EJE, vol. 109 (2012), issue 2

Pre- and post-parturial aspects of scorpion reproduction: a review

Michael R. WARBURG

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 139-146, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.018

Although scorpions are an ancient group their method of reproduction is rather complex and poorly studied. This review aims at clarifying some of the aspects of their reproduction that are important for understanding the reproductive ecology of other arthropods, including insects. The following aspects of scorpion reproduction are discussed and reviewed: mating, insemination, fertilization, gestation, parturition and birth. The onset of gestation and its duration are difficult to determine as both depend on the time of fertilization, for which there are no accurate estimates. There are only a few records of the time between birth and emergence of a...

Toxic associations: A review of the predatory behaviors of millipede assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae)

Michael FORTHMAN, Christiane WEIRAUCH

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 147-153, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.019

Ectrichodiinae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the millipede assassin bugs, are a speciose group (>660 species) of assassin bugs that appear to be specialist predators on Diplopoda, or millipedes. Apparently capable of coping with the noxious defensive compounds produced by many millipedes, Ectrichodiinae are engaged in a predator-prey relationship with millipedes realized only by few other arthropods. Unfortunately, feeding behaviors of Ectrichodiinae are inadequately documented, rendering this exciting phenomenon largely inaccessible. We here present a literature review on ectrichodiine prey selection and feeding behaviors, with supplemental original...

Identification of 37 microsatellite loci for Anthophora plumipes (Hymenoptera: Apidae) using next generation sequencing and their utility in related species

Kateřina ČERNÁ, Jakub STRAKA

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 155-160, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.020

Novel microsatellite markers for the solitary bee, Anthophora plumipes, were identified and characterised using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Thirty seven loci were tested using fluorescently labelled primers on a sample of 20 females from Prague. The number of alleles ranged from 1 to 10 (with a mean of 4 alleles per locus), resulting in an observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.05 to 0.9 and an expected heterozygosity from 0.097 to 0.887. None of the loci showed a significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and only two loci showed the significant presence of null alleles. No linkage between loci was detected....

Genetic variation in Turkish honeybees Apis mellifera anatoliaca, A. m. caucasica, A. m. meda (Hymenoptera: Apidae) inferred from RFLP analysis of three mtDNA regions (16S rDNA-COI-ND5)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 161-167, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.021

In this study, the genetic structure of Turkish honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations, mainly obtained from the Central Anatolian region, were investigated at three different mitochondrial regions. A total of 165 worker bees were collected from 15 different populations in ten different locations. Portions of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rDNA), cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5) genes were amplified by PCR and then subjected to RFLP pattern analysis using 18 restriction enzymes (these having at least one recognition site in each region were used). Nucleotide polymorphisms were revealed using restriction...

Wolbachia infection in Trissolcus species (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae)

Nurper GUZ, Erhan KOCAK, A. Emre AKPINAR, M. Oktay GURKAN, A. Neset KILINCER

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 169-174, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.022

Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted intracellular symbiont which causes reproductive distortions in the arthropods it infects. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using Wolbachia as a potential tool for biological control by genetic manipulation of insect pests. In the present paper we report Wolbachia infection in several Trissolcus wasps (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) which are important egg parasitoids of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Heteroptera: Scutellaridae). We used DNA sequence data for a gene encoding a surface protein of Wolbachia (wsp) not only to confirm...

Effect of different prey species on the life history parameters of Chrysoperla sinica (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

Niaz Hussain KHUHRO, Hongyin CHEN, Ying ZHANG, Lisheng ZHANG, Mengqing WANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 175-180, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.023

Results of studies on prey suitability for generalist predators are important for efficient mass rearing and implementing Integrated Pest Management Programmes (IPM). The green lacewing, Chrysoperla sinica (Tjeder), is a polyphagous natural enemy attacking several pests on various crops in China. We investigated the effect of feeding it different species of prey on its pre-imaginal development, survival, adult longevity and fecundity under laboratory conditions. The prey species tested were nymphs of Aphis glycines Matsumura, cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer, corn aphid Rhopalosiphum...

