EJE, vol. 112 (2015), issue 1

Different steps in the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in two East African Spalacomimus species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 1-10, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.024

Two orthopteran species belonging to the East African genus Spalacomimus, S. verruciferus and S. talpa (Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae), were investigated using both molecular cytogenetic techniques, including fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes, and classical techniques, such as C-banding, fluorochrome CMA3/DAPI staining, and silver impregnation. These techniques allowed us to identify cytogenetic markers that were then used to elucidate chromosome organization and differences between species. Chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for both analyzed...

Chromosome fusion polymorphisms in the grasshopper, Dichroplus fuscus (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae): Insights on meiotic effects

Alberto TAFFAREL, Claudio J. BIDAU, Dardo A. MARTÍ

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 11-19, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.010

Robertsonian fusions account for many of the changes in the evolution of the orthopteran karyotype; in their origin, a centric fusion is involved between two acro-telocentric chromosomes, forming a single bi-armed chromosome. It is usual for these rearrangements to be associated with profound changes in meiosis, such as modification in frequency and distribution of chiasmata. Dichroplus fuscus is a South American grasshopper with a wide distribution. In this work we analyzed nine populations from Misiones Province, north-eastern Argentina. This species presents a standard karyotype of 2n = 23/24 (♂/♀) with all chromosomes acro-telocentric...

Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) organophosphate resistance alleles in Iberia: Recent expansion and variable frequencies


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 20-26, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.019

The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of olive trees globally, causing losses that, in the absence of control measures, can exceed 90% of the crop. In the Mediterranean basin, where the overwhelming majority of production is concentrated (~ 98%), organophosphate insecticides (OPs) have been the main tool for B. oleae control for the last four decades, leading to the development of resistance to these compounds. Mutations of the Ace gene, which codes for acetylcholinesterase, the target enzyme of OPs and other insecticides, have been identified as the underlying cause, with...

The effect of polyamines on the expression of olfactory related genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

Zhichun ZHANG, Manqun WANG, Guanghua LUO, Gufeng ZHANG, Jichao FANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 27-34, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.008

Polyamines are nitrogenous compounds that alter the odour sensitivity of insects. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of polyamines on the expression levels of olfactory-related genes in male/female adult diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella. Results indicate that treatment with polyamines or α-difluoromethyl-ornithine (DFMO), a polyamine synthesis inhibitor, significantly affected the expression of various olfactory related genes. Although DFMO had no significant effect on the expression of PxylPBP1, it did significantly decrease the expression of other olfactory related genes (PxylGOBP1, PxylGOBP2...

Effects of environmental factors on the regulation of egg diapause in the walking-stick insect, Ramulus irregulariterdentatus (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 35-40, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.011

Environmental factors that regulate egg diapause in the walking-stick insect, Ramulus irregulariterdentatus, were studied. Insects collected in fields at Okayama, Japan soon after hatching in spring were reared under constant laboratory conditions. After adult emergence, their eggs were placed outdoors or incubated under constant laboratory conditions. Most eggs kept at 15 or 20°C hatched more than 100 days after oviposition. At 25°C, however, many eggs remained in diapause throughout the experimental period although a small number hatched slightly earlier than those kept at the lower temperature. The maternal photoperiod affected the...

Aestivo-hibernation of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in a mountainous area in southern Turkey: Is dormancy at high altitudes adaptive?


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 41-48, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.002

Each year huge numbers of adults of Coccinella septempunctata occupy aestivo-hibernation sites on Uludaz Hill, Çimen Mountain in the Kahramanmaraº Province of Turkey. In 2008 and 2009 we investigated the phenology, population dynamics, mortality and natural enemies of C. septempunctata arriving on Uludaz Hill. Samples were collected once a month during the snow-free season (April-November) from the top of the hill (2273 m a.s.l.) and at two lower altitudes (1900 m a.s.l. and 2050 m a.s.l.) on the slopes of the hill. In both years C. septempunctata was clearly more abundant at the top of the hill than at the two lower altitudes,...

Phenological responses of Pseudomallada (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): Comparative data from three Nearctic species and interspecific hybrids

Maurice J. TAUBER, Catherine A. TAUBER

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 49-62, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.015

Three Nearctic species - Pseudomallada macleodi (Adams & Garland), P. perfectus (Banks), and P. sierra (Banks) - share a suite of phenological characteristics with their Western Palearctic congeners. They overwinter as free-living larvae (primarily third instars) in a photoperiodically induced diapause. For these three species, the critical photoperiods for diapause induction fell between LD 16:8 and LD 14:10. In the laboratory, larvae remained responsive to daylength throughout diapause - short daylengths maintained diapause until diapause terminated spontaneously or death occurred. Transfer of diapausing larvae from...

