EJE, vol. 104 (2007), issue 1

A serine protease from the midgut of the bumblebee, Bombus ignitus (Hymenoptera: Apidae): cDNA cloning, gene structure, expression and enzyme activity

Young Moo CHOO, Kwang Sik LEE, Hyung Joo YOON, Sang Beom LEE, Ji Hyeon KIM, Hung Dae SOHN, Byung Rae JIN

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 1-7, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.001

A serine protease gene was cloned from the bumblebee, Bombus ignitus. The B. ignitus serine protease (BiSP) gene spans 1702 bp and consists of four introns and five exons coding for 250 amino acid residues. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA suggested that BiSP gene is a single copy gene. The cDNA encoding BiSP was expressed as a 28-kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect cells and the recombinant BiSP showed activity in a protease enzyme assay. BiSP was specifically expressed in the midgut of B. ignitus queens, males, and workers, suggesting that the BiSP is a gut enzyme involved in the digestion...

Moist habitats are essential for adults of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae), to avoid dehydration

Joshua B. BENOIT, Giancarlo LOPEZ-MARTINEZ, Michael A. ELNITSKY, Richard E. LEE, David L. DENLINGER

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 9-14, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.002

Desiccation resistance of adult males and females of the midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae) was evaluated to determine how this short-lived stage maintains water balance in the dry Antarctic environment. Both sexes had slightly lower water content (≈60%) and a higher dehydration tolerance (>30% water loss) than most other insects. Water loss rates were high and increased rapidly at temperatures above 15°C, indicating that the adult midges are more hygric than many other polar terrestrial arthropods. Water gain was accomplished by free water uptake with minimal or no contribution from absorption of water vapor or metabolic...

Factors terminating ovarian arrest in long-winged females of a flightless bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

Radomír SOCHA

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 15-22, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.003

The aim of the present study was to determine the factors that are involved in termination of a non-diapause type of ovarian arrest in the adult macropterous females of a flightless bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.), reared under a long-day (18L : 6D) photoperiod. Application of an active analogue of juvenile hormone, methoprene, to adult macropterous females kept under the above conditions induced precocious termination of ovarian arrest and shortened the length of the pre-oviposition period. The results indicate that a temporary ovarian arrest in spontaneously fasting long-day macropterous females results from a deficiency of juvenile hormone....

First demonstration of the influence of photoperiod on the thermal requirements for development in insects and in particular the linden-bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 23-31, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.004

The influence of photoperiod on the thermal requirements for development was discovered for the first time in insects during experiments on the linden-bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. The effect of photoperiod on the duration of linden-bug development at five constant temperatures (20, 22, 24, 26 and 28°C) was measured and the thermal requirements for development at three photoperiods (14, 17 and 20 h light per day) were calculated. Bugs from four geographic populations were used in these experiments: Pyatigorsk (44°02´N, 43°04´E), Borisovka (50°36´N, 36°01´E), Mikhailov (54°15´N, 39°0´E) and Ryazan (54°36´N, 39°42´E). From the values of individual...

Feeding conditions modify the photoperiodically induced dispersal of the water strider, Aquarius paludum (Heteroptera: Gerridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 33-37, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.005

Overwintering adults of the water strider, Aquarius paludum were collected from the field in fall and kept under short days (12L : 12D) at 20°C for a week. A control group was then kept at 12L : 12D and fed daily, and three experimental groups were transferred to 15.5L : 8.5D and fed at different frequencies: daily or every 2nd or 3rd day. Temperature was kept at 20°C. Flight behaviour of the adults in the four groups was recorded every 10 days up to the end of the 5th week when the adults were dissected. State of the flight muscles and reproductive organs (ovaries and testes) was recorded. Flight ability of the adults fed every 3rd day (Group...

Variation, selection and heritability of thermal reaction norms for juvenile growth in Orchesella cincta (Collembola: Entomobryidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 39-46, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.006

Genetic variation for thermal plasticity plays an important role in the success or failure of a species with respect to the colonization of different thermal habitats and the ability to deal with climatic change. The aim of this paper is to study the relative contribution of the additive and non-additive components of genetic variation for the slope of the temperature reaction norm for juvenile growth rate in the springtail Orchesella cincta. We present the outcome of an artificial selection experiment for steep and flat temperature reaction norms and the results of a parent-offspring heritability experiment. There was a considerable phenotypic...

Density dependence of the alarm pheromone effect in pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 47-50, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.007

The aphid alarm pheromone is known to trigger wing induction in pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum). In reaction to alarm pheromone, aphids drop off the plant or walk away. While searching for a new feeding site they repeatedly encounter other members of the aphid colony and this increased contact rate is assumed to be important for wing induction ("pseudo-crowding" hypothesis). Because the encounter rate is a function of aphid colony size, wing induction in aphids in the presence of a predator should be a function of the number of aphids on the plant. We placed two, seven or 13 adult pea aphids on bean plants, and exposed the different-sized colonies...

