EJE, vol. 107 (2010), issue 4

Meiotic karyotypes and testis structure of 14 species of the planthopper tribe Issini (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea, Issidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 465-480, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.055

Karyotypes and testis structure of 14 species representing 9 genera (Latissus, Bubastia, Falcidius, Kervillea, Mulsantereum, Mycterodus, Scorlupaster, Scorlupella and Zopherisca) of the planthopper tribe Issini (Issidae) are presented. All the karyotypes are illustrated by meiotic and occasionally mitotic figures. The male karyotypes of most of the species analyzed are 2n = 26 + X, the exception being Falcidius limbatus, which has a karyotype of 2n = 24 + neo-XY. The latter is the first report of the neo-XY system in the family Issidae. The species studied are found to be similar...

(Ovo-)viviparity in the darkling beetle, Alegoria castelnaui (Tenebrioninae: Ulomini), from Guadeloupe


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 481-485, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.056

In the course of cytogenetic studies on Alegoria castelnaui Fleutiaux & Sallé 1889 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae: Ulomini) from Guadeloupe, a number of adult specimens were dissected. A larva was found in the abdomens of almost all of the females. The karyotype, 20,XX / 20,Xyp, and the presence of heterochromatin at multiple chromosomal locations, of the larvae and adults were similar, which excludes parasitism and indicates viviparous reproduction. The adverse habitat of the adults, i.e., putrid and fermenting pseudo-stems of banana trees rather than geo-climatic conditions, may explain the occurrence of viviparity...

A new look at discontinuous respiration in pupae of Hyalophora cecropia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): Haemocoelic pressure, extracardiac pulsations and O2 consumption


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 487-507, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.057

Discontinuous respiration in diapausing pupae of Cecropia silkworms was monitored by means of several electronic methods, including recording changes in haemocoelic pressure, monitoring respiratory movements by strain-gauge sensors and nanorespirographic recording of O2 consumption and CO2 output. It appears that, in contrast to previous concepts of stereotypic discontinuous respiration cycles (DGC) driven by accumulation of gaseous CO2 in the body, the new results indicate that CO2 remains dissolved in liquid carbonate buffers during interburst periods. In other words, there is no accumulation of gaseous...

Analysis of the lipids mobilized by adipokinetic hormones in the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

Iva BÁRTŮ, Aleš TOMČALA, Radomír SOCHA, Petr ŠIMEK, Dalibor KODRÍK

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 509-520, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.058

Effects of two adipokinetic hormones (Pyrap-AKH and Peram-CAH-II) on the presence of diacylglycerol (DG) molecular species and their fatty acid (FA) constituents in the haemolymph of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus were investigated using liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results show that DGs with characteristic FAs are preferentially mobilized from the fat body (FB) by the action of both the AKHs produced by P. apterus. Both the macropterous and brachypterous morphs have similar DG and FA profiles. A difference in the action of the Pyrap-AKH and the Peram-CAH-II, however, results...

Pre-diapause mating and overwintering of fertilized adult females: New aspects of the life cycle of the wing-polymorphic bug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

Radomír SOCHA

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 521-525, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.059

New aspects of the life-cycle of the flightless wing-polymorphic bug Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) are described. It was found that 1.1-14.9% of the adult females of P. apterus in 11 samples collected from 4 populations in the South Bohemia had mated prior to entering diapause and their ovaries were in the pre-vitellogenic stage of development with viable sperm in their spermathecae. Some of these females successfully overwintered. The percentage of overwintering females that had been fertilized ranged from 1.1 to 7.2 % and depended on the month and year of collection. The results indicate that pre-diapause mating and overwintering...

Activity of Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae) adults monitored around the periphery and inside a commercial vineyard


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 527-534, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.060

The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae), is a highly polyphagous pest that feeds on a broad range of economically important crops in North America. Flying L. lineolaris adults can move from crop to crop rapidly and easily. Little is known about the movement of L. lineolaris in or near vineyards. From May to October 2002 and 2003, 39 white sticky traps were positioned inside and at the periphery of a vineyard to study the movements of tarnished plant bug adults. Tarnished plant bug captures were most numerous from the end of July to mid August, with captures of ca. 3000 individuals in one week. During the...

