EJE, vol. 104 (2007), issue 4

Monoclonal antibody against Rab8 from Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

Tomohide UNO, Takuya NAKADA, Yuichi UNO, Kengo KANAMARU, Hiroshi YAMAGATA, Masahiko NAKAMURA, Michihiro TAKAGI

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 641-645, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.080

Small GTPases of the Rab family are key regulators of membrane trafficking. Monoclonal antibodies are useful tools for identifying proteins that interact with other proteins and for examining their tissue distribution. We selected a monoclonal antibody against Rab8 of Bombyx mori L. It specifically recognized amino acid residues 30-109, which are conserved among Rab8 proteins, and did not recognize any other Rab proteins. Western blotting using the antibody revealed one band in the brains of B. mori and rat. Far-Western blotting analysis detected three proteins interacting with Rab8. These results indicate that this antibody is useful...

Linkage analysis of the visible mutations Sel and Xan of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) using SSR markers

Xuexia MIAO, Muwang LI, Fangyin DAI, Cheng LU, Marian R. GOLDSMITH, Yongping HUANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 647-652, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.081

Wild type silkworm larvae have opaque white skin, whereas the mutants Sel (Sepialumazine) and Xan (Xanthous) are yellow-skinned. Previous genetic analysis indicated that Sel and Xan are on established linkage groups 24 (0.0) and 27 (0.0), respectively. However, in constructing a molecular linkage map using simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, we found that the two mutations were linked. To confirm this finding, we developed a set of SSR markers and used them to score reciprocal backcross populations. Taking advantage of the lack of crossing-over in female silkworms, we found that the progeny of backcrosses between F1...

Effects of polymorphic Robertsonian rearrangements on the frequency and distribution of chiasmata in the water-hyacinth grasshopper, Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

Pablo C. COLOMBO

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 653-659, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.082

The New World grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Leptysminae: Acrididae) shows a geographical pattern for three Robertsonian polymorphisms in its southernmost area of distribution in Argentina and Uruguay. The frequency and distribution of chiasmata were analysed in five Argentinian populations. This study reveals a strong redistribution of chiasmata in fusion carriers, with a reduction in proximal and increase of distal chiasma frequency in fusion bivalents and trivalents, when all three karyotypes were compared. However, when only fusion bivalents and trivalents were compared, chiasma frequency was significantly higher in the former than in the...

Direction of karyotype evolution in the bug family Nabidae (Heteroptera): New evidence from 18S rDNA analysis

Christina NOKKALA, Valentina KUZNETSOVA, Snejana GROZEVA, Seppo NOKKALA

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 661-665, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.083

The bug family Nabidae (Heteroptera) includes taxa showing either a low chromosome number 2n = 16 + XY or high chromosome numbers 2n = 26 or 32 + XY. In order to reveal the direction of karyotype evolution in the family, a molecular phylogeny of the family was created to reveal the taxon closest to the ancestral type and hence the ancestral karyotype. The phylogeny was based on a partial sequence of the 18S rDNA gene of both high and low chromosome number species belonging to the subfamilies Prostemmatinae and Nabinae. Phylogeny created by the Neighbour Joining method separated the subfamilies, Prostemmatinae and Nabinae, which form sister groups at...

Morphological and molecular evidence of a possible hybrid zone of Leptidea sinapis and L. reali (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

Rudi VEROVNIK, Primoľ GLOGOVČAN

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 667-674, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.084

Overlapping measurements in the length of the genitalia of Leptidea sinapis/reali collected in Slovenia triggered an investigation of a possible natural hybridization between these two well known sibling species of butterflies. Random polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to generate species specific markers and sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit one gene for determination of the progeny. RAPD's clustering and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny were congruent with the taxonomic placement of specimens of both species, but slightly incongruent with the results of the analysis of genital morphology. Two specimens with L. reali...

The effects of Pleistocene glaciations on the phylogeography of Melitaea cinxia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Niklas WAHLBERG, Ilik SACCHERI

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 675-684, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.085

Partial (600 bp) sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were used to infer the phylogeography of Melitaea cinxia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) across the entire distributional range of the species, encompassing north Africa and Eurasia. Cladistic analysis of 49 distinct haplotypes (haplotype and nucleotide diversity were 0.95 and 0.027, respectively) revealed strong phylogeographic structure in M. cinxia, characterised by four major clades: Morocco; Western (Iberia, France, Italy); Central (central and northern Western Europe, Balkans, Greece, Anatolia, Levant); and Eastern (eastern Baltic, Urals, Iran, Siberia, China);...

