EJE, vol. 108 (2011), issue 4

Genetic variation in East-Adriatic populations of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), inferred from NADH5 and COI sequence variability


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 501-508, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.065

In the last few decades, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) (= Stegomyia albopicta), the so-called "Asian tiger mosquito", has spread from its native range in southeast Asia to Africa, the Middle East, Europe, the Americas, and Pacific islands. The spread of this species poses a risk to human health as it is considered to be one of the main vectors of dengue and other arboviruses. Aedes albopictus was reported in Croatia in 2004, thereafter it was discovered at several coastal localities in 2005 and to date it has spread to most coastal areas and islands in Croatia. Here we investigate the genetic variability of A....

Comparative analysis of the location of rDNA in the Palaearctic bushcricket genus Isophya (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 509-517, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.066

The present study focused on the evolution of the karyotype in 21 taxa of the genus Isophya, which was done by mapping the location on the chromosomes of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) coding genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with an 18S rDNA probe and using silver staining (AgNO3) to evaluate the activity of major rDNA clusters. Since the chromosome number and sex determination do not vary in this genus, the above markers were used in a detailed comparison of the cytogenetic features of species of Isophya. The species analyzed were placed into three groups based on the location of rDNA on their chromosomes: (1) rDNA-FISH...

The genetic structure of phenologically differentiated Large Blue (Maculinea arion) populations (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in the Carpathian Basin

Judit BERECZKI, János P. TÓTH, Andrea TÓTH, Edit BÁTORI, Katalin PECSENYE, Zoltán VARGA

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 519-527, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.067

The infraspecific taxonomy of the European populations of the Large Blue (Maculinea arion) is confusing. Several subspecies have been described mostly based on external morphological features. In the Carpathian Basin two subspecies have been distinguished. Maculinea arion arion flies from mid-May to mid-June and Maculinea arion ligurica is on the wing from the end of June to mid-August. The two forms show some differentiation in habitat use, but occasionally can also share habitats with two peaks in the appearance of butterflies. Our aim was to study the level and structure of genetic variation in a set of populations of the two...

One variable species or multiple cryptic? Mitochondrial phylogeny of Central and North American Chlosyne lacinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Timothy C. BONEBRAKE, Ward B. WATT, Alejandro PEREZ, Carol L. BOGGS

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 529-535, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.068

Recent efforts to catalogue global biodiversity using genetic techniques have uncovered a number of "cryptic" species within morphologically similar populations that had previously been identified as single species. Chlosyne lacinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), with a range extending from the Southwest U.S. to South America, is one of the most phenotypically variable and broadly distributed butterfly species in the New World. We sampled populations of C. lacinia in two temperate locations (California and Arizona) and one tropical location (El Salvador) to determine if cryptic species were present at this scale (temperate vs. tropical)....

Divergent patterns in the mitochondrial and nuclear diversity of the specialized butterfly Plebejus argus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 537-545, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.069

Plebejus argus is a model species for studying the biology, population ecology and genetics of butterflies. It is patchily distributed throughout most of its European range and considered to be sedentary. Habitats of the butterfly have to encompass two vital larval-resources, i.e. specific food plants and ants, since caterpillars are obligatorily myrmecophilous. The genetic structure of nine P. argus populations (85 individuals) was studied at an intermediate geographical scale (Eastern Poland, diameter of about 400 km) using two kinds of molecular markers i.e. COI (mtDNA) and EF-1α (nuclear gene). Both markers were highly...

Effect of insect-resistant transgenic maize on growth and development, utilization of nutrients and in vivo activity of the detoxification enzymes of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Min Juan SHI, Pei LING LU, Xiao Li SHI, Yi Zhong YANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 547-552, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.070

There is little systematic research on the effect of transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins on insect survival and the response in vivo of their detoxification enzymes. Results of laboratory bioassays indicate that the whorl leaves of transgenic maize lines G03-2396 and G03-2739 significantly affected the survival of neonate and third instar larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Güenée). Neonate mortality two days after being fed on G03-2739 was 72.5% and exceeded 92.5% four days later. The percentage mortality of third instar larvae six days after being fed whorl leaves from G03-2396 exceeded...

