EJE, vol. 114 (2017)

Intraguild predation of Orius niger (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) on Trichogramma evanescens (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 609-613, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.074

Intraguild predation of a generalist predator, Orius niger Wolff (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) on Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was determined in choice and no-choice experiments using a factitious host, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions. Choice and no-choice experiments were conducted in order to assess the level of intraguild predation of O. niger on E. kuehniella eggs parasitized by T. evanescens. In no-choice experiments, approximately 50 sterile (1) non-parasitized, (2) 3-day-old parasitized, or (3) 6-day-old parasitized E....

Suitability of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype-B and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as prey for the ladybird beetle, Serangium japonicum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Mi TIAN, Yuling WEI, Shize ZHANG, Tongxian LIU

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 603-608, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.073

The ladybird, Serangium japonicum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most important predators of whiteflies in China, however, the suitability of different kinds of prey and nutritional requirements of this predator are poorly studied. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the pre-imaginal development, percentage survival of immatures, adult longevity and fecundity of S. japonicum when reared on two different species of prey, mixed ages of the cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype-B (i.e., eggs and nymphs) and green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera:...

A comparative study of the abdominal trichobothria of Trichophora, with emphasis on Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

Cuiqing GAO, Dávid RÉDEI, Xueqin SHI, Bo CAI, Ke LIANG, Shuo GAO, Wenjun BU

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 587-602, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.072

Members of the clade Trichophora (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha) have trichobothria on their abdominal sterna. There is no comparative study of the fine structure of abdominal trichobothria in the group and until now the trichobothria of their immatures were virtually unknown. The fine structure of the abdominal trichobothrial complex (= the trichobothrium and its associated structures) of adults of 98 species belonging to 25 families in 5 superfamilies and larvae of 7 species belonging to 7 families in 2 superfamilies of Trichophora were examined using scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that the fine structure of the abdominal...

Detailed morphological descriptions of the immature stages of the ant parasite Microdon mutabilis (Diptera: Syrphidae: Microdontinae) and a discussion of its functional morphology, behaviour and host specificity

Giulia SCARPARO, Pierfilippo CERRETTI, Maurizio MEI, Andrea DI GIULIO

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 565-586, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.071

The myrmecophilous immature stages of hover flies of the genus Microdon Meigen, 1803 (Diptera, Syrphidae) are still poorly known and only about 15 species were previously incompletely described and/or illustrated using light microscopy based on occasional findings mainly of pupae and third instar larvae. The exceptional finding of a large number of second and third instar larvae and pupae (159 specimens) of Microdon mutabilis (Linnaeus, 1758) inside the nest of a new host species, Formica cunicularia Latreille,1798, enabled us to rear them and obtain a great number of eggs and first instar larvae. We filmed and described the feeding...

Windborne migration of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera) over Britain


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 554-564, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.070

Planthoppers (Delphacidae), leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) and froghoppers (Aphrophoridae) (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) caught during day and night sampling at a height of 200 m above ground at Cardington, Bedfordshire, UK, during eight summers (between 1999 and 2007) were consolidated with high-altitude catches made over England in the 1930s. Comparisons were made with other auchenorrhynchan trapping results from northwest Europe, which were indicative of migration. The migratory abilities in the species concerned were then interpreted in terms of various life-history traits or ecological characteristics, such as ontogenetic, diel and seasonal flight...

Chromosome mapping of 28S ribosomal genes in 11 species of Cassidinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Amália T. LOPES, Flávia R. FERNANDES, Marielle C. SCHNEIDER

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 546-553, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.069

In this study, we examined for the first time the distribution of the 28S ribosomal genes in beetles of the subfamily Cassidinae. More than 55% of the species in this subfamily have a similar karyotype, 2n = 16 + Xyp. For this work, we selected species belonging to the tribes Cassidini and Mesomphaliini, which have, respectively, the most conserved and diversified karyotype characteristics within the Cassidinae. An analysis of 11 species revealed that rDNA sites on one pair of autosomes is the most frequent pattern, occurring in 10 species. This condition occurs in the seven genera examined and in species of both of the tribes, Cassidini...

Associations between canopy openness, butterfly resources, butterfly richness and abundance along forest trails in planted and natural forests

Atsushi OHWAKI, Saki MAEDA, Masahiko KITAHARA, Takashi NAKANO

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 533-545, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.068

Increasing the biodiversity in plantations of trees is an important issue because plantations have replaced many natural and semi-natural ecosystems worldwide. Therefore, identifying appropriate management techniques and key factors for enhancing biodiversity in plantations is required. We surveyed butterfly assemblages along forest trails in both plantations and natural forests and measured various environmental variables, including canopy, sub canopy and shrub stem densities, percentage of deciduous trees, flower plant richness, host plant richness, canopy openness and distance to forest edge. We hypothesized that (1) flower and host plant richness...

Susceptibility of Chironomus plumosus larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae): Potential for control

Cassandra V. EDMUNDS, Craig S. WILDING, Robbie RAE

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 526-532, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.067

Chironomidae, or non-biting midges, are found worldwide in a wide variety of aquatic habitats. During periods of mass adult eclosion they can become a nuisance and health hazard. Current control methods target the aquatic larval stage and include the use of insect growth regulators or insecticides, which may be prohibited in certain environments or affect non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae, currently employed for control of terrestrial crop pests, could be used as a viable biocontrol for the aquatic larval stages of the Chrionomidae,...

The year-round phenology of the migratory Red Admiral Vanessa atalanta (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in a Mediterranean area in southern Spain


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 517-525, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.066

Many studies report the migratory status of Vanessa atalanta in the Palearctic. Available evidence indicates that this species migrates north in spring to reproduce and south in autumn to reproduce in the Mediterranean area. However, little is known about the year-round phenology and their overwintering in southern regions. Here, I present data on the year-round phenology of adult V. atalanta recorded during a three year period (2014-2016) at 5 lowland sites (< 80 m a.s.l.) near the coast close to Cádiz (southern Spain). Overall, a total of 826 imagoes were recorded along 1499.3 km of Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (BMS) transects....

