EJE, vol. 105 (2008), issue 2

The importance of termites (Isoptera) for the recycling of herbivore dung in tropical ecosystems: a review


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 165-173, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.025

While the key role of termites in the decomposition of litter in the tropics has been acknowledged for a long time, much less information exists on their importance in the recycling of dung of primary consumers, especially herbivores. A review of published studies shows that a diverse group of termites (at least 126 species) has been reported to feed on a wide range of mammalian dung (18 species). Predominantly, wood-feeding and polyphagous wood-litter feeding species were found to feed also frequently on dung. Moreover, we found that termites can quickly remove large amounts of mammalian dung, especially in the dry season, when on average about 1/3...

Cytotaxonomy and karyology of the tribe Otiorhynchini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 175-184, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.026

A cytogenetic study of bisexual species belonging to the genera Cirrorhynchus, Dodecastichus and Otiorhynchus is presented in order to confirm their taxonomic position. The karyotype characterization was accomplished by an analysis of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes after differential staining, namely by C-banding, silver impregnation, DAPI and CMA3. A review of the cytogenetic data for the tribe Otiorhynchini contributed to knowledge of chromosomal evolution in this group. An investigation of five of the species studied showed some similarities such as a sex chromosome system of "parachute type" (Xyp), the...

Geographical patterns of chromosomal differentiation in the brachypterous grasshopper Podisma sapporensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 185-196, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.027

The distribution patterns of the X0/XX and neo-XY/neo-XX chromosome races, subraces, and "hybrids" between subraces of the grasshopper P. sapporensis were analyzed. The origin of the observed variation is Robertsonian translocations between a sex chromosome and an autosome, and chromosome rearrangements. The fixation levels of inversions varied depending on geographic regions. No hybrid population is known implying that a strong reproductive isolation system exists in hybrids between the different chromosomal races. The probable reasons for the purity of X0 and neo-XY chromosome races and high chromosome polymorphism in contact zones between...

Genetic characterization of the Balkan endemic species, Merodon desuturinus (Diptera: Syrphidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 197-204, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.028

Variation of 15 nuclear allozyme genes and a 708 bp fragment of DNA sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were surveyed in a population of a hoverfly species, Merodon desuturinus Vujić, ©imić & Radenković, 1995 (Diptera, Syrphidae), endemic to the Balkan Peninsula. Based on phylogeography and taxonomy, Merodon desuturinus is of special interest from a biogeographical and conservation perspective. Characterization and determination of genetic relationships between M. desuturinus and taxa of the M. aureus, M. avidus, and M. ruficornis groups on the Balkan Peninsula...

A chromosomal study on a Lebanese spittlebug Philaenus arslani (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aphrophoridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 205-210, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.029

The meadow spittlebug genus Philaenus (Auchenorrhyncha: Aphrophoridae) is known to display marked colour polymorphism. This study presents the results of a karyotype analysis of P. arslani from Lebanon using conventional chromosome staining, C-banding, fluorescent banding using base-specific fluorochromes (CMA3 and DAPI) and AgNOR-staining. This species has 2n = 18 + neo-XY, and differs from P. spumarius both in the number of chromosomes and sex chromosome system. During meiosis, the neo-XY bivalent is clearly heteromorphic being the largest in the complement. Furthermore, sex chromosomes show marked differences in C-banding...

Bladder grasshoppers (Caelifera: Pneumoridae) contain three adipokinetic peptides


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 211-217, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.030

The corpora cardiaca (CC) of the pneumorid grasshopper species Bullacris discolor contain at least one substance that causes hyperlipaemia in the migratory locust. Isolation of neuropeptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family was achieved by single-step reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of CC extracts and monitoring tryptophan fluorescence. The material of the bladder grasshopper showed three distinct fluorescence peaks with adipokinetic activity in the migratory locust. The peptide sequences were identified by Edman degradation after the N-terminal pyroglutamate residue had been cleaved off enzymatically,...

Differences in mating strategies in two closely related small ermine moth species (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 219-226, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.031

The degree of polyandry in a species is linked to other life history traits such as egg maturation, life span, and male ejaculate size and quality. The study of differences in mating strategies between closely related species can provide a better understanding of the evolution of these strategies and of sperm competition. Mating patterns of two closely related species of small ermine moths (Yponomeuta) were investigated in the laboratory. The average female age at first mating was higher in Y. cagnagellus than in Y. padellus. Both species mated more than once; however, Y. cagnagellus females were more likely to remate in...