Distribution, abundance and host association of two parasitoid species attacking frugivorous drosophilid larvae in central Japan

Hideyuki MITSUI, Masahito T. KIMURA

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 535-540, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.061

In central Japan Ganaspis xanthopoda and Asobara japonica commonly parasitize the larvae of frugivorous drosophilids, mainly in montane forests, and urban environments and small groves, respectively. These two parasitoids start reproduction about one month later than their host drosophilids, probably to avoid searching for hosts when host density is low in early spring. It is likely that the local variation in the abundance of these parasitoids and a temporal refuge for their hosts contribute to the persistence of this parasitoid-host community. The forest species, G. xanthopoda, parasitized at least three Drosophila species...

Identification of limonene as a potential kairomone of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 541-548, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.062

Chemical cues involved in both host location and oviposition by Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated in laboratory and field experiments. Among the five volatiles tested in a four-arm olfactometer ((E)-β-farnesene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and limonene), gravid H. axyridis females were significantly attracted to limonene and β-caryophyllene. These two chemicals also increased H. axyridis oviposition on plants. Attraction of H. axyridis towards limonene was further tested under field conditions using controlled-release dispensers. (E)-β-farnesene,...

Effects of starvation and mating status on the activity of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 549-551, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.063

Flea beetles are characterized by their tendency to jump. They can also fly. First, the effects of starvation on flight activity in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were determined. After starving P. nemorum for five days a greater number of individuals of both sexes flew than when fed continuously for the same period. In addition, the effect of the mating status of females of P. nemorum on their movement was determined. Mated females were more active than virgin females. It is concluded that starvation stimulates the flight activity of both sexes and mating activates the movement of females of...

Carabid beetle assemblages associated with urban golf courses in the greater Helsinki area


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 553-561, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.064

Golf is a popular sport, with increasingly large areas of urban and peri-urban land being designated for golf course development. Yet, more than half of the land area of a typical golf course is considered rough and out-of-play areas that can, if managed appropriately, provide habitats for wildlife. Using pitfall traps, 6944 carabid beetles belonging to 72 species were collected from five urban golf courses and three areas designated for golf course development around the city of Helsinki, Finland in 2007. The courses were rich in carabid species and distinct in their species assemblages. Golf courses were dominated by habitat generalists, species...

Environmental correlates of species richness of Sesiidae (Lepidoptera) in Europe


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 563-570, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.065

Recent compilations of species richness for 54 European countries and large islands and linear spatial autocorrelation modelling were used to infer the influence of area and environmental variables on the number of species of clearwing moths (Sesiidae) in Europe. Area corrected species richness of rhizophagous Sesiidae peaked at about 40°N and decreased towards higher and lower latitudes. Most species rich was Greece (45 species), Bulgaria (37), Italy (35) and Romania (35). The area corrected species richness of xylophagous Sesiidae peaked at about 45°N with France (24) and Italy (22) being most species rich. Species richness was significantly positively...

Ecological factors determining the density-distribution of Central European dragonflies (Odonata)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 571-577, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.066

Habitat specificity is the most important factor affecting the regional distribution of dragonflies. Nevertheless, species with the highest specificity are not always the scarcest. Several important determinants of dragonfly density-distribution relationships were identified. Altitude preference and altitude range are significantly associated with dragonfly distribution. Some of the species that are habitat specialists but occur over a wide range of altitudes should be classified as rare but not endangered. This very simple principle is based on the assumption that habitat specialists have a very limited number of suitable biotopes. Obviously, dragonflies...

