EJE, vol. 109 (2012), issue 1

Analysis of tissue dependent DNA yield for optimal sampling of micro-moths in large-scale biodiversity surveys


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 1-6, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.001

DNA barcoding surveys of small insects usually extract DNA from either a complete insect or a leg. Little is known about how to optimize DNA quantity and quality from different insect parts while preserving a morphological voucher. Here, we quantify DNA yield from different body parts (antenna, hind leg, forewing, hind wing and abdomen) of the micro-moth Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) using fluorescent nucleic acid stain (PicoGreen). Samples were preserved in 100% ethanol or dried for three weeks. Our experiment was designed to encompass practical sampling options during fieldwork. DNA quality was assessed by PCR amplification...

Proteomic approach to understanding the maternal effect in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

Aiqing LI, Liangliang WANG, Min LIANG, Qiugen ZHOU, Guobao WANG, Fanfan HOU

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 7-14, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.002

Progeny of the flesh fly Sarcophaga bullata exposed to short day length show a maternal effect that prevents the expression of pupal diapause. Although ecological aspects of this effect are well studied, not enough is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this maternal effect. In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis was performed to detect differences of the abundance of certain proteins in the ovaries of this fly kept under long day and short day conditions for 2 days after eclosion. Eleven proteins that were abundant and showed significant changes were selected for mass spectrometric identification. Ovary proteins that...

Effect of host egg age on preference, development and arrestment of Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae)

Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba PEÑAFLOR, Mariana Montagner De Moraes SARMENTO, Cherre Sade BEZERRA DA SILVA, Andrea Graf WERNEBURG, José Maurício Simões BENTO

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 15-20, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.003

Age of host eggs can be a limiting factor for egg parasitoids. It is expected that old eggs are less preferred by egg parasitoids, which can discriminate between eggs of different ages by using chemical cues. The objective of this study was to determine the preference, development and arrestment of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) parasitizing Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs of different ages. This egg parasitoid preferred to parasitize 1- and 2-day-old eggs rather than 3-day-old eggs in choice and no-choice assays. However, although the percentage emergence of parasitoids is significantly...

The effect of temperature on the preimaginal development of the Jewel beetle, Coraebus florentinus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 21-28, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.004

Environmental degradation caused by climate change greatly affects the forest ecosystems of the Mediterranean region, in particular the sclerophyllous Quercus forests typical of central and southern Spain. An important pest that damages oak trees in this area is Coraebus florentinus (Herbst), a heliophilous and thermophilous insect whose survival could be favoured by the temperature increase associated with climate change. The main objective of this paper was to determine the effect of temperature on the duration and percentage survival of the preimaginal stage of C. florentinus and provide data for determining more precisely...

The influence of polarized moonlight and collecting distance on the catches of winter moth Operophthera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) by light traps


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 29-34, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.005

In this study we examine the relationship between the Lunar Phases and the efficiency of light traps in catching winter moth (Operophthera brumata Linnaeus, 1758). Our calculations are based on data collected by the Hungarian Forestry Light Trap Network at four sites from 1961 to 2008. We also tried to estimate the influence of polarized moonlight and collecting distance, which also depends on moonlight. Our investigations revealed that the catches were the greatest in the First and the Last Quarters, and the lowest at Full Moon. The reason for this is that the proportion of polarized moonlight in the different lunar quarters varies, with the...

The role of mosaicity of the post-agriculture area of the Kampinos National Park in determining the diversity of species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae)

Katarzyna SZCZEPKO, Andrzej KRUK, Maciej BARTOS

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 35-46, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.006

From 2000 to 2006 a total of 52 CPUE samples of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) were collected in the mosaic landscape of the Kampinos National Park (Poland), which is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. The hypothesis tested was that both pompilid species richness and abundance is positively associated with spatial heterogeneity. The patterns in spider wasp assemblages were identified using a Kohonen artificial neural network (i.e., self-organizing map). The highest numbers and greatest species richness of pompilids were recorded at sites in open habitats, especially those located on dry soils that are the preferred nesting sites of ground nesting...

Surveying abundance and stand type associations of Formica aquilonia and F. lugubris (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nest mounds over an extensive area: Trialing a novel method


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 47-53, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.007

Red wood ants are ecologically important members of woodland communities, and some species are of conservation concern. They occur commonly only in certain habitats in Britain, but there is limited knowledge of their numbers and distribution. This study provided baseline information at a key locality (Abernethy Forest, 37 km2) in the central Highlands of Scotland and trialed a new method of surveying red wood ant density and stand type associations: a distance sampling line transect survey of nests. This method is efficient because it allows an observer to quickly survey a large area either side of transect lines, without having to assume...

Temporal partitioning in an assemblage of insect defoliators feeding on oak on a Mediterranean mountain


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 55-69, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.008

Insects feeding on the foliage of oak were studied on a mountain where species of Mediterranean deciduous and evergreen oak coexist. There were 58 insect species (54 Lepidoptera, 1 Coleopteran and 3 Hymenoptera) belonging to twenty families in the assemblage feeding on eight species of Quercus, two of which are introduced from nearby regions. The overlap in occurrence in time and of feeding niches of the insects feeding on the foliage of the different species of oak was determined using the: (a) Poole-Rathcke method, which tests phenological overlap and (b) Petraitis method, which tests niche overlap. This indicated that insect families partition...