Physiological state of female and light intensity affect the host-plant selection of carrot psyllid, Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 227-232, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.032

We have studied the effect of different light gradient regimes on host-plant selection of the carrot psyllid, Trioza apicalis Förster. In both a strong and a weak light gradient, carrot psyllids preferred a carrot leaf placed in higher light intensity. When the choice was between the host (carrot Daucus carota L.) and a non-host (barley Hordeum vulgare L.) virgin adults settled significantly more often on non-host in higher light intensity than on carrot in lower light intensity. In a weak light gradient, none of the gravid females settled on a non-host. In an experiment without light gradient, gravid females showed a preference...

Plant architecture and vegetation structure: Two ways for insect herbivores to escape parasitism

Elisabeth OBERMAIER, Annette HEISSWOLF, Hans Joachim POETHKE, Barbara RANDLKOFER, Torsten MEINERS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 233-240, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.033

Interactions between herbivorous insects and their parasitoids occur in highly structured and complex environments. Habitat structure can be an important factor affecting ecological interactions between different trophic levels. In this study the influence of plant architecture and surrounding vegetation structure on the interaction between the tansy leaf beetle, Galeruca tanaceti L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its egg parasitoid, Oomyzus galerucivorus Hedqvist (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was investigated at two small spatial scales in the field. It was expected that high and structurally complex plants or vegetation represent an enemy...

Testing the impact of laboratory reared indigenous leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Braconidae) on sentinel hosts in controlled orchard releases


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 241-248, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.034

Leafrollers can experience high levels of indigenous parasitism in organically managed apple orchards and the augmentative release of specific parasitoid species to suppress these secondary pests may be advantageous in orchards converting to non-chemical pest management. Caged and uncaged releases of two ichneumonid [Apophua simplicipes (Cresson) and Glypta variegata Dasch] and two braconid (Macrocentrus linearis Nees and Apanteles polychrosidis Viereck) koinobiont endoparasitoids of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on host-infested potted apple trees were conducted...

The influence of changes in viticulture management on the butterfly (Lepidoptera) diversity in a wine growing region of southwestern Germany


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 249-255, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.035

Viticulture is one of the most intensively managed agricultural ecosystems in Europe. Therefore, the conservation problems of vineyards and the ecological benefits of increasing the amount of fallow land are addressed using butterflies as a model group. We established 43 transects, each 100 m long, in a vineyard region in the vicinity of Trier (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) and recorded the butterflies observed along these transects on 20 occasions from late May to early August 2003. Transects crossed vineyards, fallow land and transitional areas of land. 4041 individuals of 34 species showed the typical pattern of relative abundance with few common...

Diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) in roadside verges with grey hair-grass vegetation


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 257-265, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.036

Roadside verges in densely populated areas are often a significant addition to the total semi-natural area and as such may contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. Furthermore, they can enhance the ecological cohesion of a region, especially when the existing nature reserves are small and/or highly fragmented. We investigated the occurrence of ground beetles and spiders in six highway verges with grey hair-grass vegetation in the Veluwe region, The Netherlands. Total species number in the verges was similar to the values found in nearby nature reserves with comparable vegetation, but the ground beetles tended to be more abundant in the reserves....

Flower visiting Neuroptera: Mouthparts and feeding behaviour of Nemoptera sinuata (Nemopteridae)

Harald W. KRENN, Barbara-Amina GEREBEN-KRENN, Bernhardt M. STEINWENDER, Alexi POPOV

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 267-277, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.037

The mouthparts of the spoon-winged lacewing Nemoptera sinuata are adapted for the uptake of pollen and nectar. Form and function of the mouthparts are described, and the technique of food uptake is discussed in context with flower-visiting behaviour and floral architecture of the preferred flowers. The maxillae are the main organs for food uptake. The brush-shaped laciniae, galeae and maxillary palpi form a functional unit which can be extended by the action of the cardo-stipes joint. Video analyses of the mouthpart movements distinguished different patterns of maxillary motions which occur in nectar feeding or pollen collecting. The flower-visiting...

Morphology of the spermatheca in the Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): Bearing of its diversity on classification and phylogeny

Dominique PLUOT-SIGWALT, Jerzy A. LIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 279-312, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.038

Cuticular parts of the spermatheca and associated vaginal structures (chiefly the ring sclerites of the parietovaginal glands) have been examined and compared in 190 cydnid species representing 65 genera and all five subfamilies currently recognized in the family (Amnestinae, Cephalocteinae, Cydninae, Garsauriinae, Sehirinae). Four species belonging to genera formerly included within the Cydnidae (Dismegistus, Parastrachia, Thaumastella, Thyreocoris) were also examined. Morphology of the three main parts of the spermatheca [seminal receptacle (distal bulb), intermediate part (pump apparatus), spermathecal duct] is described....