Effect of population density on the development of Mesovelia furcata (Mesoveliidae), Microvelia reticulata and Velia caprai (Veliidae) (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 579-587, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.067

Population density during nymphal development affects body size, developmental rate and wing polymorphism in semiaquatic bugs. Nymphs from crowded habitats grow faster and thus gain an advantage in the later stadia. Rapid development results in smaller body size in several gerrids. Macropterous adults develop more frequently at high population densities in most species, which enables the bugs to leave crowded habitats. Three European widespread species Mesovelia furcata Mulsant & Rey, 1852 (Mesoveliidae), Microvelia reticulata Burmeister, 1835 and Velia caprai Tamanini, 1947 (Veliidae) were reared individually and simultaneously...

Germ cell cluster formation and ovariole structure in Puto albicans and Crypticerya morrilli (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Phylogenetic implications


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 589-595, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.068

The organization and development of ovaries in representatives of two families (Putoidae and Monophlebidae) of scale insects are described. Developing ovaries of Puto albicans McKenzie, 1967 and Crypticerya morrilli (Cockerell, 1914) consist of numerous clusters of cystocytes that are arranged in the form of rosettes. At the end of the last nymphal instar these clusters start to protrude from the interior of the ovary into the body cavity and the ovarioles begin to be formed. The ovary of a young female is composed of about 200 spherical telotrophic ovarioles devoid of terminal filaments. The ovarioles of C. morrilli...

Homologies of the head of Membracoidea based on nymphal morphology with notes on other groups of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 597-613, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.069

The ground plan and comparative morphology of the nymphal head of Membracoidea are presented with particular emphasis on the position of the clypeus, frons, epistomal suture, and ecdysial line. Differences in interpretation of the head structures in Auchenorrhyncha are discussed. Membracoidea head may vary more extensively than heads in any other group of insects. It is often modified by the development of an anterior carina, which apparently was gained and lost multiple times within Membracoidea. The main modifications of the head of Membracoidea and comparison of those changes with the head of other superfamilies of Auchenorrhyncha are described.

New morphological data from the Jurassic of Inner Mongolia confirms the damselfly aspect of Protomyrmeleontidae (Insecta: Odonatoptera)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 615-620, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.070

Protomyrmeleon daohugouensis sp. n. and Protomyrmeleon lini sp. n., two new species of Protomyrmeleontidae from the Middle Jurassic of Jiulongshan Formation are the first Chinese representatives of this Mesozoic odonatopteran family. The type specimen of P. lini is exceptionally well preserved, showing several particular wing and body structures that were unknown, viz. unique shape of tarsal claws, extreme thoracic skewness, presence of three pairs of long spurs on all femora and tibiae. The type "A" (sensu Nel et al., 2005) of wing venation (i.e. with a very long bridge between IR2 and RP3/4) corresponds to that of the protomyrmeleontid...

The Tachyusa coarctata species group revisited: Phylogenetic relationships and a new species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae)

Grzegorz PAŚNIK

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 621-629, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.071

The Tachyusa coarctata species group is revised. The species group is defined on the basis of the distinctly asperate punctation on elytra, the dense punctation on tergites III-V with interstices between punctures 1.5-2.0 times their diameter, and the dense, subrecumbent pubescence on the abdomen. The T. coarctata species group is composed of twenty three species restricted in occurrence to the Holarctic and Africa, including one new species described from Iran: Tachyusa frischi sp.n. A revised key to the species in this group is provided. An analysis of the phylogeny of the Tachyusa coarctata species group based on cladistic...

Re-evaluation of the genus Phonochorion (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae)

Hasan SEVGILI, Selim S. CAGLAR, Ismail K. SAGLAM

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 631-645, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.072

Phonochorion Uvarov (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) is a little known genus consisting of three species: Ph. satunini, Ph. artvinensis and Ph. uvarovi. The objective of this study is to conduct a thorough distributional, taxonomic and systematic revision of the genus Phonochorion using both bioacustic and external morphological characters. Field surveys indicate that the genus is distributed from the Trabzon region of Turkey to the Khulo province of Georgia however the exact limit of the eastern distribution of the genus remains unknown. Phonochorion species occur only on the northern slopes of the East...