Comparison of gut morphology and distribution of trehalase activity in the gut of wood-feeding and fungus-growing termites (Isoptera: Termitidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 508-516, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.065

Termites are important decomposer due to their ability to digest cellulose and their diverse feeding habits. Trehalase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes trehalose to glucose in insects and has an important biological role. Gut morphology of wood-feeding termites (Globitermes sulphureus, Termitinae; Microcerotermes crassus, Termitinae and Bulbitermes prabhae, Nasutitermitinae) and fungus-growing termites (Macrotermes annandalei, Macrotermitinae) that belong to the family Termitidae was determined in this study. Results indicate that wood-feeding termites have a similar gut morphology, which consists of a foregut, midgut and elongated...

Book Review: Moss B. 2017: Ponds and small lakes. Microorganisms and freshwater ecology. Naturalists' Handbooks 32.


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 507, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.064

Moss B. 2017: Ponds and small lakes. Microorganisms and freshwater ecology. Naturalists' Handbooks 32. Pelagic Publishing, Exeter, UK, 216 pp. ISBN 978-178427-135-0 (Pbk), 978-178427-135-7 (ePub), 978-178427-135-4 (Mobi), 978-178427-135-1 (PDF). Price GBP 19.99 (Pbk).

Pharmacological analysis of the feeding response of codling moth (Cydia pomonella; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonates to bitter compounds


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 500-506, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.063

Feeding in codling moth neonate caterpillars was inhibited by 0.67 mM and 2.24 mM concentrations of denatonium benzoate. This inhibitory effect was abolished by phospholipase C inhibitor, U-73122 and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Rolipram. Quinine and quinidine did not have inhibitory effects at concentrations as high as 1.64 mM and 0.43 mM, respectively. The inhibitory effect of denatonium was partially reversed in the presence of the calcium ion chelator, EGTA, at concentrations ranging from 2.5 µM to 250 µM. These results indicate that transduction of the taste of denatonium in codling moth neonates relies on signalling pathways that...

Seasonal changes in bruchid (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) assemblages along managed highway ecotones

Árpád SZENTESI, Zoltán GYÖRGY, Tibor JERMY, Balázs KISS

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 488-499, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.062

Spring and summer composition and species richness of bruchid pre-dispersal seed predator assemblages associated with species of leguminous plants were monitored in a four-year non-experimental survey of 32 service areas along five highways in Hungary. The vegetation bands along highways (delimited by fences) were considered a special type of ecotone where herbaceous plants are exposed to regular mowing and therefore the composition of the vegetation there is very different from the adjacent vegetation. Altogether 57 herbaceous and woody species of leguminous plants were recorded at these sites, harbouring 20 autochthonous, 3 allochthonous, but established,...

Characterization and transcriptional analysis of a subtelomeric satellite DNA family in the ladybird beetle Henosepilachna argus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 481-487, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.061

Satellite DNAs are the major repetitive DNA components in eukaryotic genomes. Although satellite DNA has long been called "parasite DNA" there is substantial evidence that it could be associated with some functions of chromosome biology. Ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) are one of the largest and most important groups of beetles. Many ladybirds are of economic interest as biological control agents because they eat some agricultural pests such as aphids and scale insects. However, other species are phytophagous and can damage crops. Despite the ecological importance of the latter group there are no studies on their satellite DNA. A satellite DNA family...

More complex than expected: Cold hardiness and the concentration of cryoprotectants in overwintering larvae of five Erebia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 470-480, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.060

Understanding the factors restricting the distribution of some insect species to high altitudes is hindered by poor knowledge of temporal changes in their cold hardiness during overwintering. We studied overwintering larvae of five species of Erebia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) differing in altitudinal distribution: lowland E. medusa, submountain E. aethiops, subalpine E. pronoe, alpine E. cassioides, and subnivean E. pluto. We subjected them to three treatments, AutumnWarm (13/8°C), imitating conditions prior to overwintering; AutumnCold (5/0°C), imitating late autumn conditions; and WinterCold...

Condensella and Endogena, two new genera of the Alebroides genus group (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from the Oriental Region with notes on the phylogeny of Empoascini

Ye XU, Christopher H. DIETRICH, Wenhui ZHAO, Daozheng QIN

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 462-469, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.059

Two new microleafhopper genera of Empoascini within the subfamily Typhlocybinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), Condensella Xu, Dietrich & Qin gen. n., based on the type species C. filamenta Xu, Dietrich & Qin sp. n., and Endogena Xu, Dietrich & Qin gen. n., based on the type species E. flava Xu, Dietrich & Qin sp. n., are described from southern China and Thailand. Male habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of the two new species are provided. Comparative notes on related genera are provided. Phylogenetic relationships and the status of genus groups within the tribe are also discussed.

Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Smelling the rat in native ladybird declines


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 455-461, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.058

In the last two decades a huge amount of research has focused on the invasive harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, particularly on potential or actual deleterious effects that have arisen after it has colonised new regions. A focus of this work has been real or anticipated declines in native ladybird abundance since the introduction of H. axyridis, for which it is deemed responsible. Scientists have generally painted a very bleak picture of the effects of H. axyridis on native species: in this paper I argue that the picture painted is often too bleak. I use the case of the 2-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, the species...

Preliminary evidence of the horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between Crioceris leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and their Asparagus host plants

Michał KOLASA, Matteo MONTAGNA, Valeria MEREGHETTI, Daniel KUBISZ, Miłosz A. MAZUR, Łukasz KAJTOCH

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 446-454, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.057

Intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are the most widespread endosymbionts of insects. Host infection is usually associated with alterations in reproduction, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, the induction of parthenogenesis and offspring sex ratio bias: all phenomena that may influence host speciation. In the present study, by using well-established molecular tools, we investigated the presence of Wolbachia in leaf beetles of the genus Crioceris and their host plants, which are various species of Asparagus. Multilocus sequence typing of bacterial genes showed that despite their occurrence...

