EJE, vol. 105 (2008), issue 1

Why is Coccinella septempunctata so successful? (A point-of-view)

Ivo HODEK, J.P. MICHAUD

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 1-12, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.001

Factors were examined that could be responsible for the predominance of Coccinella septempunctata (C7) in most habitats of the Palaearctic and for its successful invasion of the Nearctic Region. C7 is euryphagous, but less polyphagous than Harmonia axyridis or Coleomegilla maculata in that it cannot develop or reproduce on non-aphid food. The intraguild status of C7 is intermediate. Although adult size is large, preimaginal stages are palatable to those of H. axyridis and Adalia bipunctata, whereas it is not an intraguild predator of these species. Although these traits appear to be neutral or negative, many...

The lock-and-key mechanisms of the internal genitalia of the Noctuidae (Lepidoptera): How are they selected for?

Kauri MIKKOLA

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 13-25, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.002

In the Noctuidae, the owlet moths, the internal genitalia, i.e. the aedeagus and vesica (penis) in the males, and the bursa copulatrix in the females, together form a lock-and-key mechanism (LKM). The species-specific structures have their counterparts in the opposite sex. The internal LKM constitutes a specific reproductive isolation mechanism (lock-and-key hypothesis), which seem to be the rule in the ditrysian Lepidoptera, and also occurs in the Carabidae (Coleoptera) and some other insects. In contrast, the external genitalia rarely have species-specific counterparts in the sexes. Several results indicate the presence of LKMs: In the Noctuidae,...

The wing stalk in Diptera, with some notes on the higher-level phylogeny of the order

Jaroslav STARÝ

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 27-33, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.003

The wing stalk in Diptera is examined, and its structures are re-evaluated and re-interpreted. The non-homology of A2 in Tipulomorpha and "A2" in other Diptera is claimed. Some notes are presented on the higher-level phylogeny of Diptera, especially those concerning Tipulomorpha. The family Trichoceridae is restored among Tipulomorpha, and the Tipulomorpha are re-affirmed as the sister group of the remaining Diptera. The clade Anisopodidae + Culicomorpha + Bibionomorpha is suggested as the sister group of Brachycera.

Silver-negative NORs in Pamphagus ortolaniae (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae)

Roberto VITTURI, Antonella LANNINO, Caterina MANSUETO, Valentina MANSUETO, Mariastella COLOMBA

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 35-39, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.004

The present paper reports some cytogenetic peculiarities observed in the Ag-NORs of Pamphagus ortolaniae chromosomes, the unusual behaviour of ribosomal sites after silver staining and the intense Ag-positive reaction of centromeric regions at spermatogonial metaphase and spermatocyte metaphase I and II. Moreover, a conclusive identification and localization of all the ribosomal clusters is provided by using heterologous rDNA FISH on spermatocyte chromosomes. 18S-28S rDNA mapped on a single chromosome pair and resulted multiclustered along the chromosomal body in three distinct serial regions, r1, r2 and r3. Surprisingly,...

Origin of Jordanian honeybees Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) using amplified mitochondrial DNA

Shahera ZAITOUN, Dhia S. HASSAWI, Wesam SHAHROUR

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 41-44, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.005

The honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) has a large number of geographic subspecies distributed across Europe, Africa and Asia, many of which have been described. This identification is important for bee breeding and preserving honeybee biodiversity. To investigate the origin of Jordanian honeybees, 32 samples collected from different locations in Jordan were analyzed using four different enzyme systems: Bg/II site in cytochrome oxidase b (Cytb), EcoRI site in large ribosomal (lsRNA) subunit, XbaI site in cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) subunit and HinCII site in cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) subunit. The first three enzymes...

Experimental hybridization between X0 and XY chromosome races in the grasshopper Podisma sapporensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae). II. Cytological analysis of embryos and adults of F1 and F2 generations

El¿bieta WARCHA£OWSKA-¦LIWA, Alexander G. BUGROV, Yoshikazu SUGANO, Anna MARYAÑSKA-NADACHOWSKA, Shin-Ichi AKIMOTO

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 45-52, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.006

Experimental hybridization of X0 and XY chromosome races of the brachypterous grasshopper P. sapporensis did not reveal pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. However, a partial zygotic barrier was found between the X0-standard race from Shimokawa and XY-standard chromosome race from Akan. Approximately 40% of embryos from females crossed with males from other chromosome races developed parthenogenetically, the remaining embryos were normal heterozygotes. Adult F1 males and females from crosses of this type had properly developed testes and ovaries. Non-sister associations and other irregularities in meiosis were not observed in male...