Do egg parasitoids increase the tendency of Lestes sponsa (Odonata: Lestidae) to oviposit underwater?


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 63-68, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.017

The selection of oviposition sites by insects can significantly affect egg mortality. Spreadwing damselflies (Odonata: Lestidae) predominantly lay their eggs in parts of plants growing above the surface of water and only occasionally also those parts growing underwater. Factors affecting the choice of oviposition site and decision to lay underwater are still poorly understood. We examined whether localities with different risk of egg parasitism, different oviposition strategies (above or below the water surface) and the depth at which the eggs were laid, affected the total number of eggs laid, the proportion parasitized and egg mortality. In general,...

Functional response of Rhynocoris kumarii (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to different population densities of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) recorded in the laboratory

Kitherian SAHAYARAJ, Vivek KUMAR, Pasco B. AVERY

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 69-74, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.020

Cotton mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, a polyphagous pest is a serious threat to cotton production in several parts of Southeast Asia. Lack of an effective predator against this pest has resulted in the use of intensive chemical-based management strategies. Studies were carried out under laboratory conditions to determine the functional response of the adults and nymphs of a generalist reduviid predator, Rhynocoris kumarii Ambrose and Livingston, to different population densities (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) of P. solenopsis. Males, females and nymphs of this reduviid showed a type II functional response. There was no significant...

Feeding and oviposition behaviour of a gall inducing species of Glycaspis (Synglycaspis) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Aphalaridae) and development of galls on the leaves of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha (Myrtaceae) in central western New South Wales, Australia

Anamika SHARMA, Anantanarayanan RAMAN, Gary S. TAYLOR, Murray J. FLETCHER, Helen I. NICOL

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 75-90, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.021

Glycaspis (Synglycaspis) confined to Australia includes gall-inducing and lerp-forming species that are probably highly specific to different species of Eucalyptus subgenus Eucalyptus. Based on available information, their distribution appears restricted to temperate, south-eastern and southern Australia. This paper reports the biology of an unnamed (suspected new species) of Glycaspis (Synglycaspis) that induces spherical, ostiolate galls on the leaves of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in central western tablelands of NSW. This species completes two generations in a year. Oviposition elicits a passive response...

Host specificity of the tribe Chrysidini (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) in Estonia ascertained with trap-nesting

Madli PÄRN, Villu SOON, Tuuli VALLISOO, Kristiina HOVI, Jaan LUIG

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 91-99, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.012

Cuckoo wasps (Chrysididae) are a medium-sized and widespread family of Hymenoptera whose species are generally parasitoids or cleptoparasites of solitary wasps and bees. The identities of the hosts are known from various studies and occasional records; however the utility of such data is often low due to unstable taxonomy of the species and the inappropriate methods used to determine the host species. Therefore, despite numerous publications on the subject, the host-parasite relationships of cuckoo wasps are poorly understood. Moreover, a revision of existing literature reveals that cuckoo wasps are often unreasonably considered to be unspecialized...

Reproduction of the red mason solitary bee Osmia rufa (syn. Osmia bicornis) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in various habitats


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 100-105, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.005

Osmia rufa L. (Osmia bicornis L.) is a species of a solitary bee, which pollinates many wild and cultivated plants. A total of 900 cocoons containing mature individuals of Osmia rufa L. (450 females and 450 males of a known weight), were placed in each of four habitats (orchard, mixed forest, hay meadow and arboretum of the Dendrology Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences at Kórnik). These bees were provided with artificial nests made of the stems of common reed. The following parameters were calculated: reproduction dynamics, total number of chambers built by females, mean number of breeding chambers per reed tube...

Spatial ecology of Hydropsyche incognita (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) in the Carpathians


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 106-113, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.006

Caddisflies are often used in studies on freshwater ecosystem ecology because of their aquatic-dependent larvae. The present study addresses the ecological affinities of larvae of Hydropsyche incognita in terms of the pattern of distribution of this species in the Romanian Carpathians using a boosted regression trees (BRT) model. A population cluster located in the western Romanian Carpathians was identified by the spatial analysis. The statistical model revealed that this species prefers a neutral to low-alkaline pH, high levels of dissolved oxygen, low conductivity, fast flowing water, moderate sized rivers at an altitude below 600 m a.s.l....