Revision of the Poecilimon ornatus group (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae) with particular reference to the taxa in Bulgaria and Macedonia

Dragan P. CHOBANOV, Klaus-Gerhard HELLER

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 647-672, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.073

The Poecilimon ornatus group has an exclusively European distribution and includes the largest species in the genus. A revision of the taxa belonging to this group in Bulgaria and Macedonia (Central and Eastern Balkan Peninsula) is presented. Nine taxa described from Bulgaria are synonymised with 3 previously known species, as follows: Poecilimon ornatus (= P. mistshenkoi marzani, syn. n., P. mistshenkoi tinkae, syn. n., P. mistshenkoi vlachinensis, syn. n.), P. affinis s. str. (= P. mistshenkoi mistshenkoi, syn. n., P. affinis ruenensis, syn. n., P. affinis rilensis, syn. n., P. affinis...

Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the neotropical plant-ant Allomerus decemarticulatus (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) and multiplexing with other microsatellites from the ant subfamily Myrmicinae

Pierre-Jean G. MALÉ, Anne LOISEAU, Arnaud ESTOUP, Angélique QUILICHINI, Jérôme ORIVEL

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 673-675, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.074

Five polymorphic microsatellite loci of the arboreal ant Allomerus decemarticulatus (Myrmicinae) were isolated and characterized. The amplification and polymorphism of seven additional microsatellite loci, previously developed for the ant species A. octoarticulatus and Wasmannia auropunctata, were also tested and the amplification conditions necessary for genotyping the complete set of 12 multiplexed markers in A. decemarticulatus determined. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 15 and observed heterozygosity varied from 0.09 to 0.95. Cross-species amplification of these loci was also successfully...

Infestation of Narcissus poeticus by a scathophagid fly, Norellia melaleuca (Diptera: Scathophagidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 677-680, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.075

A little-known scathophagid fly is reported infesting the flowers and scapes of Narcissus poeticus growing in the Italian Central Apennines (AQ). This insect bores through the flower bud and lays an egg on the tepals. Both pistil and scape parenchymatous tissues provide the larva with nutrition, and the hollow stem a safe site for its metamorphosis. Infestation by this insect prevents the ovules from being fertilized as the larvae feed on the tisues in the style and so prevent the growth of pollen tubes.

Temperature-dependent development of dubas bug, Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae), an endemic pest of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera

Abdul Monim MOKHTAR, Salem Saif Al NABHANI

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 681-685, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.076

Dubas bug, Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin, is an important pest of date palm on the Arab peninsula. This sucking insect causes great damage to the trees and reduces the quantity and quality of the dates. Effect of temperature on the development of the immature stages of O. lybicus was studied in the laboratory by rearing them at nine constant temperatures, ranging from 15 to 35°C. Development was successfully completed at temperatures ranging from 20 to 35°C for eggs and from 20 to 32.5°C for nymphs. The lower thermal thresholds for development of eggs, nymphs and egg-adult were estimated by means of linear regression as 12.9, 12.9 and 13.2°C,...

Neild A.F.E.: The Butterflies of Venezuela, Part 2: Nymphalidae II (Acraeinae, Libytheinae, Nymphalinae, Ithomiinae, Morphinae).


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 686, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.077

Meridian Publications, London, 2008, 275 pp., ISBN 978-0-9527657-1-4.

An improved method for the culture of wing discs of the wingless bagworm moth, Eumeta variegata (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (4): 687-690, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.078

Adults of the wingless bagworm moth, Eumeta variegata, show remarkable sexual dimorphism. Final-instar larvae of the male have invaginated wing discs, whereas those of the female are rudimentary. To determine the best method for culturing the wing discs of E. variegata, which in both sexes are attached to the larval integument, two methods of culturing the larval wing discs are compared. Initially, a stationary culture was used. In these cultures necrotic cells and degeneration of wing discs of males were sporadically observed. By contrast, many small vacuoles were observed in the female wing rudiment under these conditions....