Crustacean red pigment-concentrating hormone Panbo-RPCH affects lipid mobilization and walking activity in a flightless bug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera) similarly to its own AKH-peptides

Radomír SOCHA, Dalibor KODRÍK, Rostislav ZEMEK

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 685-691, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.086

In the present study we tested whether the walking activity of macropterous females of the flightless wing-polymorphic bug Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) can be stimulated by its native adipokinetic hormone Peram-CAH-II and the crustacean red pigment-concentrating hormone (Panbo-RPCH), and the effectiveness of the latter hormone in a lipid mobilization assay. Two different doses (10 or 40 pmol) of Peram-CAH-II or Panbo-RCPH were injected into 10-day-old macropterous females of P. apterus to evaluate their effects on the walking activity of treated females. The results obtained showed a significant stimulation of walking activity only...

The role of temperature and photoperiod in diapause induction in the brassica leaf beetle, Phaedon brassicae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Xiao-Ping WANG, Fang-Sen XUE, Yong-Qin TAN, Chao-Liang LEI

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 693-697, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.087

The brassica leaf beetle, Phaedon brassicae Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), one of the pests infesting cruciferous vegetables in China and Japan, is a multivoltine species that oversummers and overwinters as an adult. The effects of both temperature and photoperiod on reproductive diapause induction were systematically investigated in this beetle. Under 16L : 8D, most of the beetles entered reproductive diapause at 12-30°C, indicating that photoperiod played a crucial role in estivation diapause induction. Under 12L : 12D, all adults developed without diapause at 28 and 30°C; less than 25% of the individuals entered reproductive diapause at...

Diapause, cold hardiness and flight ability of Cry1Ac-resistant and -susceptible strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Ge-Mei LIANG, Kong-Ming WU, Brian RECTOR, Yu-Yuan GUO

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 699-704, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.088

The diapause inducement condition, cold hardiness, and flight ability in Cry1Ac-resistant (BtR) and Cry1Ac-susceptible (96S) strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were compared in the laboratory. The BtR strain was derived from the 96S strain and shows 1375-fold resistance to the Cry1Ac toxin after having been selected for 52 generations. Compared with the 96S strain, the Bt-resistant strain was more likely to go into diapause under a short-photoperiod environment. At 11L : 13D, 12L : 12D and 13L : 11D photoperiods, the percentages of BtR insects entering diapause were 72.7%, 82.9% and 68.7%, respectively, which were significantly...

Effect of photoperiod on parasitization by Trichogramma principium (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Sergey Ya. REZNIK, Nina P. VAGHINA

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 705-713, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.089

The effect of photoperiod on parasitization of the eggs of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1789) by Trichogramma principium Sugonyaev & Sorokina, 1976 was investigated under several photoperiodic regimes of L : D = 3 : 21, 6 : 18, 9 : 15, 12 : 12, 15 : 9, 18 : 6 and 21 : 3. In all regimes, certain wasps delayed ovipositing in this non-preferred host. Potential fecundity of T. principium females (the number of mature ovarial eggs at emergence) and subsequent oogenesis (estimated by the number of mature ovarial eggs in non-ovipositing females) was independent of photoperiod. However, the percentage of...

Mating periodicity and post-mating refractory period in the zoophytophagous plant bug Macrolophus caliginosus (Heteroptera: Miridae)

César GEMENO, Oscar ALOMAR, Jordi RIUDAVETS, Cristina CASTAÑÉ

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 715-720, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.090

The zoophytophagous mirid bug Macrolophus caliginosus is an important biocontrol agent of whiteflies in the Mediterranean region. Periods of low productivity in commercial breeding units and unsuccessful establishment in greenhouses prompted this study of mating behaviour. Here we describe copulation behaviour, the diel mating periodicity and post-copulatory refractory period. A natural plant substrate needs to be provided if one wants to observe the copulatory behaviour of M. caliginosus in the laboratory. There was no apparent directional orientation in the approach of the two sexes, instead males pursued females after "accidentally"...

Adult feeding increases fecundity in female Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Zeng-Ming SONG, Zhe LI, Dian-Mo LI, Bao-Yu XIE, Jing-Yuan XIA

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 721-724, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.091

The availability and quality of nectar for adults are thought to affect fecundity of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of adult feeding on the fecundity, and oviposition pattern of moths, and larval performance (egg hatch). The moths were fed either on distilled water, honey solution, or one of a range of concentrations of sucrose solution. The results showed that diets with sugars significantly increased fecundity and adult lifespan. Lifespan, total numbers of eggs and egg mass were significantly higher for females that fed on sugar during...