Larval crowding leads to unusual reaction norms for size and time at maturity in a geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 181-186, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.024

The theory of life history evolution generally predicts a negative across-environment correlation between development time and size at maturity in response to variations in environmental quality. Deviations from this pattern occur under specific circumstances. In particular, organisms may mature both early and at a small size when (1) some ultimate change (e.g. time constraint, resource exhaustion) in the environment precludes further growth, or (2) when there are predictable among-environment differences in mortality rates. The first scenario is frequently documented in insects but evidence for the second possibility is scarce. Here we report a crowding-induced...

The degree of protection different ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) provide aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) against aphidophages


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 187-196, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.025

Aphids play an important role in the life of many ant species supplying them with energy-rich carbohydrate food and in exchange receiving some degree of protection from natural enemies. This study focused on the degree of protection different ants provide myrmecophilous aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in multispecies ant communities. Field investigations were carried out in steppe and forest plant associations in Siberia. The potential level of aggressiveness of six ant species (Formica rufa Linnaeus, F. pratensis Retzius, Lasius fuliginosus (Latreille), L. niger (Linnaeus), Camponotus saxatilis Ruzsky...

Species diversity and nestedness of ant assemblages in an urban environment


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 197-206, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.026

Ant assemblages were studied in Warsaw in the context of the effects of urban pressure. Four types of urban greenery were selected: (1) green areas bordering streets, (2) in housing estates, and (3) in parks, and (4) patches of urban woodland. In total, there were 27 species of ants. In terms of the total ant activity density, Lasius niger predominated in all the the lawn biotopes (1-3) and Myrmica rubra in the wooded areas. Ant species diversity was highest in parks and wooded areas and lowest in green areas bordering streets. In contrast, activity density was highest in green areas bordering streets and lowest in wooded areas. Some...

Correlations between landscape attributes and ecological traits of Lepidoptera communities in olive groves


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 207-216, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.027

The effects of landscape attributes on Lepidoptera communities were studied in an agricultural area in Calabria (S-Italy). The association between a set of community descriptors and landscape metrics was determined using a multi-scale approach. Lepidoptera were sampled using yellow sticky traps in 10 olive groves. The landscape in 5 concentric areas, with radii from 250 to 1250 m, around each sampling site was analyzed. The composition and configuration of the landscape were calculated both at the landscape and class level based on the main classes of land use. The following life-history traits of Lepidoptera were considered: (i) dispersal ability...

Adult demography, spatial distribution and movements of Zerynthia polyxena (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in a dense network of permanent habitats

Tatjana ČELIK

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 217-227, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.028

The adult demographic parameters, mobility, nectar choice and how the spatial distribution of males and females of Z. polyxena is affected by the distribution and abundance of host-plants, and adults of the opposite sex was studied in a population of this species inhabiting a dense network of permanent habitats (totalling 8.7 ha). The population size was estimated to be ca. 300 individuals. The average adult lifespan was 4.4 days and the maximum 23 (male) and 20 (female) days. The capture probability was higher for males than females due to the more conspicuous behaviour and bounded area of activity of males. A slow increase was followed by...

BOOK REVIEW: Jendek E. & Grebennikov V.: Agrilus (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) of East Asia.


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 228, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.029

Jendek E. & Grebennikov V.: Agrilus (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) of East Asia. Jan Farkač, Prague, 2011, 362 pp. ISBN 978-80-903590-6-2 (HB). Price EUR 120.00.

Preference of larvae of Enallagma cyathigerum (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) for habitats of varying structural complexity


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 229-234, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.030

In macrophyte-rich lentic ecosystems, higher numbers of damselfly larvae occur in areas where there is structurally complex vegetation than in those where the plant architecture is relatively simple. Biotic interactions rather than morphological constraints are considered to underlie this pattern. We investigated whether the preference of the larvae of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum for a particular habitat was retained in absence of prey, predators and/or conspecifics. A series of laboratory choice experiments was conducted in which combinations of sediment and artificial plants differing in structural complexity were offered simultaneously...

Patterns in the diversity of dragonflies (Odonata) in cities across Central Europe


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 235-245, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.031

Urbanisation is an important cause of species extinctions. Although urban water systems are also highly modified, studies on aquatic or semi-aquatic organisms are rare. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that determine species richness of Odonata in 22 Central European cities and along an urban-rural gradient within six of them. With 64 indigenous species in total and an average of 33 species per city, the species richness of Odonata in Central European cities is comparatively high. A generalised linear model indicates that species richness is positively related to city area. Additional predictors are climatic variables (temperature amplitude,...