Aggregation characteristics of three species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) at hibernation sites


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 51-56, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.008

Adults of some coccinellid species overwinter in aggregations consisting of many individuals. They may clump because adults are attracted to particular environmental stimuli and/or of an innate tendency to join conspecific individuals. Aggregation behaviour was studied in Coccinella septempunctata L., which forms small clumps, and Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Schneider) and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), which form large clumps. Adults were recorded at five hilltop hibernacula (400-1500 m altitude) in central Europe (50-51°N, 14-16°E) for periods up to 27 years. The hibernacula occur in areas sparsely covered with isolated grass...

Role of olfactory and visual stimuli in the mating behaviour of male vine bud moths, Theresimima ampellophaga (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)

Teodora Borislavova TOSHOVA, Mitko Angelov SUBCHEV, Miklós TÓTH

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 57-65, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.009

The influence of olfactory and visual stimuli on the mating behaviour of Theresimima ampellophaga males was investigated in the field. A female model attached to a pheromone source significantly increased the number of males contacting and showing copulatory responses compared to their reaction to a pheromone stimulus alone. The pheromone stimulus was the primary factor releasing male copulatory behaviour, independent of the spatial arrangement of olfactory and visual cues. The role of the visual cues decreased with increasing distance between visual and olfactory cues. The reaction of males to pairs of models with different characteristics...

BOOK REVIEW: Patocka J. & Turcani M.: Lepidoptera Pupae. Central European Species. Vol. I, II.


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 66, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.010

Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 2005, 542 + 321 pp. (271 Pls). ISBN 87-88757-47-1. Price DKK 960,00.

Development of the entomopathogenic hyphomycete Lecanicillium muscarium (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales) on various hosts


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 67-72, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.011

The present scanning electron microscopy study describes the development of Lecanicillium muscarium, strain DAOM 198499, on the surface of diverse hosts, including Sphaerotheca fuliginea, a fungal host, and Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Aphidius nigripes, insect hosts. The hosts were sprayed with a conidial suspension of L. muscarium (107 conidia/ml). The specimens used in the SEM investigation were collected at particular periods after spraying and prepared for scanning using standard methods. Germination tubes developed twenty-four hours after applying L. muscarium conidia to each host. Hyphae were...

Population, ecology and morphology of Saga pedo (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) at the northern limit of its distribution


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 73-79, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.012

The bush-cricket Saga pedo, one of the largest predatory insects, has a scattered distribution across 20 countries in Europe. At the northern boundary of its distribution, this species is most commonly found in Slovakia and Hungary. In Slovakia in 2003-2006, 36 known and potentially favourable localities were visited and at seven this species was recorded for the first time. This species has been found in Slovakia in xerothermic forest steppes and limestone grikes (98% of localities) and on slopes (10-45°) with south-westerly or westerly aspects (90%) at altitudes of 220-585 m a.s.l. (mean 433 m, n = 20 localities). Most individuals (66%) were...

Embryogenesis of Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): Morphological markers for staging of living embryos

Jan HAVELKA, Vladimír LANDA Jr., Vladimír LANDA

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 81-87, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.013

Determination of embryonic stages is an important prerequisite for the long-term cryopreservation of eggs and embryos of the predatory gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza. This paper describes the embryonic development of this insect based on light microscopy. Gall midge embryogenesis lasts, on average, 102 h at 17°C and 144 h at 15°C. Living embryos can be quickly separated into ten stages that are clearly defined by specific morphological markers. The necessity for selecting definite embryonic stages for cryobiological storage is discussed.

Female copulatory tubes and the subdivision of the genus Anthocoris (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae: Anthocorini)

Yunling KE, Wenjun BU

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 89-98, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.014

We report a systematic study of the female copulatory tubes of forty species in the genus Anthocoris, most of which are from the Northern Hemisphere. Our results indicate that female copulatory tubes can be used as a reliable character to identify females and analyze phylogenetic relationships in this genus. We propose thirteen species groups based on the copulatory tubes of females, other morphological characters of both sexes, and the previous species groups adopted in the continental faunas.

Afroaltica subaptera, new genus and new species of flea beetles from the southern Africa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 99-103, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.015

Afroaltica subaptera
, a new genus and species of flea beetles (Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) from the eastern regions of southern Africa (Eastern Transvaal and Kwazulu-Natal), is described. Afroaltica gen. n. shows some similarities with the genus Dibolia Latreille, 1829 but it is easily distinguishable mainly by the simple-shaped apical spur of hind tibiae, not bifid. External habitus, scanning electronic micrographs of particular morphological features and line drawings of metafemoral spring and male and female genitalia of the new taxon are provided.

Review of Ceranisus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Turkey, with description of a new species


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 105-110, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.016

Three species of Ceranisus Walker, 1841 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Entedoninae) were collected recently in Turkey, including C. menes (Walker, 1839) and C. pacuvius (Walker, 1841) in southeastern Anatolia. A new species, C. hirsutus Doğanlar & S. Triapitsyn, is described from Şanliurfa Province. The genus Urfacus Doğanlar, 2003 is synonymized under Ceranisus and its type species, U. bozovaensis Doğanlar, 2003 is transferred to Ceranisus as C. bozovaensis (Doğanlar, 2003) comb. n., and the species is redescribed from the new material. An identification key to both...