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a scale insect (Drosicha mangiferae; Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) infesting mango orchards in Pakistan

Muhammad ASHFAQ, Jehan ARA, Ali Raza NOOR, Paul D.N. HEBERT, Shahid MANSOOR

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 553-559, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.071

Mango orchards in Pakistan are attacked by the scale insect, Drosicha mangiferae (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae), commonly called the "mango mealybug". This insect is univoltine, active from December through May and targets multiple host plants. We used DNA nucleotide sequences to characterize and determine the phylogenetic status of D. mangiferae. Mango mealybugs were collected from several tree species from different localities and patterns of phylogenetic and genetic diversity were examined at both nuclear (18S, ITS1) and mitochondrial (COI) genes. Phylogenetic analysis confirms that the mango mealybug belongs to the family Monophlebidae....

Cooperative defence of brood in Nicrophorus quadripunctatus (Coleoptera: Silphidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 561-563, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.072

A positive correlation between the parental effort of a male and female should promote stable biparental care. In order to prevent infanticide male and female burying beetles are said to guard against intruders cooperatively and the presence of a male partner is said to increase the probability of successful defence. However, this hypothesis is supported only by indirect evidence. In this study this hypothesis is tested by direct observation. Whether the intruder was male or female, contests between the same and the opposite sex occurred, although there were few contests between resident females and intruding males. In addition, resident pairs tended...

Two ways of finding a host: A specialist and a generalist parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 565-573, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.073

Two closely related parasitoid wasp species with different host specificities were used for experimental studies on the biology of host finding, a crucial element of parasitoid life history: The habitat and host specialist Nasonia vitripennis and the habitat and host generalist Dibrachys microgastri (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae). The host finding parameters tested included reaction to olfactory cues, aspects of locomotor activity, ability to locate hidden hosts and day-night-activity. The results revealed distinct interspecific differences that match the respective host and habitat ranges of the two species. In N. vitripennis host...

Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a natural enemy of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Life table and intrinsic rate of population increase

Juracy Caldeira LINS Jr., Vanda Helena Paes BUENO, Diego Bastos SILVA, Marcus Vinicius SAMPAIO, Joop C. van LENTEREN

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 575-580, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.074

Life table data of natural enemies are often used to understand their population dynamics and estimate their potential role in the biological control of pests. Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important pest of several crops and its intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) is 0.282 at 22°C. The life table parameters (immature mortality, developmental time, sex ratio of emerging adults, fecundity and longevity) of Praon volucre (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) parasitizing M. euphorbiae were estimated in a climatic chamber at 22 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12 h photophase....

Seed preferences of Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae): Are there specialized trophic populations?


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 581-586, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.075

The populations of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) in Europe exhibit three kinds of host plant associations: feeding on seeds of (1) Tilia spp. (Tiliaceae), (2) Malvaceae (s. str.), and (3) Robinia pseudacacia (Fabaceae). The three host plant taxa often grow in different habitats and localities. We have tested the hypothesis that P. apterus forms on different host plants specialised "trophic populations" which also influence its food preference. We have collected P. apterus from localities with Tilia platyphyllos, Malva neglecta or Robinia pseudacacia as host plants...

Effect of the size of the pupae, adult diet, oviposition substrate and adult population density on egg production in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 587-596, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.076

In order to enhance the mass production of the house fly, Musca domestica, five aspects of its oviposition biology were analyzed. Oviposition substrate and the manner of its presentation, the composition of the diet of the adults, size of the pupae and numbers of flies in a cage were identified as critical. Females preferred to lay eggs on a substrate which was presented within a shelter and with increased linear edges against which the flies could oviposit. Different types of oviposition substrate resulted in comparable yields of eggs. The presence of an oviposition attractant (ammonia) in the manure was found to have a potentially positive...

Influence of male density on guarding behaviour in the water strider Aquarius paludum (Heteroptera: Gerridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 597-601, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.077

In species with last sperm precedence, post-mating guarding behaviour by males is effective for avoiding sperm displacement by additional males. However, for males to guard their mates under all circumstances may be undesirable, particularly when the population density of conspecific rival males is low. To better understand the effects of rival density on mate guarding behaviour, we compared post-copulatory behaviour in males artificially subjected to different male densities using Aquarius paludum. Our results indicate that males of A. paludum modulate their post-copulatory behaviour based on previously experienced rival densities.

Chilocorus renipustulatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) dominates predatory ladybird assemblages on Sorbus aucuparia (Rosales: Rosaceae)

Emanuel KULA, Oldřich NEDVĚD

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 603-608, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.078

Fourteen predatory species of ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were collected from May to October 2008 from mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia) infested with the scale insect Chionaspis salicis at 31 localities in the Ore Mountains, northern Bohemia, Czech Republic. Chilocorus renipustulatus, usually a rare species, made up 85% of the individuals collected (1690). Other abundant species were Coccinella septempunctata, Calvia quatuordecimguttata, Adalia bipunctata and Adalia decempunctata. The invasive alien Harmonia axyridis was present but made up less than one per cent of the individuals collected....

