EJE, vol. 108 (2011), issue 3

Comparative analysis of the testes and spermatogenesis in species of the family Pentatomidae (Heteroptera)

Hederson Vinícius De SOUZA, Aline Sumitani MURAKAMI, Juliana De MOURA, Elisângela Cristiane De ALMEIDA, Inaiá Fernandes Gallego MARQUES, Mary Massumi ITOYAMA

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 333-345, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.041

There are few studies on the morphology and meiosis in the testicles of Heteroptera, but are extremely important, especially for the family Pentatomidae, because in some species in this family meiosis in the testicular lobes results in the production of non-fertile spermatozoa. With the aim of improving the level of understanding of this phenomenon the morphology of the testes and spermatogenesis in 10 species of Pentatomidae were recorded and compared. All of them have testes covered by a pigmented peritoneal sheath. In some species the internal membrane or just inside the peritoneal sheath is pigmented. The pigmentation of both membranes varied....

Amendt J., Campobasso C.P., Goff M.L. & Grassberger M. (eds): CURRENT CONCEPTS IN FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY.


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 346, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.042

Springer, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York, 2010, viii + 381 pp. ISBN 978-1-4020-9684-6. Price USD 199.00.

Detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA marker linked to cocoon traits in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

Sivaramakurup SREEKUMAR, Southekal K. ASHWATH, Monika SLATHIA, Sundaramurthy N. KUMAR, Syed M.H. QADRI

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 347-354, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.043

Cocoon weight and shell weight are the key economic traits ultimately determining silk yield. In order to detect the main quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the cocoon traits of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, the parents of larvae that produced cocoons that differed greatly in weight and shell weight were screened using 240 primer pairs of single nucleotide polymorphic markers (SNPs) representing all the 28 linkage groups in silkworm. Out of the 240 primer pairs, 48 (20%) revealed distinct polymorphism between the parents, which was confirmed by the co-dominant expression of both polymorphic PCR products in the F1...

Cloning and pattern of expression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase cDNA from Catantops pinguis (Orthoptera: Catantopidae)

Bin TANG, Hui-Zhen ZHENG, Qi XU, Qi ZOU, Guang-Jun WANG, Fan ZHANG, Shi-Gui WANG, Ze-Hua ZHANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 355-363, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.044

Trehalose is not only an important disaccharide, but also a key stress resistance factor in the development of many organisms, including plants, bacteria, fungi, and insects. To study the potential function of trehalose in development and behaviour, cDNA for a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase from Catantops pinguis (CpiTPS) was cloned and sequenced. Results revealed that the CpiTPS cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 2430 nucleotides encoding a protein of 809 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 91.13 kDa and a pI value of 6.25. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that CpiTPS mRNA expression...

Thermoregulation and the influence of body temperature on calling song parameters in Cicada orni (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 365-369, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.045

Measurements of body temperature in the field demonstrate that Cicada orni Linnaeus regulates body temperature through behavioral mechanisms. Behavior is used to regulate body temperature to a range necessary for calling. As predicted, results showed a general decrease of echeme duration and an increase in inter-echeme interval with rising body temperature. However, no statistically significant correlations of body temperature for any of the variables studied were found, giving evidence that there is more variability in call parameters between individuals than any effect of body temperature.

Cohort-splitting in the millipede Polydesmus angustus (Diplopoda: Polydesmidae): No evidence for maternal effects on life-cycle duration

Jean-François DAVID, Jean-Jacques GEOFFROY

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 371-376, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.046

Under seasonal conditions, Polydesmus angustus individuals born in the first part of the breeding season have a 1-year life cycle and those born later have a 2-year life cycle (cohort-splitting). In this study, 249 juveniles from four early broods (born in mid-July) and four late broods (born in September) were reared under similar laboratory conditions, to test for possible maternal influences on life-cycle duration. Development times of early- and late-born individuals were compared under four combinations of day length and temperature (16 h - 18°C, 16 h - 16°C, 12 h - 18°C and 12 h - 16°C). The results showed that development time varied...

The occurrence of summer diapause in the large white butterfly Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): A geographical perspective


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 377-384, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.047

At the south western border of its extensive distribution, the multivoltine large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L., is exceptional in undergoing summer diapause or aestivation. In all other regions investigated, P. brassicae pupae only hibernate. The transitional zone from non-aestivating to aestivating populations is a geographically stable region south of the Pyrenees. The restriction of this response to this region cannot be accounted for in terms of genetics as aestivation is intermediately inherited, with the heritability (h2) of aestivation in inbreeding lines between 0.35 and 0.77. Two hypotheses are presented to...

Photoperiodic control of development and reproduction in Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Sergey Ya. REZNIK, Nina P. VAGHINA

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 385-390, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.048

The effects of photoperiod on pre-imaginal development and reproductive maturation of adult females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), were investigated at 20°C and at photoperiods from 10L : 14D to 18L : 6D. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory strain that originated from the Russian Far East. Larvae and adults were fed on the green peach aphid Myzus persicae. Under short day conditions the pre-imaginal development was faster than under long day conditions. The acceleration of pre-imaginal development occurred when day length was shorter than 16 h and the threshold...

