EJE, vol. 106 (2009), issue 2

Distribution of heterochromatin and rDNA on the holocentric chromosomes of the aphids Dysaphis plantaginea and Melanaphis pyraria (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Angela CRINITI, Gabriele SIMONAZZI, Stefano CASSANELLI, Mario FERRARI, Davide BIZZARO, Gian Carlo MANICARDI

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 153-157, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.018

The structure of the holocentric chromosomes of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (2n = 12), and pear-grass aphid, Melanaphis pyraria (2n = 8), was studied using C-banding, NOR, Giemsa and fluorochrome staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Contrary to the equilocal distribution of heterochromatin typical of monocentric chromosomes, in both species C-banding evidenced a tendency of highly repetitive DNAs to be restricted to the X chromosomes. Silver staining and FISH, using a 28S rDNA probe, located rDNA genes on one telomere of each X chromosome, the only brightly fluorescent C-positive sites revealed by CMA3...

A contribution to the karyosystematics of the planthopper families Dictyopharidae and Fulgoridae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha)

Valentina G. KUZNETSOVA, Anna MARYAÑSKA-NADACHOWSKA, Alexander F. EMELJANOV

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 159-170, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.019

The chromosome complements of thirteen species of the planthopper family Dictyopharidae are described and illustrated. For each species, the structure of testes and, on occasion, ovaries is additionally outlined in terms of the number of seminal follicles and ovarioles. The data presented cover the tribes Nersiini, Scoloptini and Dictyopharini of the subfamily Dictyopharinae and the tribes Ranissini, Almanini, and Orgeriini of the Orgeriinae. The data on the tribes Nersiini and Orgeriini are provided for the first time. Males of Hyalodictyon taurinum and Trimedia cf. viridata (Nersiini) have 2n = 26 + X; Scolops viridis,...

Genetic and physiological variation among sexual and parthenogenetic populations of Asobara japonica (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of drosophilid flies

Yusuke MURATA, Shinsuke IDEO, Masayoshi WATADA, Hideyuki MITSUI, Masahito T. KIMURA

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 171-178, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.020

We studied variations in genetic, physiological, and ecological traits, and the phylogenetic relationship among sexual and parthenogenetic populations of Asobara japonica, a larval parasitoid of drosophilid flies, in order to understand how they adapt to local environments and have differentiated. The strain from Iriomote-jima (IR) differed from other Japanese strains in the nucleotide sequences of its cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and in not undergoing diapause and having a shorter preimaginal period and a higher adult tolerance of cold. The strains other than IR showed a low level of nucleotide variation in COI but varied in their mode...

Population structure and speciation in the dragonfly Sympetrum striolatum/nigrescens (Odonata: Libellulidae): An analysis using AFLP markers

Katharine A. PARKES, William AMOS, Norman W. MOORE, Joseph I. HOFFMAN, Janet MOORE

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 179-184, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.021

There has been a long-standing debate as to whether Sympetrum striolatum (Charpentier, 1840) and the darker northern form, S. nigrescens (Lucas, 1912) should be recognised as separate species of dragonfly. Here we address this question using genetic analysis based on AFLP markers and samples collected from sites across the species' United Kingdom range. The program STRUCTURE finds no support for specific status. Instead, it reveals strong patterns of divergence between populations sampled from Scottish islands and those on the mainland, suggesting that salt water is a major barrier to gene flow. Thus, the dark form is quite likely to...

Purification and characterization of a novel thermoacidophilic and thermostable α-mannosidase from the digestive fluid of oil palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae

Micaël BÉDIKOU, Pascal AHI, Martial KONÉ, Betty FAULET, Jean GONNETY, Patrice KOUAMÉ, Sébastien NIAMKÉ

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 185-191, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.022

An extracellular α-mannosidase with unusual properties was purified from the digestive fluid of oil palm weevil (Rhynchophorus palmarum Linnaeus) larvae using ammonium sulphate saturation, size exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme named RpltM is thermoacidophilic, thermostable and behaves like lysosomal α-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.24). The molecular weight, Km value, optimum reaction temperature and pH are 108-112 kDa, 0.36 mM, 65°C and 4.5, respectively. Zn2+ enhanced whereas Cu2+, Sodium dodecyl sulphate, swainsonine and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-iminomannitol strongly inhibited its...

Lampel G. & Meier W.: HEMIPTERA: STERNORRHYNCHA - APHIDINA. Vol. 2: APHIDIDAE. Fauna Helvetica 16.

J. HAVELKA

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 192, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.023

Centre Suisse de cartographie de la faune & Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, Neuchâtel, 2007, 523 pp. ISBN 978-2-88414-028-7. Price EUR 56.00, USD 83.00.

Food consumption and immature growth of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on a natural prey and a factitious food

Mohammad A. JALALI, Luc TIRRY, Patrick DE CLERCQ

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 193-198, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.024

One factor limiting the adoption of aphidophagous coccinellids in augmentative biological control is cost-effective mass production. The use of factitious foods may lower production costs by reducing space and manpower requirements for mass rearing of the predator and its prey and by enhancing mechanization of rearing procedures. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of food conversion, consumption indices and growth rates of first to fourth instars of Adalia bipunctata when fed either a mixture of Ephestia kuehniella eggs and fresh bee pollen, or on the natural prey Myzus persicae. Larval survival did not differ...