ADDENDUM: Guilbert E. 2012: Phylogeny of Cantacaderinae (Heteroptera: Tingidae) revisited after the description of a new genus and new species from New Caledonia. Eur. J. Entomol. 109(1): 111-116.


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 246, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.032

Are macrophyte-dwelling Chironomidae (Diptera) largely opportunistic in selecting plant species?

Mónika TÓTH, Arnold MÓRA, Béla KISS, György DÉVAI, András SPECZIÁR

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 247-260, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.033

In this study we evaluate how variations in taxonomic composition and physical structure of macrophyte stands affect plant-dwelling chironomid assemblages in highly variable macrophyte assemblages in two densely vegetated backwaters. By using multivariate explanatory techniques we found that similar vegetation composition did not unequivocally relate to similar chironomid assemblages, moreover the diversity of macrophyte stands did not correlate with the taxonomic diversity of chironomid assemblages in the backwaters investigated. Taxonomic composition and structural characteristics of the vegetation had little influence on the taxonomic or functional...

Symbiotic bacteria (Erwinia sp.) in the gut of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) do not affect its ability to transmit tospovirus

Egbert J. DE VRIES, Fennet VAN DE WETERING, Marieke M. VAN DER HOEK, Gerrit JACOBS, Johannes A.J. BREEUWER

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 261-266, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.034

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most harmful plant viruses and one of its most important vectors is the western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)]. Recently, we reported the close association of Erwinia sp. gut bacteria with this species of thrips. The first instar larvae acquire these bacteria from their food source. A high proportion of adult western flower thrips transmit TSWV after acquiring the virus during the first larval stage when there are no bacteria in their gut. A considerably lower proportion of adults that acquire the virus early in the second instar transmit virus...

Thoracic scent efferent system and exponium of Aphylidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea), its architecture and function

Petr KMENT, Pavel ©TYS, Jitka VILÍMOVÁ

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 267-279, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.035

The external morphology of Aphylidae was studied previously in detail by the two junior authors, including the description of unique derived structures formed by their lateral thoracico-abdominal region (the exponium). Here we provide an additional description of the external scent efferent system of the metathoracic scent glands of species in the genus Aphylum Bergroth, 1906 (based on scanning electron microscope study) and its connection with an autapomorphic aphylid thoracico-abdominal region, the exponium. The origins of exponial sclerites are discussed and function of the exponium is hypothesised as being part of a complex defensive mechanism...

The earliest fossil flower bugs (Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha: Cimicoidea: Vetanthocoridae) from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China

Wenjing HOU, Yunzhi YAO, Weiting ZHANG, Dong REN

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 281-288, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.036

One new genus with two new fossil species, Pumilanthocoris gracilis gen. n. sp. n. and P. obesus gen. n. sp. n., which were found in the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Inner Mongolia, China, are described and illustrated. These are the earliest fossil records of Vetanthocoridae.

Reproductive biology of the palm borer, Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 289-292, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.037

Paysandisia archon (Burmeister, 1980) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) is an accidentally introduced pest that damages palm trees in the northern Mediterranean area. To our knowledge, there are no experimental studies on its mating behaviour, and little is known about its biology and ecology. In the present study, we used outdoor experiments to investigate several characteristics of the reproductive behaviour of P. archon: sexual maturity, diel periodicity of mating, occurrence of polyandry and delay between mating and laying eggs. The results indicate that 73% of the individuals studied were sexually mature three hours after adult emergence....

BOOK REVIEW: Kudrna O., Harpke A., Lux K., Pennerstorfer J., Schweiger O., Settele J. & Wiemers M.: Distribution Atlas of Butterflies in Europe.


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (2): 293-294, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.038

Kudrna O., Harpke A., Lux K., Pennerstorfer J., Schweiger O., Settele J. & Wiemers M.: Distribution Atlas of Butterflies in Europe. Geselschaft für Schmetterlingsschutz e.V., Halle, 2011, 576 pp., ISBN 978-3-938249-70-3. Price EUR 65.00.