Gut microbiota influences female choice and fecundity in the nuptial gift-giving species, Drosophila subobscura (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Benjamin S. WALSH, Chloe HEYS, Zenobia LEWIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 439-445, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.056

Recently, there has been rapidly growing interest in the effects of the microbiota on host physiology and behaviour. Due to the nutritional value of bacteria, gut microflora may be particularly important in species that present nuptial gifts during courtship. Here, we explore whether the presence or absence of gut microbiota in males and females of the nuptial gift-giving species Drosophila subobscura (Collin, 1936) alters mating behaviour in terms of female preference, male investment, and female fecundity. We found that females that had been fed antibiotics, compared to females with intact gut bacteria, were more willing to mate with a male...

Characterization and functional analysis of the serpin-10 gene from oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

Saima KAUSAR, Cen QIAN, Muhammad Nadeem ABBAS, Bao-Jian ZHU, Ya LIU, Lei WANG, Guo-Qing WEI, Yu SUN, Chao-Liang LIU

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 430-438, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.055

Serpin is a broadly distributed superfamily of proteins that have a crucial role in regulating various immune reactions. Herein we identified a serpin-10 gene from Antheraea pernyi that encodes a 1557 amino acid residue protein with a predicted molecular weight of 58.76 kDa. Recombinant Apserpin-10 protein was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system (Escherichia coli) and the purified protein was used to prepare rabbit anti-Apserpin-10 polyclonal antibodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis indicate that Apserpin-10 was transcribed in all the tissues examined, including haemolymph,...

First mitogenome for the subfamily Miltogramminae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and its phylogenetic implications

Liping YAN, Ming ZHANG, Yunyun GAO, Thomas PAPE, Dong ZHANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 422-429, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.054

The mitochondrial genome of Mesomelena mesomelaena (Loew, 1848) is the first to be sequenced in the flesh fly subfamily Miltogramminae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The 14,559 bp mitogenome contains 37 typical metazoan mitochondrial genes: 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes, with the same locations as in the insect ground plan. All the protein-coding genes have the start codon ATN, except for cox1 (TCG). Eight protein-coding genes have the stop codon TAA, while the remaining five have the stop codon T (cox1, cox2, nad5, and nad4) or TAG (cytb). Synonymous and non-synonymous...

Inheritance of diapause regulation in the multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 416-421, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.053

It is known that females from native populations of the multicoloured Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, have a strong photoperiodic response (enter reproductive diapause under short photoperiods), whereas the proportion of diapausing females from invasive populations is less dependent on day length. The aim of the present study was to determine the mode of inheritance of these differences. The experiments were conducted with two laboratory populations of H. axyridis, the High Diapause (HD) population originated from Irkutsk (Southern Siberia, ca 52.3°N, 104.3°E) and the Low Diapause (LD) population originated from Sochi (North Caucasus,...

Tandem duplication of two tRNA genes in the mitochondrial genome of Tagiades vajuna (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

Fang-Fang LIU, Yi-Ping LI, Ivan JAKOVLIĆ, Xiang-Qun YUAN

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 407-415, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.052

To explore the debated phylogenetic relationship of two Hesperiidae subfamilies, Pyrginae and Eudaminae, and contribute to the understanding of the evolution of mitogenomic architecture in butterflies, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of Tagiades vajuna. The mitogenome is a typical circular duplex molecule of 15,359 bp. Apart from the standard 22 tRNAs, it has a tandem duplication of trnS(AGN) and trnE, which is unique in lepidopteran insects. Comparison with Ctenoptilum vasava indicates that the trnS1 duplication is not an ancestral state shared with other species of Tagiadini. Independent origin of the trnS1...

Effect of nutritious and toxic prey on food preference of a predaceous ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Mushtaq A. GUROO, Ahmad PERVEZ, Kuldeep SRIVASTAVA, Rakesh K. GUPTA

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 400-406, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.051

We investigated the predatory potential and food preference of different life stages of Coccinella septempunctata L. for a nutritious aphid (mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi) and toxic aphid (cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae). We provided all the life stages of C. septempunctata with either L. erysimi or B. brassicae and found that the second, third and fourth instar larvae and adult females of this predator consumed daily greater numbers of L. erysimi. However, the first instar larvae and adult males consumed similar numbers of both of these aphids. In choice condition, each larva, adult males and...

Motorway as a barrier to dispersal of the threatened dragonfly Sympetrum depressiusculum (Odonata: Libellulidae): Consequence of mortality or crossing avoidance?

Hana ©IGUTOVÁ, Filip HARABI©, Michal HYKEL, Aleą DOLNÝ

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 391-399, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.050

Infrastructure is one of the main causes of landscape fragmentation, which results in isolation and loss of populations. Although the negative effect of roads on insects is well documented, only a minority of studies has focused on roads in the context of barriers to dispersal. Flying species in particular have been neglected. We investigated the effect of a four-lane motorway as a barrier to the movement of an isolated population of the threatened dragonfly Sympetrum depressiusculum in an agricultural landscape in Central Europe. Generalized additive models were used to assess the motorway's effect on (i) the distribution of adult dragonflies...

An overview of irritans-mariner transposons in two Mayetiola species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 379-390, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.049

Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are widespread Class II transposable elements in insects that are subdivided into several subfamilies. In the current study, we carried out in silico analysis and in vitro experiments to identify MLEs belonging to the irritans subfamily in two cecidomyiid flies, Mayetiola destructor and M. hordei. In silico investigation of M. destructor genome allowed the identification of 25 irritans-like elements, which were mostly defective due to several mutations. These defective forms might be the remnants of active elements that ancestrally invaded the host genome. Structural analyses, including...

Molecular taxonomy of the Sympetrum vulgatum (Odonata: Libellulidae) complex in the West Palaearctic

Joan C. HINOJOSA, Ricard MARTÍN, Xavier MAYNOU, Roger VILA

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 373-378, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.048

The Sympetrum vulgatum (Linnaeus, 1758) complex is composed of the subspecies S. vulgatum vulgatum, S. vulgatum decoloratum (Selys, 1884) and S. vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985 in the West Palaearctic. These taxa have parapatric distributions and noticeable morphological differences in colour and body size, and their taxonomic status is debated. Here we revise the systematics of this group using molecular taxonomy, including molecular analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, COI) and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer, ITS1) DNA taking into account known morphological differences....

