EJE, vol. 108 (2011), issue 2

Scorpion reproductive strategies, allocation and potential; a partial review

Michael R. WARBURG

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 173-181, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.023

Most scorpion species are iteroparous, breeding more than once during their life. Some of these species are parthenogenetic. The other reproductive strategy (RS) semelparity, when scorpions breed only a single time during their life, is rare and has been documented only once. The mass allocated by the female to produce either a litter or a single offspring is the reproductive allocation (RA). It is difficult to calculate RA since the difference in female mass before and after parturition is difficult to obtain. In addition, the litter size is hardly ever accurate because of maternal cannibalism. An attempt was made to calculate RA in Nebo hierichonticus...

Jolivet P., Santiago-Blay J.A. & Schmitt M. (eds): RESEARCH ON CHRYSOMELIDAE. VOL. 2.

J. BEZDÌK

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 182, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.024

Brill, Leiden-Boston, 2009, 299 pp., 46 colour plates. ISBN 978-90-04-16947-0. Price EUR 169.00/USD 250.00.

Changes in the numbers of chromosomes and sex determination system in bushcrickets of the genus Odontura (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae)

El¿bieta WARCHA£OWSKA-¦LIWA, Anna MARYAÑSKA-NADACHOWSKA, Beata GRZYWACZ, Tatjana KARAMYSHEVA, Arne W. LEHMANN, Gerlind U.C. LEHMANN, Klaus-Gerhard HELLER

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 183-195, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.025

Chromosomes of the males of five species of Odontura, belonging to the subgenera Odontura and Odonturella, were analyzed. Intensive evolution of the karyotype was recorded, both in terms of changes in the numbers of chromosomes (from 2n = 31 to 27) and the sex chromosome system (from X0 to neo-XY and X0 to neo-X1X2Y). Karyotype evolution was accompanied by tandem autosome fusions and interspecific autosomal and sex chromosome differentiation involving changes in the locations of nucleolar organizer regions, NORs, which were revealed by silver impregnation and confirmed by FISH using an 18S rDNA probe....

Dicks L.V., Showler D.A. & Sutherland W.J.: BEE CONSERVATION. Evidence for the effects of interventions. Synopses of Conservation Evidence, Vol. 1.

A. PØIDAL

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 196, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.026

Pelagic Publishing Ltd, Exeter, 2010, 146 pp. Paperback: ISBN 978-1-907807-00-8. Price GBP 19.99/USD 29.99. Hardback: ISBN 2-88414-021-2. Price GBP 65.99/USD 100.00.

Insertion of miniature subterminal inverted repeat-like elements in diapause-regulated genes in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

George D. YOCUM, Michelle J. TOUTGES, Richard L. ROEHRDANZ, Preston J. DIHLE

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 197-203, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.027

Determining the genomic structure of diapause-associated transcripts (DAT) -2 and -3 led to the isolation of four novel miniature subterminal inverted repeat-like elements (MSITE): Mild-1, -2, -3 and -4. Mild-1a is inserted within the first intron of diapause protein-1. Mild-1a is 284 bp in length, has a 14 bp target site duplication and three sets of subterminal inverted repeats. The second element, Mild-2a, is inserted within the 3' terminus of Mild-1a. Mild-2a is 29 bp long with a 3 bp target site duplication and one set of subterminal inverted repeats....

Effect of shelter on reproduction, growth and longevity of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)

César GEMENO, Gregory M. WILLIAMS, Coby SCHAL

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 205-210, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.028

German cockroaches spend most of the day in aggregations within shelters, which they leave in nocturnal foraging trips; cockroaches are rarely seen outside shelters during daylight hours. However, when population density exceeds shelter availability, diurnal aggregations form in exposed, unsheltered locations. To determine if shelter availability affects fitness of B. germanica, we reared cohorts of nymphs in laboratory arenas with or without shelters, and measured reproduction and longevity of tagged adults. When shelters were available in arenas, nymphs developed faster, adults gained more body mass, and females produced more fertile oothecae...