Quantitative evidence for spatial variation in the biennial life cycle of the mountain butterfly Erebia euryale (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Czech Republic


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 114-119, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.003

Erebia euryale (Esper, 1805) is a montane-zone representative of a Holarctic butterfly genus the species of which occur mainly in alpine areas. As in many mountain insects, E. euryale frequently undergoes a prolonged biennial larval development, which can be synchronised across mountains, resulting in prominent biennial peaks in adult emergence. However, the extant reports are often contradictory, suggesting that populations are not synchronized. We present the first quantitative assessment of the situation in the Czech Republic, based on five years of monitoring adults along transects in three major mountain systems in this country....

Different host plant utilization ability of two closely related Melitaea species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 120-125, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.001

In natural systems plant-insect interactions are influenced by several factors. For instance plants could be characterised by the presence of defensive chemicals and herbivores are forced to evolve resistance against them. There are several studies on induced plant defence, which indicate it can mediate competition between herbivorous insects, shaping host plant choice and community structure. Therefore, realized host plant use can be much narrower than the potential one. A laboratory experiment was done to clear up the possible difference in host plant utilization ability of Melitaea phoebe and Melitaea ornata, especially their utilization...

Book review: Stöckmann M., Biedermann R., Nickel H. & Niedringhaus R. 2013: The Nymphs of the Planthoppers and Leafhoppers of Germany


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 126, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.027

Stöckmann M., Biedermann R., Nickel H. & Niedringhaus R. 2013: The Nymphs of the Planthoppers and Leafhoppers of Germany. WABV, Bremen, 436 pp. ISBN: 978-393920-204-2. Price EUR 100.00, GBP 80.00, USD 124.99.

Life history of Amara fulva (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the southwest forest zone of the East European Plain


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 127-134, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.009

The patterns of seasonal activity, sex and age structure, reproductive characteristics and overwintering distribution of Amara fulva were studied in the southwest forest zone of the East European plain. A total of 1212 adults (664 males and 548 females) and 38 larvae were collected using pitfall traps. All adults were dissected to determine their reproductive condition. 185 larvae and 5 adults were collected by sampling soil. Adults of A. fulva were active from the first half of June until October with a single peak of activity in August. From June only postgenerative and newly emerged beetles were caught in traps. Immature and mature...

Seasonal variability in the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to a forest edge in a heterogeneous agricultural landscape in Japan

Atsushi OHWAKI, Yohei KANEKO, Hiroshi IKEDA

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 135-144, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.022

Understanding arthropod responses to forest edges is essential to understanding both the characteristics of agro-ecosystems and the potential ecosystem services provided by forests adjacent to farmland in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. Seasonal difference in the responses of carabid beetles to forest edges was determined using transects that extended from the edge of the forest 22.5 m into the interior of a forest and 22.5 m into the meadow in three seasons, early summer, late summer and mid-autumn. The responses of carabids to the forest edge in terms of species richness and abundance differed significantly in the three seasons. The species...

Larvae of the water scavenger beetle, Hydrophilus acuminatus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) are specialist predators of snails

Toshio INODA, Yuta INODA, June Kathyleen RULLAN

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 145-150, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.016

Hydrophilus acuminatus larvae are known to feed on aquatic prey. However, there is no quantitative study of their feeding habits. In order to determine the feeding preferences and essential prey of larvae of H. acuminatus, both field and laboratory experiments were carried out. Among the five potential species of prey, Austropeplea ollula (Mollusca: Lymnaeidae), Physa acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), Asellus hilgendorfi (Crustacea: Asellidae), Palaemon paucidens (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) and larvae of Propsilocerus akamusi (Insecta: Chironomidae), the first instar larvae of H. acuminatus strongly prefered...

Feeding of Scydmaenus rufus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae) on oribatid and uropodine mites: Prey preferences and hunting behaviour


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 151-164, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.023

Prey preferences and feeding-related behaviour of a Central European species of Scydmaeninae, Scydmaenus rufus, were studied under laboratory conditions. Results of prey choice experiments involving 22 identified species of mites belonging to 13 families of Oribatida and two families of Mesostigmata (Uropodina) demonstrated that this beetle feeds mostly on oribatid Scheloribatidae (60.38% of prey) and Oppiidae (29.75%) and only occasionally on uropodine Urodinychidae (4.42%) and oribatid Mycobatidae (3.39%); species belonging to Trematuridae (Uropodina), Ceratozetidae and Tectocepheidae (Oribatida) were consumed occasionally. The number of mites...