Chromosome number, karyotype morphology, heterochromatin distribution and nuclear DNA content of some talitroidean amphipods (Crustacea: Gammaridea)

Angelo LIBERTINI, Renata TRISOLINI, Massimiliano RAMPIN

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 53-58, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.007

Chromosome number, karyotype formula, C-banding pattern, genome size and DNA base composition were studied in three species of Hyalidae and seven species of Talitridae. A karyotype of 25 chromosome pairs, with median centromeres (FN = 100), was found in all the species of Talitridae analysed and Apohyale prevostii. Genome size (C-value) varies among Talitrida from 0.94 pg in Apohyale crassipes to 2.81 pg in Orchestia gammarellus, and the percentage of AT-DNA in the whole genome ranges from 56.12% in A. crassipes to 68.17% in Sardorchestia pelecaniformis. In comparison with Hyalidae, Talitridae show more uniformity...

Cytogeography of three parallel Robertsonian polymorphisms in the water-hyacinth grasshopper, Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

Pablo César COLOMBO

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 59-64, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.008

C. aquaticum (Acrididae: Leptysminae) inhabits water-hyacinths in the Neotropical region. The blue-flowered water-hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, has been introduced elsewhere without its natural enemies and has become a weed; recently C. aquaticum was considered as a possible biological control agent. In this work, six populations were sampled and cytologically studied. C. aquaticum has 2n = 23 chromosomes in males and 24 in females, with an X0/XX sex determination system. All chromosomes are acro-telocentric and the basic karyotype includes three Robertsonian (Rb) translocations between pairs 1/6, 2/5, and 3/4. These polymorphisms...

Heterochromatin heteromorphism in Holhymenia rubiginosa (Heteroptera: Coreidae)

María José BRESSA, María José FRANCO, María Ayelén TOSCANI, Alba GRACIELA PAPESCHI

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 65-72, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.009

Heterochromatin is one of the most dynamic components in the genome of species. Previous studies on the heterochromatin content and distribution in Heteroptera (insects with holokinetic chromosomes) have shown that the species belonging to the family Coreidae are interesting model organisms since they show very diverse C bands patterns. In the present work, we analyzed the C-band pattern in individuals of Holhymenia rubiginosa from different populations collected in different years. This species has the diploid karyotype 2n = 27/28 = 24 + 2m + X0/XX (male/female). C-bands are terminally, subterminally or interstitially located on 10-17 chromosomes...

Intronic sequences of the silkworm strains of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae): High variability and potential for strain identification

Kee Young KIM, Eun Lee MEE, In Lee HEE, Mee Hong YEON, Pil Don KANG, Kwang Ho CHOI, Zhong Zheng GUI, Byung Rae JIN, Jae Sam HWANG, Kang Sun RYU, Yeon Soo HAN, Iksoo KIM

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 73-80, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.010

We sequenced nine introns of 25 silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strains, assuming that the introns are particularly prone to mutation. Mean sequence divergence and maximum sequence divergence in each intronic sequence among 25 silkworm strains ranged from 0.81% (3.8 nucleotides) ~ 9.15% (85.2 nucleotides) and 1.2% (seven nucleotides) ~ 39.3% (366 nucleotides), respectively. The degree of sequence divergence in some introns is very variable, suggesting the potential of using intronic sequences for strain identification. In particular, some introns were highly promising and convenient strain markers due to the presence of a large indels (e.g., 403 bp...

Arrhythmic adult ecdysis but rhythmic emergence from the host chorion in Trichogramma embryophagum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Sergey Ya. REZNIK, Natalia D. VOINOVICH, Nina P. VAGHINA, Svetlana G. KARPOVA

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 81-85, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.011

In many insect species with a pupa covered by various "shells" (puparium, host remains, etc.) pupal-adult ecdysis and emergence to the open air represent two discrete steps. However, in Trichogramma, as well as in other insect parasitoids, these two processes have never been studied separately. We investigated the temporal pattern of pupal-adult ecdysis and of adult emergence from the host chorion in Trichogramma embryophagum Hartig (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in laboratory conditions (12L : 12D, 20°C). Adult ecdysis was arrhythmic, while adult emergence showed a strong rhythmicity. The time lag between ecdysis and emergence varied...