Identity, larva and distribution of the Oriental soldier fly, Odontomyia ochropa (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 111-118, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.017

Odontomyia ochropa
Thomson, 1869, is redescribed and found to be identical with O. dorsoangulata Brunetti, 1920, which is proposed as a new synonym. The female holotype of O. ochropa from the Philippines was examined and compared with specimens from India, Thailand and Singapore. Terminalia and other diagnostic characters of both sexes are illustrated. The larva of O. ochropa is described in detail. The larval characters are in accordance with the characters of O. dorsoangulata mentioned by Brunetti (1920). The larva of O. ochropa is compared with that of O. cyanea described by Mathur (1933). Cuticular...

Rediscovery, redescription and reclassification of Beludzhia phylloteliptera (Diptera: Sarcophagidae: Miltogramminae)

Krzysztof SZPILA, Thomas PAPE

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 119-137, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.018

The species Beludzhia phylloteliptera Rohdendorf is redescribed from adult males and females as well as all larval instars collected in the United Arab Emirates. The morphology of the first instar larva is strikingly similar to that of Dolichotachina marginella (Wiedemann) and Phylloteles pictipennis Loew, all of which are here documented for the first time. These three generic representatives share several character states, which are probably plesiomorphic relative to the condition observed in other miltogrammine larvae, but the uniquely shaped, slender mouthhook, a cushion- or pad-like lobe behind the maxillary palpus (cheek...

Increased migration of Lepidoptera linked to climate change

Tim H. SPARKS, Roger L.H. DENNIS, Philip J. CROXTON, Martin CADE

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 139-143, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.019

The number of species of migratory Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) reported each year at a site in the south of the UK has been rising steadily. This number is very strongly linked to rising temperatures in SW Europe. It is anticipated that further climate warming within Europe will increase the numbers of migratory Lepidoptera reaching the UK and the consequences of this invasion need urgent attention.

The courtship song of Drosophila santomea and a comparison to its sister species D. yakuba (Diptera: Drosophilidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 145-148, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.020

We describe the male courtship song of the newly-discovered species Drosophila santomea, endemic to the island of Saõ Tomé and the sister species of the widely distributed D. yakuba, which also inhabits the island. The song of D. santomea resembles that of D. yakuba in lacking a "sine" song, but the interpulse interval (IPI) in the "pulse" song is about 67 ms for the former species and 110 ms for the latter. This is the largest difference in IPI observed between any two sister species in the D. melanogaster subgroup, and may play a role in the strong sexual isolation between these two species.

Suitability of various prey types for the development of Propylea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Shi-Ze ZHANG, Fan ZHANG, Bao-Zhen HUA

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 149-152, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.021

The relative suitability of three prey organisms, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) eggs, B. tabaci nymphs, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), to the ladybird Propylea japonica (Thunberg) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The larvae developed fastest when fed M. persicae, and slowest on B. tabaci eggs. When fed M. persicae, all larvae successfully developed into adult with a growth index (i.e., percent pupation/larval period in days) of 13.16 and development rate of 0.096. The longevity of starving adults was 4.7 ± 0.2 days. In contrast, when fed B. tabaci eggs, all larvae survived to...

Impact of poor host-parasitoid synchronisation on the parasitism of Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Giselher GRABENWEGER, Hildegard HOPP, Barbara JÄCKEL, Hartmut BALDER, Tanja KOCH, Silke SCHMOLLING

Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 153-158, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.022

Poor synchronisation is considered to be one important reason for the ineffective control of the invasive horse chestnut leafminer by native parasitic Hymenoptera. Parasitoids hibernating in dry horse chestnut leaves break diapause early in spring and presumably leave the vicinity, since no hosts are available when they emerge. As a consequence, the percentage parasitism of the first generation of the leafminer in early summer is low. The experiments presented below were designed to test this hypothesis. Horse chestnut saplings were brought on in a greenhouse and infested artificially with C. ohridella prior to parasitoid emergence in the field....

Acceptance of two native myrmecophilous species, Platyarthrus hoffmannseggii (Isopoda: Oniscidea) and Cyphoderus albinus (Collembola: Cyphoderidae) by the introduced invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Belgium


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 159-161, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.023

The myrmecophilous isopod Platyarthrus hoffmannseggii Brandt, 1833 and the myrmecophilous springtail Cyphoderus albinus Nicolet, 1842 are commonly found in nests of a wide range of ant species in Belgium. Here we report the first record of both myrmecophiles in nests of the invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus in the Citadelpark of Ghent, Belgium. Platyarthrus hoffmannseggii was found in two of the Lasius neglectus nests studied. In one of the two C. albinus was also discovered. In the localities where the invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus was introduced, as is also the case in the Citadelpark...

BOOK REVIEW: Helyer N., Brown K. & Cattlin N.D. 2004: A Colour Handbook of Biological Control in Plant Protection.


Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 164, 2007 | 10.14411/eje.2007.024

Manson, London, 2nd ed., 126 pp. ISBN 1-874545-28-6 (hardback). Price GBP 24.95.