Book review: Jäch M.A., Kodada J., Brojer M., Shepard W.D. & Čiampor F. Jr. 2016: Coleoptera: Elmidae and Protelmidae. World Catalogue of Insects, Vol. 14.


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 372, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.047

Jäch M.A., Kodada J., Brojer M., Shepard W.D. & Čiampor F. Jr. 2016: Coleoptera: Elmidae and Protelmidae. World Catalogue of Insects, Vol. 14. Brill, Leiden / Boston, xxi + 318 pp. ISBN 978-90-04-29176-8 (hardback), 978-90-04-29177-5 (e-book). Price EUR 93.00.

Seasonal polyphenism in body size and juvenile development of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

Shinya KOMATA, Teiji SOTA

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 365-371, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.046

Seasonal polyphenism in adults may be a season-specific adaptation of the adult stage and/or a by-product of adaptive plasticity of the juvenile stages. The swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus L. exhibits seasonal polyphenism controlled by photoperiod. Adults emerging in spring from pupae that spend winter in diapause have smaller bodies than adults emerging in summer from pupae that do not undergo diapause. Pupal diapause is induced by short-day conditions typical of autumn. To explore the interactive effects of temperature and developmental pathways on the variation in adult body size in P. xuthus, we reared larvae at two temperatures...

New species of Cicadocoris (Hemiptera: Coleorrhyncha: Progonocimicidae) from mid-Jurassic deposits in northeastern China

Jia-Qian JIANG, Di-Ying HUANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 355-364, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.045

A new progonocimicid bug named Cicadocoris parvus sp. n. is described from the mid-Jurassic Haifanggou Formation at Daohugou, Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia, northeastern China. It differs from other species by being distinctly smaller, veins dSc, R1 and Rs run parallel to one another and are nearly evenly spaced on left tegmen, widest length of apical half/basal half of left tegmen is 1.1 and that of right tegmen is 1.0. Thus, there are at least three species of Cicadocoris (Progonocimicidae) described from Daohugou. All these species are relatively abundant in the Haifanggou Formation and are remarkable representatives...

A "clean" alien species? Parasites of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 350-354, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.044

The multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis is an invasive insect that can negatively influence biodiversity and human economy in invaded areas. According to the enemy release hypothesis, invasive alien species are often little affected by parasites and other enemies. We studied the prevalence of common parasites of insects infesting and infecting H. axyridis in NW Poland. A large sample of 2351 individuals was collected and divided into two groups: 1180 beetles were dissected and examined for the presence of eugregarines, nematodes and Laboulbeniales fungi, and 751 were checked for phoretic mites. Our results show that H. axyridis...

White plant shoots, wax-producing insects and other white structures made by arthropods: A mimicry complex?


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 343-349, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.043

Many insects masquerade as parts of plants, such as bark or leaves, or mimic poisonous organisms in order to defend themselves against predators. However, recent studies indicate that plants may mimic insects and other arthropods to deter herbivores. Here, I report visually similar white structures of plants and arthropods in Japan and suggest they are part of a mimicry complex. Young shoots covered with white trichomes or waxy substances may mimic wax-producing insects, such as woolly aphids, coccids and caterpillars, potentially resulting in reduced herbivory. Since wax-producing insects would reduce plant quality and quantity, be distasteful and...

Response of ground-dwelling harvestman assemblages (Arachnida: Opiliones) to European beech forest canopy cover

Ąudmila ČERNECKÁ, Ivan MIHÁL, Benjamín JARČU©KA

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 334-342, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.042

We studied the effects of the overstory canopy cover on ground-dwelling harvestmen communities in European beech forests in the Western Carpathian Mts. We analyzed the differences in species richness, abundance and composition in two tree canopy cover categories (closed and open canopy). Overall, 1765 individuals belonging to 16 species were caught using pitfall traps. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that under both closed and open canopies a similar absolute and rarefied species richness and number of individuals (standardized to 100 pitfall trap days) were caught, and that both species richness and abundance were affected by the season (i.e., time...

Book review: Miller K.B. & Bergsten J. 2016: Diving Beetles of the World. Systematics and Biology of the Dytiscidae.


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 332-333, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.041

Miller K.B. & Bergsten J. 2016: Diving Beetles of the World. Systematics and Biology of the Dytiscidae. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 320 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-2054-7 (printed); 978-1-4214-2055-4 (electronic). Price USD 150.00.

Temperature-dependent functional response of Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) to different densities of pupae of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

Mohammad Ali ZIAEI MADBOUNI, Mohammad Amin SAMIH, Peyman NAMVAR, Antonio BIONDI

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 325-331, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.040

The effect of temperature on the functional response of female adults of Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter to different densities of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) pupae was assessed. Three constant temperatures (15, 25, and 35°C) and six prey densities (5, 10, 20, 35, 50, and 70) were tested over a 24-h period. Nesidiocoris tenuis exhibited a type II functional response at 15 and 25°C, and a type III response at 35°C. The number of prey consumed by the predator increased with increase in the prey density at all temperatures. Temperature influenced attack rates and handling times. The highest attack rate occurred at 35°C at high densities...

Not simply red: Colouration of red wood ant Formica rufa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is polymorphic, modular and size-dependent


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 317-324, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.039

Insects produce pigment and structural colours mainly for camouflage, signaling, physical protection or temperature regulation, and colour patterns can provide information about individual quality. Although the evolutionary function and nature of the variability in colouration are well known for many invertebrate taxa, there is little information on this topic for ants. We studied individual variation in the melanin-based colour traits of workers of the red wood ant, Formica rufa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), from 20 colonies in Southern Finland and revealed the type of colouration in this species. First, using the threshold approach we distinguished...

