EJE, vol. 107 (2010), issue 1

An attempt to reconstruct the natural and cultural history of the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 1-11, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.001

It is generally accepted that stored grain insects are food opportunists and, when originally made the transition to man-made storage facilities, came from natural reservoirs like bird or rodent nests. This may not be true for Sitophilus granarius. Among all stored-product insects, the granary weevil S. granarius is the only species never recorded outside of storage facilities. Anatomical, physiological, and behavioural aspects of recent and hypothetical ancestral species in the genus Sitophilus are presented and discussed in terms of adaptation to the anthropogenic storage of grain. Full development inside the host kernel, endosymbioses...

Physiology of heartbeat reversal in adult Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 13-31, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.002

Heartbeat patterns were monitored in the living bodies of decapitated adult flies using several electrocardiographic methods (pulse-light optocardiography, thermocardiography, strain-gauge cardiography). Unlike other insect species, in which there is a peristaltic segmental propagation of cardiac contractions, Drosophila uses extremely efficient synchronic cardiac contractions. The rate of synchronic cardiac pulsation, which is characterized by simultaneous propagation of anterograde systolic contractions along all the segments of the heart, is relatively fast (~ 4 Hz at room temperature). This pulsation is used mainly for the vigorous...

Methoprene modifies adipokinetic hormone characteristics in the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

Dalibor KODRÍK, Glenda ALQUICER, Radomír SOCHA

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 33-39, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.003

In the present study the hypothesis that there is a feedback between juvenile hormone and adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) was investigated by topical application of the juvenoid methoprene on 9-day-old adult males of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus. This juvenoid (2 µg) induced a significant reduction of haemolymph lipids 24 h after treatment; however, it did not significantly reduce the ability of Pyrap-AKH (10 pmol/bug) to mobilize fat body lipids 6-72 h after the methoprene application. The same methoprene treatment elicited a significant increase of AKH content in the CNS (central nervous system: brain + corpora cardiaca + corpora allata)...

Intraguild interactions between the predatory hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae) and the Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Effect of larval tracks


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 41-45, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.004

The effects of the larval tracks of Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer (Diptera: Syrphidae) and Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the egg laying behavior of females of the predatory hoverfly E. balteatus were investigated in two-choice experiments. The oviposition response of H. axyridis to larval tracks of E. balteatus was also tested in one-choice experiments. Gravid E. balteatus females laid significantly fewer eggs on leaf discs with aphids and contaminated with tracks of conspecific or heterospecific larvae than on control leaf discs. H. axyridis females laid similar numbers of eggs...

Thermal requirements of Trissolcus grandis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), an egg parasitoid of sunn pest

Shahzad IRANIPOUR, Zahra Nozad BONAB, John P. MICHAUD

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 47-53, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.005

Trissolcus grandis is an important egg parasitoid of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), the most serious pest of wheat in Iran. The thermal requirements of two populations of T. grandis were studied at five constant temperatures ranging from 20-32°C. Thermal thresholds for development were calculated using linear regression and degree-day models were determined by fitting non-linear equations to the data. The lower threshold for development was estimated to be 12.5 and 12.1°C, respectively, for males and females of the Bonab population, compared to 14.4 and 14.5°C for those of the Qaramalek population....

Speed or sperm: A potential trade-off between development and reproduction in the butterfly, Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 55-59, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.006

Life-history theory predicts trade-offs between resources invested in reproduction and other fitness-related traits. To date, most studies have focused on potential reproductive trade-offs in females. However, it is now generally accepted that reproduction is also costly for males, and thus males too may be subject to trade-offs. We examined the relationship between development time and the production of both fertile and non-fertile sperm in males of the African bush brown butterfly (Bicyclus anynana) selected for short or long pre-adult development time. Fast developing males ejaculated fewer non-fertile sperm on their first mating, suggesting...

Intrasexual fighting and mounting by females of the horned beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 61-64, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.007

Although females of the horned beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis, have only small horns they often fight over access to feeding sites by head-butting each other. In addition, they sometimes show intrasexual mounting. In this study 82 females of different sizes were used to determine the relationship between fighting and mounting. Large females more often won fights and so gained access to food than small females. In contrast, small females more often mounted large females and then gained access to food than large females. These results suggest that female mounting may function as a tactic for reducing intrasexual fighting between...

Detection of oviposition-deterring larval tracks in Chrysopa oculata and Chrysopa perla (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 65-72, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.008

We investigated the ability of females of the aphidophagous chrysopids Chrysopa oculata and Chrysopa perla to distinguish clean substrates from substrates with tracks of chrysopid first instars after ablation of various sensory organs potentially involved in the detection of oviposition-deterring semiochemicals (ODSCs). Also studied were effects of storage time on the degree of oviposition deterrence of substrates contaminated by larvae and by extracts of ODSC in intact females. C. oculata and C. perla laid significantly fewer eggs on substrates with conspecific larval tracks than on simultaneously provided clean substrates....

Incidence of infection of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by laboulbenialean fungi in different habitats


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 73-79, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.009

The prevalence of obligate parasitic fungi may depend partly on the environmental conditions prevailing in the habitats of their hosts. Ectoparasitic fungi of the order Laboulbeniales (Ascomycetes) infect arthropods and form thalli on the host's body surface. Although several studies report the incidence of infection of certain host species by these fungi, quantitative data on laboulbenialean fungus-host arthropod interactions at the host assemblage level are rarely reported. To clarify the effects of host habitats on infection by ectoparasitic fungi, the incidence of infection by fungi of the genus Laboulbenia (Laboulbeniales) of overwintering...