Landscape structure affects activity density, body size and fecundity of Pardosa wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) in winter oilseed rape

Thomas DRAPELA, Thomas FRANK, Xaver HEER, Dietmar MOSER, Johann G. ZALLER

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 609-614, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.079

In large parts of Europe Pardosa spp. (Lycosidae) are among the most abundant wolf spiders in arable fields and potentially important natural control agents of pests. We studied the influence of landscape factors on activity density, adult body size and fecundity of P. agrestis in 29 winter oilseed rape fields (Brassica napus L.) in Eastern Austria using pitfall traps. Landscape data were obtained for eight circular landscape sections around each field (radii 250-2000 m). Multivariate regression models were used to analyze the data. Activity density was highest when the length of strips of grassy road-sides in the surroundings...

Abundance and species richness of overwintering ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are higher in the edge than in the centre of a woodlot

Anthony ROUME, Annie OUIN, Laurent RAISON, Marc DECONCHAT

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 615-622, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.080

Semi-natural habitats are key components of rural landscapes because they shelter a significant number of overwintering arthropods that are beneficial to agriculture. However, woodlots are semi-natural habitats with high patch-level heterogeneity and this aspect has been poorly studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of woodlot heterogeneity on overwintering ground beetles. Woodlot heterogeneity was characterized in terms of distance from the woodlot boundary and date of the most recent logging operation. We used emergence traps to quantify the population density of ground beetles that overwintered in the different parts of...

Butterfly diversity and biogeography on the Croatian karst mountain Biokovo: Vertical distribution and preference for altitude and aspect?


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 623-633, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.081

Geographic isolation, altitude, climate, landscape and habitat are significant predictors of butterfly diversity in mountain ecosystems. Their diversity and its dependence on altitude, aspect (compass bearing) and biogeographic characteristics of the butterflies were surveyed on the karst mountain Biokovo in southern Croatia. The results affirm that there is a high diversity of butterflies in the study area and the species composition and biogeographic elements are more dependent on altitude than aspect of the mountain. The present study indicates that climate, relief and habitat preferences strongly influence the biogeographic features of species...

The parasitoid species complex associated with sexual and parthenogenetic Naryciinae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae): Integrating ecological and molecular analyses

Jelmer A. ELZINGA, Kees ZWAKHALS, Johanna MAPPES, Alessandro GRAPPUTO

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 635-650, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.082

This study describes the parasitoid species complex associated with seven closely related species of sexual (Siederia rupicollella, S. listerella, Dahlica lazuri, D. charlottae and D. lichenella) and parthenogenetic (Dahlica fennicella and D. triquetrella) Naryciinae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Central Finland. A thorough ecological analysis of all the species of parasitoids recorded was combined with analyses of molecular data. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data were obtained from all the species in order to (1) detect cryptic species associated with host specialization, (2) assign undescribed...

Altitudinal trends in the phenology of butterflies in a mountainous area in central Spain


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 651-658, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.083

One of the best documented effects of climate change on biodiversity are shifts in phenology. However, long-term data quantifying and projecting the expected changes in phenology associated with climate warming are limited to a few well-recorded areas in the world. In the absence of temporal recording, an alternative approach is to determine the phenological response of species along marked gradients in climate or along latitudinal or altitudinal transects (space-for-time substitution). We studied the phenology (timing and duration of the flight period) of butterflies in 2006 along an altitudinal gradient (900-1680 m; estimated temperature lapse rate...

Biogeography of tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in the circum-Sicilian islands (Italy, Sicily): Multiple biogeographical patterns require multiple explanations


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 659-672, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.084

The tenebrionid beetles on 25 circum-Sicilian islands were studied to determine the influence of island geographical and landscape features on three main intercorrelated biogeographical patterns: (1) species richness, studied using species-area and species environment relationships, (2) species assemblage composition, investigated using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), and (3) inter-site faunal similarity, investigated using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CANCOR) applied to multidimensional scaling of inter-island faunal dissimilarities. Species richness was mostly influenced by island area and landscape heterogeneity (expressed using various...

