EJE, vol. 108 (2011), issue 1

Karyotypes of central European spiders of the genera Arctosa, Tricca, and Xerolycosa (Araneae: Lycosidae)

Petr DOLEJę, Tereza KOě═NKOV┴, Jana MUSILOV┴, Výra OPATOV┴, Lenka KUBCOV┴, Jan BUCHAR, Ji°Ý KR┴L

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 1-16, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.001

The aim of this study was to characterize karyotypes of central European spiders of the genera Arctosa, Tricca, and Xerolycosa (Lycosidae) with respect to the diploid chromosome number, chromosome morphology, and sex chromosomes. Karyotype data are reported for eleven species, six of them for the first time. For selected species the pattern in the distributions of the constitutive heterochromatin and the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) was determined. The silver staining technique for detecting NORs of lycosid spiders was standardized. The male karyotype consisted of 2n = 28 (Arctosa and Tricca) or 2n = 22 (Xerolycosa)...

Cream and albinotic - two new mutations affecting body colour in Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 17-24, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.002

Two new body-colour mutations, albinotic (alb) and cream (cr) are isolated and described for the flightless wing-polymorphic bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.). The body colour of alb mutants is white and that of cr mutants either a light cream or creamy yellow. Both the alb and cr mutations most probably inhibit the biosynthesis of the red pigment in epidermal cells that is responsible for the red-coloured body of wild-type bugs. Although sometimes the body colour of younger larval instars of cr mutants is a slightly darker creamy yellow and that of last larval instars of the alb...

Recombinant expression, purification and characterization of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) pyridoxal kinase

Shuo-Hao HUANG, Wang MA, Ping-Ping ZHANG, Jian-Yun ZHANG, Yan-Feng XIE, Long-Quan HUANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 25-34, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.003

Pyridoxal kinase (PLK; EC is a key enzyme in the metabolism of vitamin B6 (VB6) in Bombyx mori. A fusion expressional vector pET-22b-BPLK-His was constructed using a sub-cloning technique, the recombinant B. mori PLK was then expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. Bioinformatics were used to deduce the protein structure and genomic organization of this enzyme. Using Ni Sepharose affinity column chromatography, the recombinant protein was purified to very high degree (approximately 90%). The recombinant PLK exhibits a high specific enzymatic activity (1800 nmol/min/mg of protein)....

Molecular approach for identification of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in Province of Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 35-40, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.004

The aim of the present work was to identify cryptic species in the Anopheles maculipennis and Culex pipiens complexes and to study the genetic structure of the dominant mosquito species Ochlerotatus caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Province of Alessandria close to the vast area untreated rice fields in Piedmont, NW Italy. With the help of PCR-RFLP analysis, four members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex were identified: A. messeae, A. maculipennis, A. sacharovi and A. atroparvus. Only C. pipiens f. molestus was identified in 11 habitats studied in Piedmont. Partial sequences...

Sequestration of aristolochic acids from meridic diets by larvae of Battus polydamas archidamas (Papilionidae: Troidini)

Carlos F. PINTO, Alejandro URZ┌A, Hermann M. NIEMEYER

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 41-45, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.005

Larvae of the butterfly, Battus polydamas archidamas (Papilionidae: Troidini) feed exclusively on aristolochic acid (AAs)-containing Aristolochia species (Aristolochiaceae). The distribution of sequestrated AAs in the tissues (body, integument and osmeterial secretions) of B. polydamas archidamas larvae during their development, when fed on a meridic diet containing either a higher or lower concentration of AAs (AAI and AAII) than occurs naturally in the aerial tissues of their host plant, was determined. Accumulation of AAs in the body and integument was proportional to the weight of larvae and greater in the larvae that fed on...

Some ethological aspects of the trophobiotic interrelations between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and larvae of the sawfly Blasticotoma filiceti (Hymenoptera: Blasticotomidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 47-52, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.006

Some ethological aspects of the interrelations between ants and the larvae of Blasticotoma filiceti Klug, 1834 were investigated in the Altai Republic and Novosibirsk Region in 2006-2008. The interactions of ants with the larvae of this sawfly are determined by the concealed way of life style of B. filiceti. The majority of the ant-sawfly encounters occurred near holes in fern fronds at the moment when larvae excreted liquid or left their tunnels before descending to the soil prior to overwintering. Sawfly larvae visited by more aggressive ants, such as Formica s. str., leave the fern fronds slowly, which enables them to...

A phylogenetic test of the parasite-host associations between Maculinea butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and Myrmica ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 53-62, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.007

The parasitic caterpillars of Maculinea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) need to be adopted and nursed by ants of the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Each Maculinea species is locally associated with one or a few main and often several secondary host species. To determine whether the parasite-host associations bear marks of cophylogenetic constraints, we reconstructed phylogenies of Maculinea and Myrmica using DNA sequence data. We searched for evidence of cospeciation with a tree-independent (ParaFit) and tree-based (TreeFitter) method. This did not reveal any indication of phylogenetic host tracking in...