Determining the season of death from the family composition of insects infesting carrion

Thiago De Carvalho MORETTI, Vinícius BONATO, Wesley Augusto Conde GODOY

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 211-218, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.029

Determining the season of death by means of the composition of the families of insects infesting carrion is rarely attempted in forensic studies and has never been statistically modelled. For this reason, a baseline-category logit model is proposed for predicting the season of death as a function of whether the area where the carcass was exposed is sunlit or shaded and of the relative abundance of particular families of carrion insects (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Sarcophagidae, and Formicidae). The field study was conducted using rodent carcasses (20-252 g) in an urban forest in southeastern Brazil. Four carcasses (2 in a sunlit and 2 in a shaded area)...

How to increase the value of urban areas for butterfly conservation? A lesson from Prague nature reserves and parks

Martin KONVICKA, Tomas KADLEC

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 219-229, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.030

Cities contain only a low representation of natural and semi-natural habitats, existing in fragments surrounded by built-up areas. In 2003-2004, we surveyed butterflies and Zygaenidae moths in 21 reserves and 4 parks within the city of Prague, Czech Republic, situated from the periphery to city centre. A total of 85 species (47% of the Czech fauna of the study groups) was detected, 22 of them being of conservation concern. Ordination analyses of the local assemblages revealed that the richest sites were large, situated far from the city centre, on alkaline bedrocks, south- to southwest oriented, and hosting high numbers of vegetation types and vascular...

Variation in the colour of the necrophagous fly, Prochyliza nigrimana (Diptera: Piophilidae): A case of seasonal polymorphism

Daniel MARTÍN-VEGA, Arturo BAZ

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 231-234, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.031

The occurrence of colour polymorphism in wild populations of the necrophagous fly Prochyliza nigrimana (Diptera: Piophilidae) is recorded but never treated in detail. The present paper shows that there is a seasonal distribution in the morphotypes, with the dark morphs emerging in spring and pale morphs emerging later and most abundant in summer. Furthermore, different proportions of each morph occur along altitudinal gradients, with dark morphs significantly more abundant at low altitudes, where mean temperatures are warmer than at high altitudes where the pale coloured morphs were more abundant. Explanations based on the adaptive value of...

Past and present distribution of the cryptic species Leptidea sinapis and L. reali (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in Poland and its implications for the conservation of these butterflies

Konrad SACHANOWICZ, Agnieszka WOWER, Jaroslaw BUSZKO

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 235-242, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.032

Using a large sample of museum and newly collected specimens of the cryptic butterfly species Leptidea sinapis and L. reali, identified/confirmed based on genital characters, the patterns in their geographical distributions, historical changes in range and briefly also their habitat associations in Poland, were investigated. Leptidea sinapis occurs mainly in the lowland and upland parts of the country and is rarer than L. reali, which is widespread throughout Poland, including the mountains. In the first half of the 20th century, the range of L. sinapis included the whole of Poland, whereas currently it...

Demography of adults of the Marsh fritillary butterfly, Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Czech Republic: Patterns across sites and seasons

Kamil ZIMMERMANN, Pavla BLAZKOVA, Oldrich CIZEK, Zdenek FRIC, Vladimir HULA, Pavel KEPKA, David NOVOTNY, Irena SLAMOVA, Martin KONVICKA

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 243-254, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.033

The Marsh fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) has declined across Europe, including the Czech Republic. Current conservation strategies rely on prevention of habitat loss and degradation, and increase in habitat quality and connectivity via promoting traditional grassland management. The population structure and adult demography parameters of a single population was investigated for eight years (single system), and of all the known Czech populations (multiple populations) for a single year, using mark-recapture. There was substantial variation in the patterns of adult demography, both among years in the single system and...

Life-history constraints in inaccurate Batesian myrmecomorphic spiders (Araneae: Corinnidae, Gnaphosidae)

Stano PEKÁR, Martin JARAB

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 255-260, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.034

Accurate Batesian mimicry is known to impose constraints on some traits of the mimic, such as foraging or reproductive behaviour. It is not known whether life-history traits of inaccurate Batesian mimics are constrained as well. We studied selected life-history traits of three spider species, Liophrurillus flavitarsis, Phrurolithus festivus (both Corinnidae), and Micaria sociabilis (Gnaphosidae), that are inaccurate mimics of ants. Namely, we were interested in how myrmecomorphy (ant-like resemblance) constrains their circadian activity, trophic niche and reproductive behaviour. The spiders were found to have diurnal activity like...