Functional responses of immature stages of Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Nickolaos E. PAPANIKOLAOU, Angeliki F. MARTINOU, Dimitrios C. KONTODIMAS, Yiannis G. MATSINOS, Panagiotis G. MILONAS

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 391-395, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.049

Functional responses of immature stages of Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L.) to varying densities of Aphis fabae Scopoli reared on Vicia faba L. were evaluated under laboratory conditions. All larval stages of the predator were starved for 12 h prior to being placed individually for 24 h in plastic containers with different densities of its prey, A. fabae, on potted V. faba plants. Logistic regression analysis of the proportion of aphids consumed as a function of initial density indicated that all larval instars of P. quatuordecimpunctata exhibited a type II functional response when searching for A. fabae...

Relationship between the development of Simulium maculatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) and the thermal regime


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 397-402, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.050

Warmer temperatures in the past 30 years have significantly influenced the seasonal development of insects throughout Europe. As a result of the outbreaks of black flies that have occurred in southeastern Lithuania since the 1970s it is hypothesized that this increase in black fly activity is due to the change in climate. To test this hypothesis the development of Simulium maculatum Meigen under different conditions was determined. This revealed that the time of hatching of S. maculatum eggs in Lithuania was influenced by winter air temperatures, especially those in March. Pupation in S. maculatum is associated with the increase...

Estimations of the critical temperatures for development of the pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 403-407, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.051

The pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a major pest of pistachio trees throughout the pistachio producing regions in Iran. The effect of temperature on the developmental rates of eggs and nymphs of A. pistaciae was determined at different constant temperatures, i.e. 15, 20, 25, 30, 32.5 and 35 ± 0.5°C. The relationships between temperature and developmental rates were described by linear and the non-linear Lactin models. These models were evaluated based on R2, RSS, AIC and R2adj. The estimated value...

Does wing dimorphism affect mobility in Metrioptera roeselii (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)?


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 409-415, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.052

Range shifts are among the most conspicuous effects of global warming. Marked changes in distribution are recorded both for highly mobile species of insects, which are capable of flight, and wing-dimorphic species with predominantly short-winged individuals. One of these species is the bush-cricket Metrioptera roeselii, which occasionally produces long-winged individuals. However, there is little known about the locomotory behaviour of wing-dimorphic insects. Yet to be able to predict potential range shifts it is necessary to know the dispersal potential of macropters. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in which individually marked M....

Short term response of ants to the removal of ground cover in organic olive orchards

Mercedes CAMPOS, Luisa FERNÁNDEZ, Francisca RUANO, Belén COTES, Manuel CÁRDENAS, Juan CASTRO

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 417-423, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.053

Ants are the most abundant group of soil arthropods in olive groves where they are involved in various trophic relationships of great importance for crops. The system of soil management is one agricultural practice that has a great effect on ants, so the objective of this study was to compare ant populations in organic olive orchards with a ground cover of natural vegetation and others where this natural vegetation is mechanically removed at the beginning of June. Ants were sampled using pitfall traps at 14, 30, 70 and 90 days after the removal of the ground vegetation. Overall, ant biodiversity did not change. However, changes were observed in the...

Does the decline of red wood ants after clear-cutting favour epigeic arthropods?


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 425-430, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.054

In forest ecosystems in the temperate and boreal zones in Europe, red wood ants (RWA, Formica rufa group) have a significant affect as predators and competitors in communities of ground-dwelling arthropods. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution and abundance of RWA affect the distribution of many other species. The hypothesis that a reduction in the abundance of RWA in clear-cut areas enables other arthropods to increase in abundance was tested. The study was conducted in NW Poland in 2007 and 2008. A total of 276 1×1 m plots were sampled and 1,696 individuals recorded. The probability of the occurrence of RWA decreased significantly towards...

Butterflies (Lepidoptera) highlight the ecological value of shrubland and grassland mosaics in Cypriot garrigue ecosystems


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 431-437, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.055

We used butterfly assemblages to evaluate the ecological value of habitat mosaics within garrigue ecosystems in Cyprus. To understand the importance of the local plant communities for Cypriot butterflies, five plots in each of two habitat types (grass-dominated or shrub-dominated) were surveyed weekly for a period of five months in order to assess the abundance, species richness and diversity of butterflies. A total of 810 butterflies of 16 species were recorded. Indices of butterfly diversity, calculated across the whole season, were similar between grassland and shrubland dominated mosaics. However, species richness of all butterflies was consistently...