Ejaculate size varies with remating interval in the grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus erythropus (Caelifera: Acrididae)

Klaus REINHARDT

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 725-729, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.092

The number of sperm a male ejaculates is influenced, among other factors, by male age, time since last copulation and possibly a combination of both. Males of Chorthippus parallelus erythropus were subjected to three successive matings in which males had a remating interval of either one or three days. The first ejaculate was very variable. It contained a mean of 433,000 sperm. If there was a one-day interval between matings, the second and third ejaculate comprised 16-19% of the number of sperm in the first ejaculate, respectively. Its sister taxon, the subspecies Chorthippus p. parallelus showed a similar second ejaculate size but the...

Microhabitat preferences of Maculinea teleius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in a mosaic landscape

Péter BATÁRY, Noémi ÖRVÖSSY, Ádám KŐRÖSI, Marianna Vályi NAGY, László PEREGOVITS

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 731-736, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.093

The Scarce Large Blue (Maculinea teleius) is an endangered butterfly throughout Europe due to its special life-cycle and habitat loss. Our aims were to describe the microhabitats available to this butterfly, to test what factors influence the presence and density of M. teleius adults and to investigate the relationship between host ant species and M. teleius. The vicinities of eight fens were sampled, where there are four types of microhabitats available for this butterfly: Narrowleaf Cattail (Typha angustifolia), Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), Marsh Woundwort (Stachys palustris) and...

The multicolored Asian ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Quebec agroecosystems ten years after its arrival

Éric LUCAS, Charles VINCENT, Geneviève LABRIE, Gérald CHOUINARD, François FOURNIER, Francine PELLETIER, Noubar J. BOSTANIAN, Daniel CODERRE, Marie-Pierre MIGNAULT, Pierre LAFONTAINE

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 737-743, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.094

The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was first reported in southern Canada in 1994. In this study, we examined the status of the ladybeetle in Quebec agroecosystems seven to ten years after its arrival. We integrated the findings from eight independent field studies carried out in pome fruit, grapes, medicinal crops, field corn, sweet corn, sweet pepper, lettuce, and soybean. Nine aphidophagous and 6 coccidophagous coccinellid species were sampled on these crops. Among these aphidophagous species, three invasive (H. axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata)...

Size-dependent colouration in larvae of Orgyia antiqua (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): A trade-off between warning effect and detectability?

Siiri-Lii SANDRE, Toomas TAMMARU, Triinu MÄND

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 745-752, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.095

While the study of colour patterns is a traditional subject of evolutionary ecology, there are various hypotheses which suffer from a lack of experimental evidence. One intriguing possibility is a trade-off between warning efficiency and detectability. After a certain size threshold, the detrimental effect of increased detectability can outweigh the benefits of warning colouration. One may thus expect corresponding patterns at the level of ontogenetic development: as juveniles grow, they should first acquire warning colouration, and then lose it again. We analysed this possibility in Orgyia antiqua, a moth species with hairy larvae which are...

Probability distribution, sampling unit, data transformations and sequential sampling of European vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval counts from Northern Greece vineyards

Antonis A. IFOULIS, Matilda SAVOPOULOU-SOULTANI

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 753-761, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.096

Studies were conducted to investigate the distribution of larvae of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a key vineyard pest of grape cultivars. The data collected were larval densities of the second and third generation of L. botrana on half-vine and entire plants of wine and table cultivars in 2003-2004. No insecticide treatments were applied to plants during the 2-year study. The distribution of L. botrana larvae can be described by a negative binomial. This reveals that the insect aggregates. A common value for the k parameter of the negative binomial distribution...

Climate signals are reflected in an 89 year series of British Lepidoptera records

Roger L.H. DENNIS, Tim H. SPARKS

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 763-767, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.097

Historical data sources on abundance of organisms are valuable for determining responses of those organisms to climate change and coincidence of changes amongst different organisms. We investigate data on the general abundance of Lepidoptera over an 89 year period 1864-1952. We related abundance to monthly mean temperature and precipitation and the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, and to numbers of migrants from an independent source. Abundances of Lepidoptera were significantly positively correlated with current year temperatures for May to September and November and significantly negatively correlated with temperatures in January. Numbers...

Body weight distributions of central European Coleoptera

Werner ULRICH

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 769-776, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.098

Species number - body weight distributions are generally thought to be skewed to the right. While this pattern is well documented in vertebrates, comparative studies on species rich invertebrate taxa are still scarce. Here I show that the weight distributions of central European Coleoptera (based on 8257 species body weight data compiled from Freude et al., 1964-1994) are predominantly right skewed. Skewness and species richness per taxon were positively correlated. The number of modes of the body weight distributions was negatively correlated with species richness. 273 of the 558 genera had bimodal distributions. Species richness per genus did not...