Flight muscle breakdown in the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

Fredrik STJERNHOLM, Bengt KARLSSON

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 87-91, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.012

Flight is important for insects but also incurs costs in terms of reduced reproductive reserves. Recent studies on butterflies have shown that thorax mass and nitrogen content decrease over the adult lifespan, suggesting that flight muscle breakdown may also occur in butterflies. However, unlike other insects known to resorb flight muscles, butterflies will continue to fly throughout the reproductive period. Nonetheless, use of nutrients from flight muscles for reproduction has the potential to improve the reproductive output considerably. In this study we have tested to what extent female Pieris napi L. (Pieridae) butterflies actually do breakdown...

Wing morph- and age-related differences in fertilization success of adult males of a flightless bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

Radomír SOCHA

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 93-98, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.013

The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that short-winged (brachypterous) and long-winged (macropterous) adult males of a flightless bug Pyrrhocoris apterus differ in fertilization success. For this purpose, 5, 10 and 28 days old brachypterous and macropterous males were mated for the same period of time with reproductively active 5 days old brachypterous females. The average hatchability of five egg batches of these females was used as a measure of the fertilization success of the males. The results revealed significantly higher hatchability of the eggs laid by females that copulated with 5 or 10 days old brachypterous males...

Trophic egg provisioning in a passalid beetle (Coleoptera)

Kyoko ENTO, Kunio ARAYA, Shin-Ichi KUDO

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 99-104, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.014

Trophic eggs, which are not viable and eaten by larvae, are produced by the passalid beetle Cylindrocaulus patalis. This is the first record of trophic eggs in subsocial Coleoptera. There are differences in the morphology of trophic and fertile eggs; the former are a paler colour and softer than the latter. The surface of the chorion of trophic eggs is also smoother than that of fertile eggs. The trophic eggs are fed directly by the female parent to 3rd instar larvae following a series of specific behavioural interactions between them, including repeated stridulation by the larva. It is likely that trophic eggs supplement the protein-poor diet...

Habitat use and movement patterns in the endangered ground beetle species, Carabus olympiae (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

Matteo NEGRO, Achille CASALE, Luca MIGLIORE, Claudia PALESTRINI, Antonio ROLANDO

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 105-112, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.015

One of the most compelling challenges for conservation biologists is the preservation of species with restricted ranges. Carabus olympiae Sella, 1855, a ground beetle species inhabiting two small areas in the western Italian Alps, is an example of a steno-endemic and endangered insect species. Despite the fact that this species is historically well known to professional and amateur entomologists, its autecology is virtually unknown. In the present study we used pitfall traps to study habitat selection and phenology, and radiotelemetry to measure differences in movement parameters between sexes, habitats and periods. Data from pitfall trapping...

The role of plant phenology in the host specificity of Gephyraulus raphanistri (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) associated with Raphanus spp. (Brassicaceae)

Janine VITOU, Marcela SKUHRAVÁ, Václav SKUHRAVÝ, John K. SCOTT, Andy W. SHEPPARD

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 113-119, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.016

Recent host records for Gephyraulus raphanistri (Kieffer), a flower-gall midge, show restriction to Raphanus raphanistrum throughout Europe. Gephyraulus raphanistri has never been reported infesting commercially grown Brassica crops. Historical records showing a broad host range appear to have resulted from confusion with new or as yet undescribed Gephyraulus spp. and Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer), a known gall-former of Brassica and other related genera. This study tested host specificity of G. raphanistri in the field in Europe by manipulating host plant phenology of actual and potential...

Influence of abiotic factors on some biological and ecological characteristics of the aphid parasitoid Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitizing Aphis gossypii (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)

Stefanie SCHIRMER, Cetin SENGONCA, Peter BLAESER

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 121-129, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.017

The current laboratory study was designed to evaluate the effect of abiotic and biotic factors such as temperature, light intensity, relative humidity and host age on biological and ecological characteristics of Aphelinus asychis (Walker) parasitizing Aphis gossypii (Glover). The traits studied were developmental duration, mortality, sex ratio, longevity, fecundity and host feeding. A. asychis can completely develop and reproduce at temperatures 18°C and 30°C, light intensities of 1000 and 7000 lux and relative humidities of 30% and 60%. Temperature had a significant effect on the developmental duration as well as on the percentage...

Patch size and connectivity influence the population turnover of the threatened chequered blue butterfly, Scolitantides orion (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

Atte KOMONEN, Tuuli TIKKAMÄKI, Niina MATTILA, Janne S. KOTIAHO

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 131-136, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.018

Chequered blue butterfly, Scolitantides orion (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) has severely declined in many parts of Europe and is currently red-listed in many countries. We studied the population structure and turnover of the species in a lake-island system in a National Park in eastern Finland over a three-year period. The incidence of the chequered blue on the suitable islands (n = 41) and habitat patches (n = 123) was high: an average of 82% of the islands and patches were occupied over the three year period. At the island scale, the annual population turnover rate was 17%, with an extinction and colonization rate of 7% and 10%,...

