical aggression. Staged interactions between a resident caterpillar and introduced conspecific were recorded with a video camera and laser vibrometer. Residents crawl towards the intruder and perform three behaviours: lateral hitting, pushing, and mandible scraping. Vibrations caused by mandible scraping result from the caterpillar repeatedly scraping opened mandibles laterally against the leaf surface in bouts lasting 1.16 ± 0.39 s, with an average of 4 ±...

The effect of pitfall trap construction and preservative on catch size, species richness and species composition of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 419-426, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.054

Pitfall trapping is the most frequently used sampling technique for epigeal arthropods. Trap design could significantly affect the catch so the results of studies using different trap designs may be difficult to compare. Although species composition is frequently investigated in ecological studies, however when pitfall trapping is employed, the effect of trap design on the recorded species composition is rarely considered. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trap construction (funnel or cup trap) and the preservative used (formaldehyde or propylene glycol) on total catch, catch of particular species, species richness and species composition...

Ecology and life histories of two Alpine-Apenninic species of Velia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 427-434, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.055

Velia currens (Fabricius, 1794) and V. gridellii Tamanini, 1947 are two South European species of Veliidae, whose ecology and behaviour are poorly known. The aims of this study were to investigate their life histories, quantify occurrence of wing polymorphism and gather information on their degree of co-occurrence. Nine different populations were regularly surveyed from April to November 2010. Furthermore, a dataset containing information on the occurrence of the two species and the presence of winged morphs at 294 sites was compiled from museum collections, private collections and published literature. No evidence for multivoltinism...

Molecular identity of Stomaphis quercus (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea: Lachnidae) and description of a new species


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 435-444, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.056

The two species of the genus Stomaphis feeding on oak and birch, respectively, although morphologically similar, are considered to be separate species. However, the birch-feeding S. betulae Mamontova is considered to be a synonym of the oak and birch feeding S. quercus (L.) by some authors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the birch feeding and oak feeding populations attributed to S. quercus belong to the same species. The mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase I (COXI) and II (COXII) were used to determine whether these two populations differ. There are no significant differences in these markers from...

Population structures of three Calliptamus spp. (Orthoptera: Acrididae) across the Western Mediterranean Basin

Elodie BLANCHET, Michel LECOQ, Gregory A. SWORD, Christine PAGES, Laurence BLONDIN, Claire BILLOT, Ronan RIVALLAN, Antoine FOUCART, Jean-Michel VASSAL, Ange-Marie RISTERUCCI, Marie-Pierre CHAPUIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 445-455, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.057

We conducted a comparative population genetic analysis of levels of genetic variation and its geographical structuring in three closely related species of grasshopper that co-occur in the Mediterranean Basin: Calliptamus italicus, C. barbarus and C. wattenwylianus. In the western part of their distributions 5 populations of C. italicus, 13 of C. barbarus and 10 of C. wattenwylianus were sampled. Bootstrap re-sampling of populations and microsatellite loci within each species indicated a lower level of genetic diversity and higher level of genetic differentiation in C. barbarus, which is less of an outbreak...

Life cycle and growth pattern of the endangered myrmecophilous Microdon myrmicae (Diptera: Syrphidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 457-461, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.058

In Europe there are only a few species of the syrphid fly Microdon, which live in the nests of various genera of ants. For most of these rare flies, details of their biology, larval behaviour and relationships with their hosts are still not yet well known. In this paper we present data on the life cycle, feeding behaviour and growth pattern of Microdon myrmicae, a social parasite of Myrmica ants and compare it with two species of Maculinea butterflies similarly parasitizing Myrmica ant colonies. M. myrmicae has three larval instars and overwinters as a third instar. Eggs and 1st instar larvae...

BOOK REVIEW: Kinkela D.: DDT & THE AMERICAN CENTURY. Global Health, Environmental Politics, and the Pesticide That changed the World.


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (3): 462, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.059

Kinkela D.: DDT & THE AMERICAN CENTURY. Global Health, Environmental Politics, and the Pesticide That changed the World. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2011, 256 pp., cloth, alk. paper, 235 × 155 mm. ISBN 978-0-8078-3509-8. Price USD 68.95.