How small you can go: Factors limiting body miniaturization in winged insects with a review of the pantropical genus Discheramocephalus and description of six new species of the smallest beetles (Pterygota: Coleoptera: Ptiliidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 313-328, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.039

The recently described and originally monotypic genus Discheramocephalus Johnson, 2007 from the Solomon Islands is revised. Six new species are described, illustrated and keyed: Discheramocephalus brucei sp. n. (Cameroon), D. elisabethae sp. n. (Cameroon), D. mikaeli sp. n. (Tanzania), D. stewarti sp. n. (Bolivia), D. jarmilae sp. n. (Bolivia), D. minutissimus sp. n. (Indonesia). Adults of D. minutissimus have a body length of about 400-426 µm, which is at the lower limit among non-egg-parasitoid insects. Evidence is provided that an egg size large enough to produce a viable larva...

Revision of the genera Anisarthrocera, Rhampholyssa and Rhampholyssodes, description of the new genus Somalarthrocera and a phylogenetic study of the tribe Cerocomini (Coleoptera: Meloidae)

Federica TURCO, Marco A. BOLOGNA

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 329-342, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.040

Four genera of the blister beetle tribe Cerocomini are revised, including the new genus Somalarthrocera. The genera Rhampholyssa Kraatz, 1863 and Somalarthrocera comprise two species each, whereas Anisarthrocera Semenow, 1895 and Rhampholyssodes Kaszab, 1983 are monotypic. S. savanicola sp. n. from Kenya is described, S. semirufa (Fairmaire, 1882) comb. n. is proposed, as well as new synonymy: A. batesi (Marseul, 1872) = A. batesi villiersi Kaszab, 1968. Phylogenetic relationships among the six genera of the tribe are defined by a cladistic analysis, which indicates three...

Morphology, taxonomy and distribution of Diphyonyx gen. n., a lineage of geophilid centipedes with unusually shaped claws (Chilopoda: Geophilidae)

Lucio BONATO, Marzio ZAPPAROLI, Alessandro MINELLI

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 343-354, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.041

A new genus Diphyonyx is proposed here for a previously unrecognised lineage of geophilid centipedes. It is distinct from other geophilids in its unique combination of morphological characters, including the peculiar shape of the pretarsus of the legs on the anterior part of the trunk. The type species D. conjungens (Verhoeff, 1898), comb. n., is redescribed in detail and its geographical distribution updated (Balkan Peninsula, Anatolia, Crimea). Included in Diphyonyx are also D. sukacevi (Folkmanová, 1956), comb. n., and D. garutti (Folkmanová & Dobroruka, 1960), comb. n., both from southern Russia. D. garutti...

Isolation of antibacterial response genes from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) immunized with Escherichia coli

Jae-Sam HWANG, Yeon-Ju KIM, Hea-Son BANG, Eun-Young YUN, Young-Tae KIM, Seong-Ryul KIM, Kwan-Ho PARK, Nam-Soon KIM, Iksoo KIM, Seok-Jo HWANG, Jae-Pil JEON

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 355-359, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.042

Dot blot hybridization of total RNA from normal and bacteria-injected larvae of the dung beetle Copris tripartitus identified 13 cDNA clones that seem to be associated with the immune response. A cDNA encoding a dung beetle homolog of the heat shock protein HSP70 (CTHSP70) was characterized by full-length sequencing and expression pattern analysis. CTHSP70 was upregulated 4 h after bacterial injection, reached maximum level after 8 h, and declined gradually after 16 h. Our data suggest that CTHSP70 and another 12 genes are involved in the anti-microbial defense that is particularly important for dung beetle larvae living in pathogen-rich conditions.

Polymorphic microsatellite loci in the endangered butterfly Lycaena helle (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

Jan Christian HABEL, Aline FINGER, Marc MEYER, Thomas SCHMITT, Thorsten ASSMANN

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 361-362, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.043

Six polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in the endangered butterfly Lycaena helle. Five of them provided interpretable results. We detected four to 34 alleles per locus in a total of 235 samples (males and females) collected from meadows in the Ardennes-Eifel (Germany, Luxemburg and Belgium) and the Westerwald (Germany). We collected one leg for DNA-extraction as a non-lethal method. The expected heterozygosities ranged from 48.6% to 83.1%, depending on the locus analysed. These markers are currently being used in our studies of the species´ phylogeography over its western Palearctic distribution area and for the analysis of the conservation...



Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 363, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.044

Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 2005, 502 pp. ISBN 87-88757-64-1. Price DKK 780.00.

Conor S.: FLY.


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (2): 364, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.045

Reaktion Books, London, 2006, 222 pp. ISBN 13-978-186189-294-2, 10-1-186189-294-2. Price GBP 12.95.