Survival of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) submerged during floods: Field and laboratory studies


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 71-76, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.009

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the time ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) survive during actual and simulated flood conditions. The effects of three variants of potential flood conditions were tested: (1) beetles trapped on the surface of flood water; (2) beetles trapped in air pockets; (3) submersion of beetles in flood water without access to air. Ground beetles trapped on the surface of water survived more than two weeks (Carabus granulatus - up to 16 days; Oxypselaphus obscurus - up to 22 days). Carabus granulatus in simulated hibernation chambers that had air-pockets also survived for 15 days....

Attraction to light - from how far do moths (Lepidoptera) return to weak artificial sources of light?

Christine TRUXA, Konrad FIEDLER

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 77-84, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.010

Moths are frequently used as indicators of biodiversity or habitat quality. Light traps are the most effective and widely used method for gathering data on moth communities. Knowing the distance from which moths are drawn to a light trap is therefore essential for the ecological interpretation of such data. Two community-wide mark-release-recapture experiments were carried out in forest habitats in central Europe in order to investigate whether the percentage of marked moths recaptured at weak artificial light sources (2 × 15 W UV-light tubes) is dependent on the distance they were released from the light source. Altogether 2,331 moths belonging to...

Parasitism and migration in southern Palaearctic populations of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Constantí STEFANESCU, Richard R. ASKEW, Jordi CORBERA, Mark R. SHAW

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 85-94, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.011

The painted lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae) is well known for its seasonal long-distance migrations and for its dramatic population fluctuations between years. Although parasitism has occasionally been noted as an important mortality factor for this butterfly, no comprehensive study has quantified and compared its parasitoid complexes in different geographical areas or seasons. In 2009, a year when this butterfly was extraordinarily abundant in the western Palaearctic, we assessed the spatial and temporal variation in larval parasitism in central Morocco (late winter and autumn) and north-east Spain...

Multicoloniality in the highly polygynous ant Crematogaster pygmaea (Formicidae: Myrmicinae)

Rachid HAMIDI, Gabriel DEBOUT, Ana HEREDIA, Denis FOURNIER, Yves QUINET, Jean-Christophe De BISEAU

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 95-102, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.012

In social insects, the high variability in the number of queens per colony raises fundamental questions about the evolution of altruism. It is hypothesized, for instance, that nestmate recognition should be less efficient in polygynous than in monogynous colonies because the presence of several breeders increases the diversity of genetically determined recognition cues, leading to a less specific colonial signature. Recent studies, however, have shown that the link between the number of queens in a colony and the recognition abilities of its members is more complex than previously suggested. Here, we studied intraspecific aggression, diversity of potential...

Changes in the calling behaviour of female Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a function of body weight and adult feeding

Medhat M. SADEK

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 103-109, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.013

Because nutrients accrued during larval stages represent the major limiting factor for egg production, the use of adult feeding to enhance the reproductive output in moths is considered to be largely weight-dependent. It is hypothesized, however, that feeding by adults could be adaptive and an effective means of increasing their reproductive success. In order to test this, the calling behaviour of Spodoptera littoralis females that differed in body weight and whether they had fed or not were recorded. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, the calling behaviour of food-deprived females of different body weights was recorded. A strong...

Phylogeny of Cantacaderinae (Heteroptera: Tingidae) revisited after the description of a new genus and new species from New Caledonia [Please see Addendum in Eur. J. Entomol. Vol. 109 (2012) No. 2, p. 246.]  


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 111-116, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.014

Abstract. A new genus and new species of Cantacaderinae (Heteroptera: Tingidae) is described, Caledoderus monteithi. A key to genera is provided. The phylogenetic relationships among the Cantacaderinae, including this new genus and species, are revisited. The results are congruent with previous studies. However, the Ceratocaderini is a sister group of Carldrakeaninae and not Cantacaderini, even if only weakly supported by the analysis. Therefore, the status of Ceratocaderini and Cantacaderini is maintained, whereas Carldrakeanini stat. nov. is reduced to tribal level and they are all included in the Cantacaderinae.

A new genus and species of the tribe Orthotylini (Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae) from Central Asia


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 117-128, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.015

A new genus and new species, Angulonotus grisescens, is described from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and its taxonomic placement within the tribe Orthotylini is discussed. Illustrations of male and female genitalia, micrographs of selected characters, photographs of dorsal habitus, hosts and distributional records of this new taxon are provided. Comparisons are made with species of the genus Hyoidea Reuter, 1876.

Development of novel microsatellite markers for a specialist species of Lepidoptera, Boloria aquilonaris (Nymphalidae), based on 454 sequences


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 129-134, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.016

Microsatellites are the most common markers used in population and conservation genetic studies. However, their isolation is laborious and expensive. In some taxa, such as Lepidoptera, it is particularly difficult to isolate microsatellite markers due to the high similarity of the flanking regions of different loci and the presence of null alleles. Here we isolated microsatellites of the endangered butterfly Boloria aquilonaris using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyro-sequences of biotin enriched DNA libraries and tested the success of cross-amplification on the sister-species B. eunomia. Fifteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in...

Do resistant plants provide an enemy-free space to aphids?


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (1): 135-137, 2012 | 10.14411/eje.2012.017

An experiment was conducted to compare the predation efficiency of the coccinellids Harmonia axyridis and Coleomegilla maculata on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum, and on a wild aphid-resistant species, Solanum tarijense. Harmonia axyridis females reduced aphid populations more than C. maculata females. Aphid predation by the predators was reduced on S. tarijense compared to S. tuberosum. Coleomegilla maculata spent less time on S. tarijense than on S. tuberosum. Harmonia axyridis spent the same amount of time on both plant species. The plant species did not affect...