Spatial distributions of European clearwing moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 439-446, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.056

Although the sizes of the geographical ranges of plant and animal species are of major interest to macroecologists, the spatial distributions and environmental correlates of only a small group of animals and plants are well studied. Here data on the spatial distributions of 116 European clearwing moths (Sesiidae) was used to determine the patterns in spatial distribution, postglacial colonization and endemism. The spatial distributions of sesiids are significantly more coherent and there are fewer isolated occurrences and unexpected absences than predicted by a random sample null model. After correcting for environmental correlates, islands and mainland...

Changes in the life history traits of the European Map butterfly, Araschnia levana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with increase in altitude


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 447-452, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.057

Climatic conditions can modify the life history traits, population dynamics and biotic interactions of species. Therefore, adaptations to environmental factors such as temperature are crucial for species survival at different altitudes. These adaptive responses, genetically fixed or plastic (phenotypic plasticity), can be determined by physiological thresholds and might vary between sexes. The objective of this study was to determine whether the life history traits of the European Map butterfly (Araschnia levana) differ at different altitudes. A field experiment was carried out along an altitudinal gradient from 350 to 1010 m a.s.l. in a low...

Assembly rules for ground beetle communities: What determines community structure, environmental factors or competition?


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 453-459, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.058

Species assembly in ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) communities in local microhabitats was studied in a forest. The following questions were addressed: are there important filters that sort the species in the assemblages? If so, what is the specific nature of these filters? In order to address these questions rarefaction analysis was used to determine whether ground beetle species are distributed non-randomly. Next, the nature of filters was determined by analyzing (1) the community matrix and searching for the consequences of competitive exclusion and (2) species-environmental relations. Rarefaction analysis revealed that the species composition...

Seasonal constraints on the mandible allometry of Lucanus cervus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 461-468, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.059

In insects, allometries of exaggerated traits such as horns or mandibles are often considered species specific and constant during a season. However, given that constraints imposed by the advancing season affect the developmental processes of organisms, these allometries may not be fixed, and the switch point between morphs may vary between populations and within populations during a season. The hypothesis of such a seasonal variation in exaggerated traits was tested using the dimorphic males of the beetle Lucanus cervus. The remains of specimens killed by predators were collected along forest tracks from mid May to late August 2008 in a protected...

How many species are there in the subgenus Bursaphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)? CO-I evidence


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 469-479, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.060

Species-level problems in the Aphis (Bursaphis) complex are reconsidered based on the partial sequences of the mitochondrial cox1 gene together with morphological and ecological data. This indicates that the American species A. oenotherae is a complex of four species (A. oenotherae, A. holoenotherae, A. costalis and A. neomexicana) and the taxonomic status of the species couples A. varians - A. manitobensis and A. epilobii - A. grossulariae require further clarification. Aphis sp. (USA: California, Oregon) of Blackman & Eastop (2006, p. 415) deserves the status...

Fluorimetric determination of hydrogen peroxide production by the haemocytes of the wax moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 481-485, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.061

The aim of this study was to investigate whether haemocytes of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) like human blood phagocytes. The production of ROS was measured first using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of un-stimulated and stimulated (four activators with different modes of action) haemolymph or isolated haemocytes. However, spontaneous and activated production of ROS remained at the background level. In subsequent experiments an ultrasensitive fluorescence method using Amplex Red reagent to detect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used. After optimization, Amplex...

Parasitylenchus sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) parasitizing field populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 487-488, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.062

Adults of the invasive harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), were found to be parasitized by nematodes (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) in Denmark. The nematodes were identified as Parasitylenchus sp. Major morphological characters of the nematodes did not differ significantly from Parasitylenchus coccinellinae Iperti & van Waerebeke 1968, but minor deviations in egg dimension and tail length were measured. Parasitism was only recorded in early autumn, with prevalence ranging from 2 to 33%. Adult and juvenile nematodes occurred together in the body cavity of both female and male H. axyridis...

The diversity of phoretic Mesostigmata on Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) caught in the Karkonosze forest


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 489-491, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.063

This study determined the scale of the phoresy of mesostigmatid mite by Ips typographus. Thirty pheromone traps in the Karkonosze National Park (Poland) caught 10,575 bark beetles on which there were 2,388 mesostigmatid mites belonging to eight species. The most numerous mites were Dendrolaelaps quadrisetus (1076 ind.) and Trichouropoda polytricha (1067 ind.).

Morphological diversity of male salivary glands in Panorpidae (Mecoptera)

Na MA, Shu-Yu LIU, Bao-Zhen HUA

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (3): 493-499, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.064

The morphology of the male salivary glands of eighteen species of Panorpidae from China was studied using light microscopy. The results show that the male salivary glands differ markedly both at generic and specific levels. In Neopanorpa, the salivary glands consist of only two simple long secretory tubes extending to the fifth or sixth abdominal segment, whereas in Sinopanorpa, the salivary glands are composed of six extremely elongated secretory tubes. In Panorpa, the salivary glands are quite diverse, comprising two simple short secretory tubes only extending to the prothorax in the P. amurensis group (P. liui...