Sycophila pistacina (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae): A valid species

Hosseinali LOTFALIZADEH, Gérard DELVARE, Jean-Yves RASPLUS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 137-147, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.019


Sycophila pistacina
(Rondani), which was previously synonymized with Sycophila biguttata (Swederus), is revalidated. Morphological, morphometric and molecular data confirm its status as a separate species. Diagnostic characters are provided for distinguishing it from S. biguttata. The nomenclature of the S. biguttata complex is updated.

Seasonal activity-profiles of enzymes involved in cryoprotectant biosynthesis in Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

Michaela TOLLAROVÁ

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 149-152, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.020

The activities of three enzymes involved in polyol biosynthesis (aldose reductase, AR; ketose reductase, KR; and polyol dehydrogenase, PDH) were studied in adult females of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, collected from the field during 2005/2006. While the activities of three enzymes were low in reproductive females, activities greater by one or two orders were seen in reproductively arrested females. AR and KR showed similar seasonal trends in activity. Activities were low during diapause initation and later increased and stabilized during autumnal diapause development. Further increases of AR and KR activities were seen during...

Male territorial behaviour of the endemic large carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) ogasawarensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae), on the oceanic Ogasawara Islands

Shinji SUGIURA

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 153-157, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.021

The endemic large carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) ogasawarensis Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Apidae), on the oceanic Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, located in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, approximately 1000 km south of the Japanese mainland, is a generalist flower visitor. Although the flower-visiting behaviour of X. ogasawarensis females has been frequently recorded, the behaviour of the males in this species has rarely been studied. I observed the territorial behaviour of males on flowers of the native plant species Scaevola sericea Vahl (Campanulales: Goodeniaceae) in a coastal area of Hahajima in early...

Odour-mediated sexual attraction in nabids (Heteroptera: Nabidae)

Steffen ROTH, Arne JANSSEN, Maurice W. SABELIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 159-162, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.022

In many insects, mate finding is mediated by volatile sex pheromones, but evidence in nabids is still fragmentary. The role of odour-mediated sexual attraction in two nabid species, Nabis pseudoferus and N. rugosus, was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer. Females of the two species were significantly attracted by odours of conspecifics males, and males of N. rugosus, but not of N. pseudoferus, were attracted by odours of conspecific females. Odours of conspecifics of the same gender were unattractive. These results suggest the existence of male pheromones in both species and a different female pheromone in N. rugosus.

Amiet F., Herrmann M., Müller A. & Neumeyer R.: FAUNA HELVETICA 9. APIDAE 4 (Anthidum, Chelostoma, Coelioxys, Dioxys, Heriades, Lithurgus, Megachile, Osmia & Stelis). Amiet F., Herrmann M., Müller A. & Neumeyer R.: FAUNA HELVETICA 20. APIDAE 5 (Ammobates, Ammobatoides, Anthophora, Biastes, Ceratina, Dasypoda, Epeoloides, Epeolus, Eucera, Macropis, Melecta, Melitta, Nomada, Pasites, Tetralonia, Thyreus, Xylocopa).

A. PØIDAL

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 163, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.023

Amiet F., Herrmann M., Müller A. & Neumeyer R.: FAUNA HELVETICA 9. APIDAE 4 (Anthidum, Chelostoma, Coelioxys, Dioxys, Heriades, Lithurgus, Megachile, Osmia & Stelis). Centre suisse de cartographie de la faune (CSCF), Neuchâtel, 2004, 272 pp., 249 figs, 117 distrib. maps. ISSN 1422-6367. Hb: ISBN 2-88414-021-2. Price CHF 45.00.
Amiet F., Herrmann M., Müller A. & Neumeyer R.: FAUNA HELVETICA 20. APIDAE 5 (Ammobates, Ammobatoides, Anthophora, Biastes, Ceratina, Dasypoda, Epeoloides, Epeolus, Eucera, Macropis, Melecta, Melitta, Nomada, Pasites, Tetralonia, Thyreus, Xylocopa). Centre suisse de cartographie de la faune (CSCF), Neuchâtel, 2007,...

Blackman R.L. & Eastop V.F.: Aphids on the World's Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs.

J. HOLMAN

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 164, 2008 | 10.14411/eje.2008.024

John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2006, 2 volume set, 1460 pp. ISBN-10: 0-471-48973-5, ISBN-13: 978-0-471-48973-3. Price EUR 355.00.