Metagenomic survey of bacteria associated with the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 312-316, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.038

The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis is an invasive insect in Europe and the Americas and is a great threat to the environment in invaded areas. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that non native species are resistant to many groups of parasites that attack native insects. However, very little is known about the complex microbial community associated with this insect. This study based on sequencing 16S rRNA genes in extracted metagenomic DNA is the first research on the bacterial flora associated with H. axyridis. Lady beetles were collected during hibernation from wind turbines in Poland. A mean ± SD of 114 ± 35 species...

Acoustic signals of the bush-crickets Isophya (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae) from Eastern Europe, Caucasus and adjacent territories


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 301-311, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.037

Temporal patterns and frequency spectra of the songs and stridulatory files of 14 species of the genus of the phaneropterid bush-crickets Isophya from Eastern Europe, Altai and the Caucasus are given. The sound signals of the species studied can be separated into three main types: (1) those consisting of two syllables (Isophya gracilis, I. kalishevskii, I. schneideri, I. caspica, Isophya sp. 1); (2) one syllable and series of clicks (I. modesta rossica, I. stepposa, I. taurica, I. brunneri, I. doneciana, I. altaica); (3) single repeating syllables of uniform shape and duration...

Survival, body mass and potential fecundity of the invasive moth Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on its original host plant Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus glabra


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 295-300, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.036

Performance of the invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic, 1986 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), was studied on two host plants: the white-flowering horse-chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L. and the Ohio buckeye Aesculus glabra Willd. C. ohridella developed successfully on both host plants; however, mine density and survival were much higher on A. hippocastanum than on A. glabra. The pupal mass and potential fecundity were strongly affected by the host plant on which the larvae fed. On A. hippocastanum pupae were significantly heavier and females more fecund than those...

Biological parameters of Duponchelia fovealis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) reared in the laboratory on two diets


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 291-294, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.035

Duponchelia fovealis Zeller is a polyphagous insect that has been recently reported attacking strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). Despite its economic importance there are few studies on this pest because it is difficult to rear it in the laboratory. With a constant supply of insects, studies on alternative methods of pest control can be conducted. This study aimed at developing an artificial diet for rearing D. fovealis with biological characteristics similar to those reared on their natural diet. This study was carried out in a climate-controlled room (25°C ± 2°C, RH 70% ± 10%, and 14L : 10D). The...

Indochinese Polydictya lanternflies: Two new species from Vietnam, identification key and notes on P. vietnamica (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae)

Jérôme CONSTANT, Hong-Thai PHAM

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 279-290, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.034

Two new species of Polydictya Guérin-Méneville, 1844 from Vietnam, P. grootaerti sp. n. from Central Vietnam and P. drumonti sp. n. from North Vietnam, are described and compared with the closest species, P. chantrainei Nagai & Porion, 2004 and P. kuntzi Nagai & Porion, 2004. The male genitalia are described and illustrated for the two new species as well as for P. vietnamica Constant & Pham, 2008 for the first time. Habitus details and photographs, a distribution map and photographs of specimens in nature when available, are provided. The occurrence of P. vietnamica from Thailand and Northeast...

Protogyny after hibernation and aestivation in Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in central Japan


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 275-278, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.033

Differences in the time of occurrence of both sexes of adult ladybirds, which reflect differences in the longevity and reproductive strategies of the sexes, is important from the perspective of applied entomology, including biological control, as well as basic entomology. Nevertheless, there is little field census data on this topic. We investigated the seasonal occurrence of both sexes of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) in Osaka City, central Japan, from 2003 to 2011. Female adults tended to appear earlier than males after hibernation or aestivation. That males never appeared earlier than females during the nine year period of this study...

Mating advantage of short-winged over long-winged adult males in the cricket Velarifictorus ornatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

Lv-Quan ZHAO, Huai-Lin CHAI, Hong-Jun WU, Dao-Hong ZHU

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 267-274, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.032

The trade-off between flight capability and reproduction is well known in adult males of insects with wing dimorphism but the reproductive advantage of short-winged (SW) males over long-winged (LW) males appears to vary across insect taxa. In the present study, we determined the difference in the mating ability of SW and LW males of Velarifictorus ornatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) in order to evaluate whether the SW male morph has a reproductive advantage. We found that the choice of a mate depended on the female. Compared with LW males, SW males had an obvious mating advantage when both SW and LW males courted females simultaneously, and that...

Warp-speed adaptation to novel hosts after 300 generations of enforced dietary specialisation in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 257-266, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.031

Herbivorous insects are often highly specialised, likely due to trade-offs in fitness on alternative host species. However, some pest insects are extremely adaptable and readily adopt novel hosts, sometimes causing rapid expansion of their host range as they spread from their original host and geographic origin. The genetic basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood, limiting our ability to predict or mitigate global insect pest outbreaks. We investigated the trajectory of early adaptation to novel hosts in a regionally-specialised global crop pest species (the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus). After experimentally-enforced dietary...

Sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) metabolome increases throughout development

Fiona C. INGLEBY, Edward H. MORROW

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 249-256, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.030

The expression of sexually dimorphic phenotypes from a shared genome between males and females is a longstanding puzzle in evolutionary biology. Increasingly, research has made use of transcriptomic technology to examine the molecular basis of sexual dimorphism through gene expression studies, but even this level of detail misses the metabolic processes that ultimately link gene expression with the whole organism phenotype. We use metabolic profiling in Drosophila melanogaster to complete this missing step, with a view to examining variation in male and female metabolic profiles, or metabolomes, throughout development. We show that the metabolome...

Juvenile hormone analogue, fenoxycarb, modulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional hierarchy during programmed cell death of midgut in silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

Ebru GONCU, Ramazan URANLI, Osman PARLAK

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 235-248, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.029

Steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone and the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone are the main regulators of insect development; however, it is unclear how they interact in the regulation of metamorphic events. Using the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we show that the juvenile hormone analogue fenoxycarb affects the cascade of ecdysone regulated genes that control the programmed cell death in the larval midgut. Morphological changes that occur during cell death were investigated by studying cross-sections of the midgut stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Apoptosis-specific DNA fragmentation was detected using TUNEL assay. Expression patterns of genes ATG8...