Spermathecal morphology and sperm dynamics in the female Schizocosa malitiosa (Araneae: Lycosidae)

Gonzalo USETA, Bernhard A. HUBER, Fernando G. COSTA

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 777-785, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.099

The linkage between spermathecal morphology and sperm dynamics was experimentally analysed in Schizocosa malitiosa (Tullgren, 1905) using histological serial sections and SEM. We recognised three connected sections for each spermatheca: basal atrium, stalk and head. The head ends blindly, is sclerotized, provided with few large pores, and surrounded by thick, presumably glandular epithelium. The atrium is also sclerotized, and connects with both copulatory and fertilization ducts, lying close to each other. A porous plate is located in the stalk-atrium connection. Nine adult females were fixed in eight reproductive conditions for reconstructing...

Flightless Hawaiian Hemerobiidae (Neuroptera): Comparative morphology and biology of a brachypterous species, its macropterous relative and intermediate forms

Catherine A. TAUBER, Maurice J. TAUBER, Jon G. GIFFIN

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 787-800, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.100

Five flightless species of Micromus are known from the Hawaiian Archipelago; only one, the rare Micromus usingeri, is reported from the Island of Hawai'i. Herein, we report the natural occurrence of intermediates between this brachypterous species and its near relative, the macropterous Micromus longispinosus. We compare some morphological and life-history characteristics of the two species and the intermediates. Our study shows that: (1) The two closely related species are broadly distributed on Hawai'i, but they appear to be allopatric altitudinally. (2) M. usingeri is associated with a cool, misty, high-altitude...

Revision of Afrocrania (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) Part II: Species in which the males lack head cavities or extended elytral extrusions

Thomas WAGNER

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 801-814, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.101

In this second part of the revision of Afrotropical Afrocrania Hincks, 1949 (= Pseudocrania Weise, 1892, not Pseudocrania MCoy, 1851), a group of Galerucinae restricted to Africa, additional material is revised. Herein, species in which the males lack deep head cavities, partly horned antennomeres, or extended elytral extrusions, but usually have small post-scutellar extrusions or depressions, are considered. Material of Afrocrania pauli (Weise, 1903), comb. n. (= Candezea pauli Weise, 1903), and A. famularis (Weise, 1904), comb. n. (= Monolepta famularis Weise, 1904; = Candezea atripennis Laboissière,...

Phylogenetic revision of the New Zealand genus Dasytricheta, with a discussion of its systematic position within the subfamily Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

Grzegorz PA¦NIK

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 815-826, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.102

The genus Dasytricheta Bernhauer, 1943 is redefined. The genus Pyromecroma Cameron, 1945 is considered a new synonym of Dasytricheta. Eleven valid species are recognised in the genus: Dasytricheta spectabilis Bernhauer, 1943 (the type species of Dasytricheta), D. funesta (Broun, 1912) comb. n. (the type species of Pyromecroma, originally described in Myrmecopora Saulcy, 1864), and nine species described as new: Dasytricheta haastiana sp. n., D. hookeriana sp. n., D. intermedia sp. n., D. kapuniana sp. n., D. mahitahiana sp. n., D. periana sp. n., D....

Pristinochterus gen. n. (Hemiptera: Ochteridae) from the Upper Mesozoic of northeastern China

Yunzhi YAO, Wanzhi CAI, Dong REN

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 827-835, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.103

A new genus of velvety shore bugs, Pristinochterus gen. n., with one new species, Pristinochterus zhangi sp. n., are described. The specimens were collected from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation and Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation in northeastern China. This finding represents the first record of fossil velvety shore bugs from China. Among the specimens, four well-preserved nymphs are reported for the first time. The placement of the new genus within Ochteridae is briefly discussed. A key to the world genera of Ochteridae is provided.

A new Middle Jurassic "grylloblattodean" family from China (Insecta: Juraperlidae fam. n.)

Di-Ying HUANG, André NEL

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (4): 837-840, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.104

The new family Juraperlidae is erected for the new genus and species Juraperla daohugouensis from the Chinese Middle Jurassic. Its wing venation has strong similarities with that of Mesozoic taxa currently included in the group "Grylloblattodea", but its character "three (or four?)-segmented tarsi" questions its potential inclusion into the same order with the modern Grylloblattodea. This suggests that the systematic assignments of several fossil "grylloblattid" species, mainly based on wing venation, could be very different.