Morphological and molecular characterization of common European species of Adialytus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) based on the mtCOI barcoding gene and geometric morphometrics of forewings


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 165-174, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.007

In this study three common European species of the genus Adialytus Förster, 1862 were examined: Adialytus ambiguus (Haliday, 1834), Adialytus salicaphis (Fitch, 1855) and Adialytus thelaxis (Starý, 1961). Molecular analysis involved the DNA barcoding of a region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). The genetic difference based on Kimura s two-parameter model for computing pairwise distances showed that A. thelaxis differs from both A. ambiguus and A. salicaphis by 4.9 and 6% on average, respectively. The genetic distance between A. ambiguus and A. salicaphis...

Morphometrics, life history and population biology of the Ponto-Caucasian slave-making ant Myrmoxenus tamarae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 175-179, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.025

Abstract. The ant genus Myrmoxenus consists of about ten socially parasitic species including active slave-makers and workerless "degenerate slave-makers". Myrmoxenus tamarae was previously known only from type material, two workers collected at Daba, Georgia and nothing was known about its life history, colony structure or the morphology of its sexuals. An inspection of colonies of M. tamarae near the type locality in 2010 indicates that young queens of M. tamarae invade Temnothorax nests and kill the host queen by throttling. The simultaneous presence of two slave species in a single colony (an undescribed...

Azalea sawfly Nematus lipovskyi (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a new invasive species in Europe


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 180-186, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.018

A new non-native species of sawfly Nematus lipovskyi Smith, 1974, previously known only in the USA, has heavily infested the ornamental azalea plant, Rhododendron molle, in the Czech Republic since at least 2010. The data on this species in the USA is briefly summarized. The larva and hitherto unknown male are newly described and illustrated. The life cycle is described based on field observations and the rearing of larvae collected in Charles University Botanic Garden in Prague. The host plants are listed and include the first record of a European species of azalea (Rhododendron luteum). The current distribution of Nematus...

The oldest aphid of the family Oviparosiphidae (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) from the Middle Jurassic of China

Diying HUANG, Piotr WEGIEREK, Dagmara ¯Y£A, André NEL

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 187-192, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.013

We describe herein a new aphid genus and species Daoaphis magnalata gen. et sp. n., belonging to the extinct family Oviparosiphidae from the Middle Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) Daohugou beds, Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia, Northeast China. The new genus is considered to be the earliest certain representative of this family and the body remains of one of the oldest aphids. The evolutionary position of this new genus and distribution of the family are discussed.

Comparison of the demographic parameters and survival of two phenotypes of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 193-196, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.004

This paper reports the results of a comparative study of the demographic parameters of two phenotypes of Harmonia axyridis Pallas, reared on the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli at 25 ± 1°C, 65 ± 2% RH and a photoperiod of 16L : 8D. The values of the intrinsic rate of increase and the finite rate of increase, which were obtained by bootstrapping, were greater for the succinea morph (0.182 females/female/d and 1.200, respectively) than the spectabilis morph (0.168 females/female/d and 1.183, respectively). The net reproductive rates and mean generation times of the two morphs did not differ. The risk of death of...

Ultrastructural and biochemical comparison of summer active and summer diapausing pupae of the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Franti¹ek WEYDA, Jitka PFLEGEROVÁ, Tereza STA©KOVÁ, Ale¹ TOMÈALA, Eva PRENEROVÁ, Rostislav ZEMEK, Lubomír VOLTER, Dalibor KODRÍK

Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 197-203, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.014

The ultrastructural and biochemical characteristics were studied in active and diapausing pupae of the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella, collected in summer. The active pupae contained developing internal organs, while those in diapause mostly numerous non-differentiated cells packed with stored nutrients. These nutrients occurred in vacuoles as liquid material (lipids, proteins) or as reserve crystaloids (proteins). Triacylglycerols (TGs) were the main lipids stored by pupae and were more abundant in diapausing than active pupae. The amount of diacyglycerols (DGs) and phospholipids (PLs) was almost identical in both groups, which...

Book review: Shuker D.M. & Simmons L.W. (eds) 2014: The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems


Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 204-205, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.026

Shuker D.M. & Simmons L.W. (eds) 2014: The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 339 pp., ISBN 978-0-19-967802-0 (hbk), ISBN 978-0-19-967803-7 (pbk). Price GBP 75.00/37.50.