Acceptance of alien queens by the ruby ant Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Gene flow by queen flow


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 230-234, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.028

Social insect colonies, especially of ants, often include several egg-laying queens that are not always closely related to each other. At least in some cases, the ants seem to accept non-related queens into their colonies. Here I test whether the colony queen status (with or without a queen), genetic and geographic differences between source and recipient nests and the average relatedness of the workers in the recipient colony affect the acceptance of alien queens. I used field collected ruby ant Myrmica rubra colonies as a model system. Only the queen status significantly affected the acceptance process. Colonies without queens accepted alien...

Fitness traits of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) after long-term laboratory rearing on different diets


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 222-229, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.027

Nutrition is one of the most important environmental factors that influence the development and growth in Drosophila. The food composition strongly affects their reproduction, welfare and survival, so it is necessary for flies to search for a mixture of macronutrients that maximizes their fitness. We have five D. melanogaster strains, which were reared for 13 years on five different substrates: standard cornmeal-agar-sugar-yeast medium and four substrates modified by adding tomato, banana, carrot and apple. This study was aimed at determining how such long-term rearing of flies on substrates with different protein content affects fitness...

Do the arthropod communities on a parasitic plant and its hosts differ?


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 215-221, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.026

Parasitic plants growing on tree branches may be a novel niche and phytoresource for arthropods. The spatial continuity between hosts and their parasites in canopies might provide a homogeneous environment for arthropod communities, but differences in mistletoe leaves and host needles could be exploited by different species of arthropods. Therefore, it is important to determine insect-community assemblages in order to discover the role of parasitic plants as a different habitat for arthropods. Thus, we aim to evaluate the level of similarity between the arthropod community on mistletoe (Viscum album) and that on its two principal pine hosts,...

Structure of scuttle fly communities (Diptera: Phoridae) in two habitats on a Mediterranean mountain


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 203-214, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.025

Phoridae (scuttle flies) are widely distributed, occur in many types of habitats and are ecologically versatile, which makes them an excellent bioindicator group for evaluating faunal diversity. The structure of scuttle fly communities was compared in two Mediterranean habitats in the Montseny Natural Park (Catalonia, Spain) that differ in vegetation and microclimate: beech forest and highland scrubland. 3684 male individuals belonging to 135 species of scuttle flies were identified. Scuttle flies were more abundant in beech forest than scrubland. Observed and estimated species richness were lower in scrubland than in beech forest, while diversity...

Expression of heat-shock protein genes in Apis mellifera meda (Hymenoptera: Apidae) after exposure to monoterpenoids and infestation by Varroa destructor mites (Acari: Varroidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 195-202, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.024

Heat shock proteins (hsps) protect proteins in eukaryotic cells from damage. Expression of hsps in insects subject to different environmental stimuli is poorly characterized. Here, levels of expression of the hsps genes (hsp40, hsp70, and hsp90) were recorded in Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of thymol, eucalyptol, α-pinene, trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and infestation with Varroa mites. Our results show a dose-dependent up-regulation in the levels of all the hsps tested after the bees were treated with thymol,...

Improving knowledge of the subgenus Agrodiaetus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatus) in Eastern Europe: Overview of the Romanian fauna

Vlad DINCĂ, Levente SZÉKELY, Zsolt BÁLINT, Marius SKOLKA, Sergiu TÖRÖK, Paul D.N. HEBERT

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 179-194, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.023

The butterfly subgenus Agrodiaetus of the genus Polyommatus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is distributed in the western and central Palaearctic and represents a taxonomically challenging group due to its rapid diversification coupled, in many cases, with very limited availability of morphological diagnostic characters. In this study we provide a detailed overview of this subgenus in the Romanian fauna, a country where scattered, poorly documented records suggest the presence of three species: Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) damon, P. (A.) admetus and P. (A.) ripartii. By analyzing material...

Double strand RNA-mediated RNA interference through feeding in larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 170-178, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.022

RNA interference (RNAi) technology uses dsRNAs to silence specific targeted genes by downregulating their expression. It has become a potent tool for functional and regulatory studies of insect genes and has potential to be applied for insect control. Though it has been challenging to generate effective RNAi in lepidopteran insects, in the current study this technology was applied to develop specific RNAi-based molecular tools that could be used to negatively impact the invasive lepidopteran forest pest, gypsy moth (GM). GM midgut-specific genes were selected for dsRNA design from larval transcriptome profiles. Two methods were used to produce specific...

An early suitability assessment of two exotic Ophraella species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) for biological control of invasive ragweed in Europe


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 160-169, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.021

Classical biological control is an important means of managing the increasing threat of invasive plants. It constitutes the introduction of natural enemies from the native range of the target plant into the invaded area. This method may be the only cost-effective solution to control the rapidly expanding common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in non-crop habitats in Europe. Therefore, candidate biocontrol agents urgently need to be assessed for their suitability for ragweed control in Europe. A previous literature review prioritized the host-specific leaf beetle Ophraella slobodkini as a candidate agent for ragweed control in Europe,...

The diversity of feeding habits recorded for water boatmen (Heteroptera: Corixoidea) world-wide with implications for evaluating information on the diet of aquatic insects

Christian W. HÄDICKE, Dávid RÉDEI, Petr KMENT

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 147-159, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.020

Food webs are of crucial importance for understanding any ecosystem. The accuracy of food web and ecosystem models rests on the reliability of the information on the feeding habits of the species involved. Water boatmen (Corixoidea) is the most diverse superfamily of water bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha), frequently the most abundant group of insects in a variety of freshwater habitats worldwide. In spite of their high biomass, the importance of water boatmen in aquatic ecosystems is frequently underestimated. The diet and feeding habits of Corixoidea are unclear as published data are frequently contradictory. We summarise information on the feeding...