Challenges of microsatellite development in Lepidoptera: Euphydryas aurinia (Nymphalidae) as a case study

Melthide SINAMA, Vincent DUBUT, Caroline COSTEDOAT, André GILLES, Marius JUNKER, Thibaut MALAUSA, Jean-François MARTIN, Gabriel NÈVE, Nicolas PECH, Thomas SCHMITT, Marie ZIMMERMANN, Emese MEGLÉCZ

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 261-266, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.035

Currently it remains difficult to obtain robust microsatellite markers for Lepidoptera. In an attempt to overcome the problems associated with developing microsatellite markers for this insect order we combined (i) biotin-enrichment protocol, (ii) next generation pyrosequencing (through 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology) and (iii) the use of individuals collected from eight geographically distant European populations representing three subspecies of Euphydryas aurinia. Out of 96 stringently designed primer pairs, 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci amplified without obvious evidence of null alleles in eight individuals from different subspecies....

Phylogenetic relationships of selected European Ennominae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

Erki ÕUNAP, Juhan JAVOI©, Jaan VIIDALEPP, Toomas TAMMARU

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 267-273, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.036

This study reports the results of a molecular phylogenetic analysis of thirty three species of Ennominae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The aim of this analysis was to determine the phylogenetic affinities of 13 European species not previously studied using these methods. Fragments of seven nuclear genes, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1α), wingless (wgl), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S5 (RpS5) and expansion segments D1 and D2 of the 28S rRNA gene and fragment of one mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidase...

Two new ripidiine species in Dominican amber with evidence of aggregative behaviour of males "frozen" in the fossil record (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae)

Jan BATELKA, Michael S. ENGEL, Zachary H. FALIN, Jakub PROKOP

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 275-286, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.037

Ten amber inclusions of male Ripidiinae (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae) are reported from Early Miocene deposits of the Dominican Republic and compared with extant species of Neorrhipidius Viana, 1958 from Argentina and Paraguay and Quasipirhidius Zaragoza Caballero, 1991 from Mexico. Neorrhipidius seicherti sp. n. and Quasipirhidius luzziae sp. n. are described and illustrated. Both species are characterised by 11-segmented antennae with eight distal antennomeres uniflabellate, mouthparts reduced to maxillary palpi represented by long styli with fused basal palpomeres, by metathoracic wings without crossveins and...

Quametopia, a new genus of Nearctic Anthomyzidae (Diptera), with description of two new species, immature stages and life history

Jindøich ROHÁÈEK, Kevin N. BARBER

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 287-326, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.038

Quametopia gen. n. is established on the basis of recent phylogenetic analysis of taxa formerly assembled under the genus Mumetopia Melander, 1913 to include M. terminalis (Loew, 1863) and two new closely related Nearctic species of Anthomyzidae. The new genus is diagnosed and its phylogenetic relationships discussed. Quametopia terminalis (Loew, 1863) comb. n. is transferred from Mumetopia and redescribed based on revision of the type material (lectotypes of Anthophilina terminalis Loew, 1863 and its synonym Mumetopia nitens Melander, 1913 are designated) and other extensive material. Quametopia clintonia...

When landscape variables do not explain migration rates: An example from an endangered dragonfly, Leucorrhinia caudalis (Odonata: Libellulidae)

Janine BOLLIGER, Daniela KELLER, Rolf HOLDEREGGER

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 327-330, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.039

Leucorrhinia caudalis is a dragonfly species threatened throughout Europe. Despite evidence of the recent extension of its distribution range, it is unknown whether L. caudalis regularly or hardly ever migrates among ponds. The contemporary migration patterns of the species were investigated using Bayesian assignment tests and the migration rates related to landscape structural and thematic variables (distance between ponds, forest area, area of water body, area of hedgerow). Migration rates of L. caudalis are independent of any landscape element. Thus, landscape structure is not a barrier or corridor for migration in this species. The...

Muniappan R., Reddy G.V.P. & Raman A.: Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods.

M. SKUHRAVÁ

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (2): 331-332, 2011 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2011.040

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, 2009, 495 pp. ISBN 978-0-521-87791-6. Price: GBP 75.00.