Schintlmeister A.: Palaearctic Macrolepidoptera. Vol. 1: Notodontidae.


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 80, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.010

Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 2008, 482 pp., ISBN 978-87-88757-77-4. Price EUR 140.00, USD 196.00.

Habitat preferences influencing populations, distribution and conservation of the endangered saproxylic beetle Cucujus cinnaberinus (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) at the landscape level


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 81-88, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.011

Cucujus cinnaberinus (Scopoli, 1763) is a saproxylic beetle listed in the IUCN Red List and the European Habitats Directive. Although the species is highly protected and often red-listed little is known about its ecological requirements and status of its populations. Therefore, our main aims were to review its current and historical distributions and status of C. cinnaberinus populations in Europe and to determine its recent habitat preferences at the landscape level in the Czech Republic, where the increasing number of records over the last few years indicates a possible increase in abundance of this beetle. Cucujus cinnaberinus is closely...

Species coexistence patterns in a mycophagous insect community inhabiting the wood-decaying bracket fungus Cryptoporus volvatus (Polyporaceae: Basidiomycota)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 89-99, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.012

A study of the insect community inhabiting the wood-decaying bracket fungus, Cryptoporus volvatus was used to test two hypotheses proposed to account for the competitive coexistence of species in insect communities in patchy environments, niche partitioning and spatial mechanisms. A total of 8990 individuals belonging to 17 insect species emerged from 438 sporocarps (patches) collected from the field. Insect species richness increased and then declined with increase in the total insect biomass reared from a sporocarp, suggesting the potential importance of interspecific competition. Successional niche partitioning explained the spatial distribution...

The aquatic leaf beetle Macroplea mutica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Europe: Population structure, postglacial colonization and the signature of passive dispersal


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 101-113, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.013

The pattern of postglacial re-colonization of Europe and the present population structure are known for various plant and animal species. The reed beetle Macroplea mutica (Fabricius, 1792) has characteristics that should influence both aspects in a peculiar way and therefore complement the currently known scenarios: It is fully aquatic but cannot swim or fly. Samples from 25 European populations of M. mutica and five specimens from China were investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, 251 loci). Assessment of error rates associated with this method showed that the data set contains a strong population genetic signal....

Genetic and morphological differentiation between isolated Polish populations of "glacial relict", an endangered butterfly, Oeneis jutta (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 115-120, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.014

This is the first study of the morphological and molecular variation in two peripheral populations of the butterfly Jutta Arctic, Oeneis jutta, a glacial relict species endangered by the fragmentation of its habitat in Poland. An analysis of the morphological characteristics indicates that both Polish populations are similar but differ significantly in some characteristics. Levels of genetic variation were assessed using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) gene fragments together with a segment of the mtDNA control region (CR) and a nuclear elongation factor-1a (EF-1a)...

Isolation and characterization of oligomerization domain I and II coding regions of doublesex genes in agricultural fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 121-126, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.015

Bactrocera fruit flies are ranked among the most destructive pests of the worldwide fruit and vegetable trades. Coding regions of two oligomerization domains within doublesex (dsx) genes were determined in Bactrocera dorsalis (oriental fruit fly) and B. correcta (guava fruit fly). Resulting sequences revealed a high degree of similarity at both nucleotide and putative amino acid levels in the genus Bactrocera. Conservation of the DNA-binding DM motif and several known molecular features within the domains suggest a presence of strong purifying selection on the DSX proteins. Topology of the phylogenetic gene trees...

A swarm of the seven-spot ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) carried on a cruise ship


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 127-128, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.016

Several thousands of the seven-spot ladybird Coccinella septempunctata L., descended upon a cruise ship over several hours in daylight while in port in Morocco in April 2009. The ship had recently arrived from South America. Despite a treatment of fumigation beetles were found living after fourteen days following the inoculation event. This observation indicates an ocean transmission of large numbers of this species could take place and might have happened in the past.

The importance of habitat mosaics for Orthoptera (Caelifera and Ensifera) in dry heathlands


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 129-132, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.017

In summer 2008, the Orthopteran species Chorthippus biguttulus, Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Caelifera), Decticus verrucivorus and Platycleis albopunctata (Ensifera) were sampled in coastal heathland on the German Baltic Sea island of Hiddensee. The aim of this study was to assess differences in abundance of Orthoptera in three different habitats and determine the importance of habitat mosaics. Distribution patterns varied among species and total abundance of Orthoptera differed significantly among the three habitats. Due to species-specific habitat preferences the Caelifera were most abundant in grey dunes and the Ensifera...

Alteration of sex-related developmental modules: A case of "feminized" male wing morphology in Creobroter gemmatus (Mantodea: Hymenopodidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (1): 133-135, 2010 | 10.14411/eje.2010.018

A particular case of the alteration of the organization of a developmental module is presented, viz. mixed gynandromorphism in Creobroter gemmatus, in which a male exhibits the usual fore- and hind wing venation and shape of its sex, but patterns of coloration typical of females. Homologies between corresponding areas of the fore- and hind wings are suggested. "Feminization" is defined as the occurrence of traits typical of the female phenotype in a male, and is suggested as a plausible way in which insect wing morphology may be transformed.