Biodiversity - economy or ecology? Long-term study of changes in the biodiversity of aphids living in steppe-like grasslands in Central Europe

Barbara OSIADACZ, Roman HAŁAJ, Damian CHMURA

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 140-146, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.019

This paper examines the changes in the species composition of aphids living in dry calcareous grasslands in Central Europe over a 25-year period. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis of this type in the world that takes into account both previous and current data on species richness as well as groups of aphids that are distinguishable on the basis of biological and ecological criteria such as host-alternation and feeding types, life cycle, ecological niche, symbiosis with ants and their ecological functional groups. Over the period of more than 25 years, there has been a significant decrease in aphid α-diversity, from 171 to...

Adaptive significance of the prolonged diapause in the western Mediterranean lycaenid butterfly Tomares ballus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 133-139, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.018

Diapause is a common dormancy strategy exhibited by many species of invertebrates and insects to temporarily avoid seasonally recurring unfavourable conditions for their development, most usually in winter. Less frequently, a prolonged diapause lasting two or more years is described in species living in unpredictable environments where it is adaptive, but with significant costs. In this paper we examine the occurrence of prolonged diapause in the lycaenid butterfly Tomares ballus. Pupae of this species undergo an obligate diapause from mid-May to late January the following year. However, during our rearing experiments (from 2009 to 2016)...

A comparison of methods for sampling aquatic insects (Heteroptera and Coleoptera) of different body sizes, in different habitats using different baits


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 123-132, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.017

Although various methods exist for sampling aquatic Heteroptera and Coleoptera in standing water, there are very few comparisons of their performance in different types of habitat. In this study, we evaluated and compared the efficiency and selectivity of three sampling methods: hand netting, bottle traps baited with canned tuna and bottle traps baited with canned cat food. The methods were compared over the period 2010-2012 in two different habitats (temporarily flooded areas and canals) in the Nature Park Kopački rit, a floodplain on the banks of the River Danube. The results show that the effectiveness of the method differed in the two habitats....

Movement, demography and behaviour of a highly mobile species: A case study of the black-veined white, Aporia crataegi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

Jure JUGOVIC, Mitja ČRNE, Martina LU®NIK

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 113-122, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.016

We studied the demography, movement, behaviour and choice of nectar plants by adults of Aporia crataegi. This study was done in a dense network of different types of habitats (total size of study area 16.26 ha) from open landscape to shrubland, the latter being a result of abandonment of traditional agricultural practices such as extensive mowing and grazing. Total population size was estimated to be approximately 1700 and 2700 for females and males, respectively. Median and maximum distances moved by males were 134 and 3493 m, and by females 138 and 3165 m, respectively. The average lifespan was ca. 7.1 and 7.5 days, with maximum recorded lifespans...

Effect of ant attendance on aphid population growth and above ground biomass of the aphid's host plant


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 106-112, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.015

Ant-aphid mutualism is considered to be a beneficial association for the individuals concerned. The population and fitness of aphids affected by ant attendance and the outcome of this relationship affects the host plant of the aphid. The main hypothesis of the current study is that ant tending decreases aphid developmental time and/or increases reproduction per capita, which seriously reduces host plant fitness. The effect of attendance by the ant Tapinoma erraticum (Latreille, 1798) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on population growth and duration of different developmental stages of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were...

Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of female Isoceras sibirica (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) to volatiles produced by the plant, Asparagus officinalis

Hongxia LIU, Zhixiong LIU, Haixia ZHENG, Zerong JIN, Jintong ZHANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 101-105, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.014

In herbivorous insects plant volatiles have an important role in locating mates and oviposition sites. The aim of this study was to test the antennal and behavioural responses of females of Isoceras sibirica Alpheraky (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) to the volatiles produced by Asparagus officinalis L. Electroantennographs (EAG) revealed that the antennae of I. sibirica respond in a dose dependent way to hexanal, limonene, 2-ethyl-2-hexenal, linalool and α-terpineol. In flight tunnel experiments, 2-ethyl-2-hexenal, α-terpineol, hexanal, ρ-cymene and geraniol were significantly more attractive to females of I. sibirica...

Succession in ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in deciduous forest clear-cuts - an Eastern European case study

Ioan TĂUŞAN, Jens DAUBER, Maria R. TRICĂ, Bálint MARKÓ

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 92-100, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.013

Clear-cutting, the main method of harvesting in many forests in the world, causes a series of dramatic environmental changes to the forest habitat and removes habitat resources for arboreal and epigeal species. It results in considerable changes in the composition of both plant and animal communities. Ants have many critical roles in the maintenance and functioning of forest ecosystems. Therefore, the response of ants to clear-cutting and the time it takes for an ant community to recover after clear-cutting are important indicators of the effect of this harvesting technique on the forest ecosystem. We investigated ground-dwelling ant communities during...

Field and laboratory studies on drought tolerance and water balance in adult Pergalumna nervosa (Acari: Oribatida: Galumnidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 86-91, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.012

We studied the water balance, body fluid osmolality and survival of the oribatid mite, Pergalumna nervosa, when exposed to drought in field and laboratory experiments. In a replicated field experiment we artificially lowered the soil water content by putting roofs over selected plots, which reduced soil water potential to levels well below the permanent wilting percentage for plants (i.e. below -1.5 MPa). Even though a slight decrease in the abundance of P. nervosa (only found in the 0-5 cm soil layer) was recorded during the most severe drought stress (ca. -3.5 MPa), the majority of adult mites clearly survived these conditions for 3...

Fungi associated with Ips acuminatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Ukraine with a special emphasis on pathogenicity of ophiostomatoid species

Kateryna DAVYDENKO, Rimvydas VASAITIS, Audrius MENKIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 77-85, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.011

Conifer bark beetles are well known to be associated with fungal complexes, which consist of pathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi as well as obligate saprotroph species. However, there is little information on fungi associated with Ips acuminatus in central and eastern Europe. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of the fungal communities associated with the pine engraver beetle, I. acuminatus, in the forest-steppe zone in Ukraine and to evaluate the pathogenicity of six associated ophiostomatoid species by inoculating three-year-old Scots pine seedlings with these fungi. In total, 384 adult beetles were collected from under...

Do flower mixtures with high functional diversity enhance aphid predators in wildflower strips?