Seasonal occurrence and biological parameters of the common green lacewing predators of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Psylloidea)

Fatemeh KAZEMI, Mohammad Reza MEHRNEJAD

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 63-70, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.008

Species in the carnea complex of the common green lacewing are predators of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae in both cultivated pistachio plantations and on wild pistachio plants in Iran. The seasonal occurrence of common green lacewings was monitored in pistachio orchards from 2007 to 2008. In addition, the effect of different temperature regimes on preimaginal development, survival and prey consumption of the predatory lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina fed on A. pistaciae nymphs were studied under controlled conditions. The adults of common green lacewings first appeared on pistachio trees in...

Comparison of the severity of selection among beech leaves prior to egg-laying between a leaf-mining and two gall-inducing insects


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 71-78, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.009

Quantitative behavioural traits associated with egg-laying, such as the level of selectivity for host-supports and the size of egg clutches, are generally thought to be of great importance for the subsequent survival and development of offspring. These quantitative traits, however, are often difficult to assess reliably by direct observation in the field. This is particularly the case when the insects are very tiny, which is the case for most galling and leaf mining insects. However, a new approach, the "Melba" procedure, allows the indirect inference of these quantitative traits, using easily recorded field-data only. Application of this...

Biology of the conifer needle scale, Nuculaspis abietis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), in northern Iran and parasitism by Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 79-85, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.010

The conifer needle scale, Nuculaspis abietis (Schrank) emerged as an important pest of conifers in the Kelardasht region of Mazandaran province, Iran, in the late 1990's. This pest feeds on conifer needles and twigs causing needle drop and branch desiccation. Its discovery in Kelardasht in Mazandaran Province necessitated a local quarantine of conifers in the genera Picea, Abies, and Pinus. We studied the life history and ecology of this scale on Norway spruce, Picea abies, under laboratory and natural field conditions. The complete life cycle of females required 206.4 ± 5.7 days in the laboratory (25...

The effect of the coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on transmission of the fungal pathogen Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae)

Patricia M. WELLS, Jason BAVERSTOCK, Michael E.N. MAJERUS, Francis M. JIGGINS, Helen E. ROY, Judith K. PELL

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 87-90, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.011

The coccinellid Harmonia axyridis is a recent arrival in the UK and is an intraguild predator of the entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis. Harmonia axyridis entirely consumes P. neoaphidis-sporulating cadavers and this may have a negative effect on the epizootic potential of P. neoaphidis. Here we assessed within plant transmission, and between plant vectoring, of P. neoaphidis in the presence of either H. axyridis or Coccinella septempunctata, a native coccinellid that only partially consumes fungal cadavers. Transmission was greater in the presence of coccinellids, with 21% of aphids becoming...

The effect of local environmental heterogeneity on species diversity of alpine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

Matteo NEGRO, Claudia PALESTRINI, Maria Teresa GIRAUDO, Antonio ROLANDO

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 91-98, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.012

The relative effects of two components of mountain environmental heterogeneity, altitude (1500, 1700 and 2000 m a.s.l.) and habitat (pastures, coniferous forests, wet meadows, scrub and anthropogenic woods) on the diversity of dung beetles in an Italian alpine valley were determined. The additive gamma diversity analysis indicated that differences among habitats (▀H) were always smaller than those among altitudes (▀A), irrespective of the measures used; it also showed that the contribution of ▀A to γ-diversity was higher than expected by chance for all the measures of species diversity used, whereas the contribution...

Increasing patch area, proximity of human settlement and larval food plants positively affect the occurrence and local population size of the habitat specialist butterfly Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in fragmented calcareous grasslands

Zuzanna M. ROSIN, Piotr SKËRKA, Magdalena LENDA, Dawid MORON, Tim H. SPARKS, Piotr TRYJANOWSKI

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 99-106, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.013

Which factors influence the occurrence, population size and density of species in fragmented habitat patches are key questions in population and conservation ecology. Metapopulation theory predicts that larger and less isolated habitat patches should positively influence species occurrence and population size. However, recent studies have shown that habitat quality, human activity and permeability of the landscape surrounding habitat patches may be also important. In this paper we test the relative effects of habitat patch characteristics, human settlement and landscape permeability on the occurrence, local population size and density of the Chalk-hill...

Ground-dwelling arthropod assemblages of partially improved heathlands according to the species of grazer and grazing regime

RocÝo ROSA GARC═A, Urcesino GARC═A, Koldo OSORO, Rafael CELAYA

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 107-115, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.014

The creation of improved areas is one way of increasing the productivity of livestock on Cantabrian heathland (NW Spain), a habitat that is frequently located in less favourable mountainous areas where the development of sustainable husbandry is limited. The effect of this on the biodiversity of heathland is unclear and likely to depend on several factors, such as the grazing regime. In order to clarify this situation, the effects of type of vegetation, species of grazer and grazing regime on the composition of the ground-dwelling arthropod fauna of partially improved heathland were determined. The effects of grazing by cattle or sheep and two grazing...