Predation of Bradysia sp. (Diptera: Sciaridae), Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) by Coenosia attenuata (Diptera: Muscidae) in greenhouse crops

Maria Del Mar TELLEZ, Gervasio TAPIA, Manuel GAMEZ, Tomas CABELLO, Helmut F. van EMDEN

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 199-204, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.025

We studied the predation behaviour of the "hunter fly" (Coenosia attenuata Stein) in the laboratory and greenhouse. In the laboratory, which was conducted at 25°C at 60-80% RH, with a 16L : 8D photoperiod, we examined the functional response of this species to three different pests, namely the sciarid fly (Bradysia sp.), the tobacco whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and the leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii. In the greenhouse, we studied the population dynamics of the predator and its prey on pepper and water melon crops grown in southern Spain. Adult hunter flies were found to exhibit a type I functional response to adult sciarid flies...

Life tables and demographic statistics of Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reared at different temperatures and on different host plant growth stages

Zhanshan (Sam) MA, Edward J. BECHINSKI

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 205-210, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.026

Laboratory experiments were used to investigate the influences of 25 combinations of temperature and barley plant growth stage (5 × 5 factorial combination of temperature and barley plant growth stage) on the development, survival and reproduction of the Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). For each of the 25 treatments, the developmental time and nymphal production of 72 RWA individuals were recorded (1800 RWA in total) throughout their entire lifetimes. The collected data were used for analyzing demography, modelling phenology, and simulating population growth of RWA. In this paper, the results of demographic analyses are...

Female reproductive patterns in the millipede Polydesmus angustus (Diplopoda: Polydesmidae) and their significance for cohort-splitting

Jean-François DAVID

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 211-216, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.027

First-stadium juveniles of Polydesmus angustus born each month from May to September were reared throughout their life cycle under controlled seasonal conditions. At maturity, the reproductive patterns of 62 females were studied individually. It was confirmed that females born from May to August have a 1-year life cycle and those born from late August onwards a 2-year life cycle (cohort-splitting). A third type of life cycle - interseasonal iteroparity - was observed in a few females born late in the season. On average, annual females started to reproduce when 11.4 months old and produced 3.6 broods per female over 1.8 months; the later they...

Life-history of the parthenogenetic oonopid spider, Triaeris stenaspis (Araneae: Oonopidae)

Stanislav KORENKO, Jakub ©MERDA, Stano PEKÁR

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 217-223, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.028

Selected life-history traits of an oonopid spider, Triaeris stenaspis Simon, which has been introduced into greenhouses in Europe, were investigated. Spiders were reared in the laboratory under constant physical and dietary conditions, and followed from egg to death. The spiders passed through 3 juvenile instars, each lasting approximately a month. The adult stage lasted on average 6 months, which is 54% of the entire life cycle. The mortality in each juvenile instar was similar. Five morphological characters were recorded for each instar, which provided a reliable means of identifying the developmental stages. All spiders developed into females...

Regnault-Roger C., Philogene B.J.R. & Vincent C. (eds): Biopesticides of Plant Origin.

J. HAVELKA

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 224, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.029

Intercept Ltd - Lavoisier Publ. Inc., Hampshire, UK, Secaucus, NJ, USA, 313 pp., 2005, ISBN 2-7430-0675-7. Price EUR 100.00, USD 136.00, GBP 71.00.

Long-distance wind-borne dispersal of the moth Cornifrons ulceratalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Evergestinae) into the northern Mediterranean

Jordi DANTART, Constantí STEFANESCU, Anna ÀVILA, Marta ALARCÓN

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 225-229, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.030

On October 2006, during an episode of abnormally warm weather, the African moth Cornifrons ulceratalis (Lederer, 1858) was captured simultaneously for the first time in several sites in north-eastern Spain, the Balearic Islands and southern France. A deep depression situated over the Atlantic at the time gave rise to warm south-westerly winds, accompanied by suspended dust, that blew towards the north-western Mediterranean Basin. Back trajectories of air masses at two different altitudinal levels indicate that the moths most probably originated from an area located in Morocco and northern Algeria, where C. ulceratalis can be extremely...

On top of a Mediterranean Massif: Climate change and conservation of orophilous moths at the southern boundary of their range (Lepidoptera: Macroheterocera)

Stefano SCALERCIO

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 231-239, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.031

During the last few decades the tree line has shifted upward on Mediterranean mountains. This has resulted in a decrease in the area of the sub-alpine prairie habitat and an increase in the threat to strictly orophilous moths that occur there. This also occurred on the Pollino Massif due to the increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall in Southern Italy. We found that a number of moths present in the alpine prairie at 2000 m appear to be absent from similar habitats at 1500-1700 m. Some of these species are thought to be at the lower latitude margin of their range. Among them, Pareulype berberata and Entephria flavicinctata are...