Morphometry and number of spermatozoa in drone honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) reared under different conditions


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 673-676, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.085

The effects of three factors operating during pre-emergence development period on some characteristics of drones were studied. Weight of newly emerged drones, length of forewing, length of tibia, length of femur, length and width of basitarsus and number of spermatozoa in drones from colonies in which the workers had access to drone brood (A), the size of brood cells differed (B) or the colony had a queen or was queenless (C), were determined. For this purpose, 9 colonies were chosen at random from the test apiary and prepared so that each contained one empty Langstroth frame with six small sub-frames containing drone combs, three of which were used...

New stem-Phasmatodea from the Middle Jurassic of China

Liangjie SHANG, Olivier BÉTHOUX, Dong REN

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 677-685, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.086

Adjacivena rasnitsyni gen. n., sp. n., from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation (Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China), is described based on a set of well-preserved specimens, interpreted as two females and a male of the same species. The new taxon is assigned to the family Susumaniidae, i.e. is a candidate stem-Phasmatodea. This ordinal assignment is supported by genital elements, chiefly a putative operculum concealing the ovipositor observed in one female specimen and a putative extension of the 10th tergum with a thorn pad in the male specimen. Variation in the venation of the forewing is appreciated based on more or...

Discovery of Eutheiini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae) in Australia, with implications for phylogeny and biogeography of Paraneseuthia


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 687-696, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.087

The scydmaenine tribe Eutheiini is recorded from Australia for the first time. Paraneseuthia carltoni sp. n. and P. booloumba sp. n. are described and illustrated, both from Queensland. In a parsimony-based phylogenetic analysis using adult morphological characters including genital features, the Australian species together with the Melanesian type species of Paraneseuthia Franz, P. peckorum Franz, were found to be more closely related to East Palearctic congeners than to most of the Paraneseuthia in the Sunda-Papuan area. The topology of the tree and biogeographic data suggest a Sundaland origin of this genus,...

Isolation of nine polymorphic microsatellite loci from the leaf beetle, Lema (Lema) coronata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Criocerinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 697-699, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.088

Sexual selection is thought to result in an elongation of genitalia in insects. Part of the genitalia of the leaf beetle Lema (Lema) coronata Baly is approximately twice the body length in both sexes. Nine microsatellite loci were isolated from L. (L.) coronata for use in future studies on the correlation between genital length and reproductive success. The nine loci were polymorphic, with three to six alleles per locus recorded in 40 individuals. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.08 to 0.38 and expected heterozygosity from 0.51 to 0.75. The non-exclusive probability of the second parent and the identity...

Deterrence of feeding in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) after treatment of antennae with a nitric oxide donor

Valeria SFARA, Eduardo N. ZERBA, Raúl A. ALZOGARAY

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 701-704, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.089

The blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector of Chagas Disease in Colombia, Venezuela and several countries in Central America. Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous gaseous molecule present in most types of cell and participates in the olfactory pathway of insects. In this work, nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC), a nitric oxide donor, was topically applied to the antennae of fifth instar nymphs of R. prolixus. After SNAC treatment, these insects showed a dose-dependent reluctance to feed when provided with a living pigeon as the food source (ED50 = 5.2 µg/insect). However, there was no reluctance to feed when db-cGMP was...

Differences in the sugar composition of the honeydew of polyphagous brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) feeding on various host plants

Katarzyna GOLAN, Agnieszka NAJDA

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 705-709, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.090

Plant chemical composition is an important determinant of host plant-insect interactions. For many insects sugars are the main factors determining the acceptability of a plant. This study investigated changes in plant chemical composition and differences in sugar composition of different host plants induced by the feeding of Coccus hesperidum L. (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea). Present in plant extracts and honeydew there were three monosaccharide sugars: glucose, fructose and arabinose, and one disaccharide - sucrose. Arabinose was only found in extracts of Ficus benjamina plants. The sugar content of the honeydew was greater...

Contribution to the biochemical characterization of the silk and structure characterization of the cocoons of the horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Veronika HNĚVSOVÁ, Dalibor KODRÍK, František WEYDA

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (4): 711-715, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.091

This study of the proteins in the silk of the summer and winter cocoons of the horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella revealed they can inhibit protease activity. The inhibitory activity of the summer silk was higher against both the fungal proteinase K and bacterial subtilisin than that of the winter silk. Also, the winter silk was more effective in inhibiting proteinase K than subtilisin. Further, it was demonstrated that some of the silk proteins are glycosylated probably by mannose carbohydrates. An electron microscopy study of the cocoons revealed the presence of silk fibres with different diameters in some pupal chambers.