Séverin HATT, Roel UYTTENBROECK, Thomas LOPES, Pierre MOUCHON, Julian CHEN, Julien PIQUERAY, Arnaud MONTY, Frédéric FRANCIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 66-76, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.010

Among the semi-natural elements in agricultural landscapes, wildflower strips sown at field margins or within fields are potential habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests. As insects are sensitive to a variety of flower traits, we hypothesized that mixtures with high functional diversity attract and support a higher abundance and species richness of aphid flower visiting predators than mixtures with low functional diversity. During a field experiment, repeated over two years (2014 and 2015) in Gembloux (Belgium), aphid predators (i.e., lacewings, ladybeetles and hoverflies) were pan-trapped in five sown flower mixtures (including a control...

Silk recycling in larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Haq Abdul SHAIK, Archana MISHRA, Frantiąek SEHNAL

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 61-65, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.009

Galleria mellonella larvae spin protective tubes, which they use until they finish feeding, when they spin cocoons. A feeding choice experiment showed that some of the silk produced by feeding larvae was consumed in addition to the standard diet (STD). To determine the effect of feeding on silk, last instar larvae were fed for 24 h on foods based on STD but modified by replacing the dry milk component (10% of the diet) with equal amounts of different kinds of silk. While each control larva consumed 21 ± 0.5 mg of the STD and produced 4.5 ± 0.1 mg of silk, larvae that ate the food that contained larval silk consumed 10 ± 0.4 mg...

The pheromone verbenone and its function in Dendroctonus armandi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

Mingzhen ZHAO, Lulu DAI, Yaya SUN, Danyang FU, Hui CHEN

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 53-60, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.008

The Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li is a native species of bark beetle and one of the most destructive in much of western China. Little is known about the characterization of the pheromones trans-verbenol and verbenone, and their functions in D. armandi are unknown. Electroantennogram tests (EAG) and olfactory assays (Y-tube assays) in the laboratory revealed that (1) trans-verbenol may be an anti-aggregation pheromone for male and an aggregation pheromone for female D. armandi and (2) female beetles are more attracted to controls (hexane) than low concentrations of verbenone and male beetles...

Spatial variability in the level of infestation of the leaves of horse chestnut by the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and in the number of adult moths and parasitoids emerging from leaf litter in an urban environment

Michal KOPAČKA, Rostislav ZEMEK

Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 42-52, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.007

The horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was first recorded in Europe near lake Ohrid in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in 1985 since when it has spread throughout the whole of Europe. The reasons for its spread are well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the population density of the first generation of C. ohridella at eight sites in the urban area of České Budějovice, Czech Republic in two consecutive years. The density was estimated visually in terms of the damage done to horse chestnut leaves by C. ohridella larvae at each site during the vegetative...

Effect of temperature on rate of development, survival and adult longevity of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 35-41, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.006

The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), both in the field and storehouses. The rate of development and survival of P. operculella, reared on potato tubers cv. Spunta at eight constant temperatures (17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5 and 35°C), were studied in the laboratory. The duration of development of the immature stages was recorded. Adult longevity was also recorded under the same conditions. Developmental time decreased significantly with increase in temperature within the range 17.5-32.5°C. No development occurred...

Book Review: Löbl I. & Löbl D. (eds) 2015: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Hydrophiloidea-Staphylinoidea. Vol. 2. Revised and updated edition.


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 34, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.005

Löbl I. & Löbl D. (eds) 2015: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Hydrophiloidea-Staphylinoidea. Vol. 2. Revised and updated edition. Brill, Leiden, Boston, xxvi + 1702 pp. ISBN 978-90-04-28992-5 (print book), ISBN 978-90-04-29685-5 (e-book). Price USD 245.00.

Assessing the efficiency of UV LEDs as light sources for sampling the diversity of macro-moths (Lepidoptera)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 25-33, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.004

Light trapping is the most widely used tool for determining the diversity of nocturnal Lepidoptera, but UV LEDs have yet to be used as light sources for the large-scale monitoring of Lepidoptera. We assessed the efficiency of this novel light source for sampling moths using a Heath type moth equipped with a strip of 150 high brightness UV LEDs (emission peak 398 nm, ~ 15 W) powered by a 12 V battery. We compared the number of individuals, the number of species and the Geometridae / Noctuidae ratio recorded for the samples collected using UV LED traps with those collected in two monitoring programs carried out in the same geographic region using two...

Polygalacturonase gene expression and enzymatic activity in salivary glands of laboratory reared and wild populations of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 16-24, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.003

Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois, 1818) (tarnished plant bug) is a serious pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Delta region as compared to cotton in the Hills region of the state of Mississippi in USA. The reason for this is unclear but it was hypothesized that the plant cell wall degrading polygalacturonase enzyme system in the salivary glands of L. lineolaris from the Delta could be better adapted for cotton, which is grown more predominantly in the Delta region than in the Hills region. Expression analysis of three primary polygalacturonase genes (LlPG1, LlPG2 and LlPG3) was conducted in laboratory...

Abnormal development in larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resulting from baculovirus-mediated overexpression of a JHE-related gene (SnJHER)


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 7-15, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.002

The Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has a unique and recently multiplied juvenile hormone esterase gene family (SnJHER) with particular transcriptional profiles and functional characteristics. Unlike conventional juvenile hormone esterase genes (JHEs), the SnJHER gene family seems to have been recently evolved from a common ancestral JHER gene. SnJHERs seem to be regulated by both ecdysone agonists and xenobiotics, while their real role in development remains to be exploited. In this study we transiently expressed the major SnJHER isoform in Bm5 and Hi5 cell lines. The...

Development and survival of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) at low temperatures in the laboratory and the field


Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 1-6, 2017 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2017.001

The European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) is a highly destructive pest of spruce monocultures. Adult spruce bark beetles are well-adapted to survive over winter however, the ability of sub-adult stages to overwinter has not been clearly established. The increase in average temperature recorded over the last three decades has resulted in an increase in voltinism by one generation, but due to insufficient time the last generation may not complete its development. It is crucial to investigate the survival and development of sub-adult stages at low temperatures in order to predict the effect of increased voltinism on the population dynamics...