Light intensity affects spatial distribution of Heteroptera in deciduous forests

Martin M. GOSSNER

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 241-252, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.032

Studies on the effect of varying light intensity on the spatial distribution of flying insect communities are rare, particularly in complex ecosystems like forests. The horizontal and vertical distribution of Heteroptera was studied at different scales in a large deciduous forest area, the "Steigerwald", in southern Germany. Diversity was affected by (1) vertical position: it was significantly higher near the ground than in the canopy of beech-dominated forests but similar in oak-dominated forests; within the canopy of beech-dominated forests, diversity was significantly higher in the upper than in the lower canopy of intermixed oak trees but similar...

Chemical defence of the warningly coloured caterpillars of Methona themisto (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae)

Kamila F. MASSUDA, José R. TRIGO

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 253-259, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.033

The caterpillars of the butterfly Methona themisto (Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae) are conspicuously coloured and feed exclusively on Brunfelsia uniflora (Solanaceae), a plant that is rich in secondary plant substances, which suggests the caterpillars are chemically protected against predators. Results of experiments indicate that predators determine the survival of Methona themisto caterpillars in the field and laboratory bioassays that this organism is eaten by ants and spiders but not chicks. Both the conspicuous orange and black striped colouration and chemical compounds of Methona themisto caterpillars seem to be related...

Trurlia, a new Oriental genus of the tribe Cephenniini (Coleoptera: Scydmaenidae)

Pawe³ JA£OSZYÑSKI

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 261-274, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.034

A new genus, Trurlia Ja³oszyñski, in the tribe Cephenniini (Scydmaenidae: Scydmaeninae) is described. The type species is T. insana sp. n. from Sumatra; females of an undescribed species are also reported to occur in W Malaysia. Trurlia most closely resembles Cephennomicrus Reitter, but it is the first genus of the Scydmaenidae with entirely fused antennomeres 10 and 11, forming a large, oval, abruptly separated club. Based on a disarticulated female of Trurlia sp., the detailed morphology of the new genus is described and illustrated, and possible relationships with other genera of the tribe are discussed. Comments...

Good-bye Scydmaenidae, or why the ant-like stone beetles should become megadiverse Staphylinidae sensu latissimo (Coleoptera)

Vasily V. GREBENNIKOV, Alfred F. NEWTON

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 275-301, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.035

Ant-like stone beetles (Coleoptera: Scydmaenidae) include more than 4,850 described species in about 90 genera maintained as a separate cosmopolitan family since 1815. Recent authors have hypothesised that Scydmaenidae might be rooted deep inside rove-beetles (Staphylinidae). To test this hypothesis we analysed 206 parsimoniously informative larval and adult morphological characters scored for 38 taxa. Strict consensus topologies from the shortest trees in all 12 analyses consistently placed Scydmaenidae as sister to (Steninae + Euaesthetinae) in a monophyletic Staphylinine Group (with or without Oxyporinae). The single fully resolved and most consistently...

Sexual dimorphism and geographical male polymorphism in the ghost moth Hepialus humuli (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae): Scale ultrastructure and evolutionary aspects

Svend KAABER, Niels P. KRISTENSEN, Thomas J. SIMONSEN

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 303-313, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.036

Throughout most of its range the Palaearctic moth Hepialus humuli shows a striking sexual dimorphism correlated with a dimorphism in wing scale ultrastructure. Male uppersides are uniformly silvery white, due to light reflection from unpigmented scales with an elaborate internal cuticular meshwork; the conspicuous wings are visual cues for females when lekking males swarm at dusk. Female uppersides have a yellow-and-orange pigment pattern, and commonplace scale morphology. Male specimens from the Shetland and Faroe Islands populations are polymorphic, with wing uppersides ranging from the typical uniform white to being patterned much as in females,...

No genetic differentiation in the rose-infesting fruit flies Rhagoletis alternata and Carpomya schineri (Diptera: Tephritidae) across central Europe

Annette KOHNEN, Volker WISSEMANN, Roland BRANDL

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 315-321, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.037

After the last glacial retreat in Europe, multiple recolonizations led to intraspecific differentiation in many of the recolonizing taxa. Here we investigate the genetic diversification across central Europe in two recolonizing taxa, the tephritid fruit flies Rhagoletis alternata (Fallén, 1814) and Carpomya schineri (Loew, 1856), which attack rose hips. Analysis of amplified and sequenced fragments of the mitochondrial genes encoding cytochrome oxidase I (800 bp), cytochrome oxidase II (470 bp) and cytochrome b (450 bp), indicate that all the individuals of R. alternata (n = 21) collected from across Europe share the same...

Van Driesche R., Hoddle M. & Center T.: Control of Pests and Weeds by Natural Enemies. An Introduction to Biological Control.

I. HODEK

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 323, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.038

Blackwell, Malden, MA & Oxford, 2008, 473 pp. ISBN 978-1-4051-4571-8. Price: USD 69.95.

Vallenduuk H.J. & Moller Pillot H.K.M.: CHIRONOMIDAE LARVAE. General Ecology and Tanypodinae.

J. MATÌNA

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (2): 324, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.039

KNNV Publishing, Zeist, 2007, 144 pp. ISBN 978-90-5011-259-8. Price EUR 69.50.