The dispersal ability of wood cricket (Nemobius sylvestris) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) in a wooded landscape

Niels C. BROUWERS, Adrian C. NEWTON, Sallie BAILEY

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 117-125, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.015

Information on the dispersal ability of flightless insect species associated with woodlands is severely lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted examining the dispersal ability of wood cricket (Nemobius sylvestris) juveniles (nymphs) and adults in a wooded landscape on the Isle of Wight, UK, to further our understanding of the ecology and management of this and other flightless insects. A series of experiments were conducted where nymphs and adults were released and observed at a range of spatial-temporal scales within different habitat environments. The results of this investigation indicated no difference in the dispersal ability of wood...

The long-awaited first instar larva of Paussus favieri (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Paussini)

Andrea DI GIULIO, Emanuela MAURIZI, Peter HLAV┴╚, Wendy MOORE

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 127-138, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.016

Paussus favieri Fairmaire is one of only two species of the myrmecophilous carabid tribe Paussini known from Europe. Larvae are known from only 10 of the 580 paussine species. As in many beetles with considerably modified later instar larvae, the first instars represent a valuable source of informative characters for taxonomy and phylogenetic analyses (primary chaetotaxy, egg-bursters, etc.). Therefore, the discovery of the first instar larva of P. favieri is particularly important, as it represents only the second species for which this larval stage is known. In this paper we describe the behavior and morphology of the larval first instar of...

The Stegana undulata species group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) from the Oriental Region, with molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Chinese species

Jin-Ming LU, Jian-Jun GAO, Xi-Peng CHEN, Hong-Wei CHEN

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 139-152, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.017

The Stegana undulata species group is revised and eight new species described: S. (Steganina) flaviclypeata Chen & Chen, sp. n., S. (S.) flavipalpata Chen & Chen, sp. n., S. (S.) leucothorax Chen & Chen, sp. n., S. (S.) melanocheilota Chen & Chen, sp. n. and S. (S.) melanothorax Chen & Chen, sp. n. from southern China, and S. (S.) flaviscutellata Chen & Chen, sp. n., S. (S.) nigriclypeata Chen & Chen, sp. n. and S. (S.) nigripalpata Chen &...

Diaspidid (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) size plasticity as an adaptive life history trait


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 153-159, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.018

The size and fecundity of Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on partially resistant and susceptible kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) varieties was measured. The size ratio of mature H. lataniae grown on a partially resistant genotype, compared with those on a susceptible genotype, was 0.67-0.51 for 2nd instar exuviae area, 0.32 for adult body area and 0.18 for estimated body volume. The fertility ratio was 0.1, but the pre-oviposition period and the size of the crawlers were the same. Diaspidid scale insects' unusual ability to continue growing after the final moult appears to be a key feature allowing...

Highly polymorphic di- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers for the grapevine yellows disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus (Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 161-163, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.019

Seven polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus, vector of stolbur 16SrXII-A phytoplasma. The loci have di- or trinucleotide repeat motifs and are highly variable with 10 to 22 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.278 to 0.950 for the 78 individuals genotyped. One locus is sex-linked. No linkage between loci was found. All loci amplified consistently among phylogeographic as well as host-plant related samples and proved highly informative for population genetic studies.

Universal primers for amplifying the complete coding sequence of cytoplasmic heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in Lepidoptera

Peng Jun XU, Tong LI, Jin Hua XIAO, Robert W. MURPHY, Huang DA WEI

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 164-168, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.020

Using sequence alignment, a conserved domain in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the cytoplasmic heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) of Lepidoptera was found. This region is highly variable in other insect groups. Furthermore, universal primers were designed to amplify the complete coding sequence (CDS) of HSP90 from total genomic DNA in Lepidoptera, avoiding the commonly used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 3', 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods based on cDNA. These primers amplified a fragment of about 2.25 kb in the 11 species tested, which represent seven different families of Lepidoptera, including moths...

Identification of 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) using high-throughput sequence data

Bernhard C. STOECKLE, Ralph KUEHN

Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 169-171, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.021

Novel microsatellite markers for the spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) are identified and characterized using next generation sequencing technology. 18 polymorphic loci were obtained by screening 10,684 reads and tested on 35 bark beetle samples from different locations in Bavaria, Germany. Allelic richness ranged from two to 38 alleles, observed heterozygosity from 0.03 to 0.66 and expected heterozygosity from 0.08 to 0.97. Four loci showed significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no linkage between loci was detected. The 18 loci, along with another six loci previously described, provide effective analytical tools...



Eur. J. Entomol. 108 (1): 172, 2011 | 10.14411/eje.2011.022

Science Press, Beijing, 2010, viii + 457 pp. + xiv tabs. ISBN 978-7-03-027159-4. Price GBP 45.00. [In Chinese, with English summary.]