EJE, vol. 103 (2006), issue 4

Ecologically realistic modalities in arthropod supercooling point distributions

Timothy C. HAWES, Jeffrey S. BALE, Peter CONVEY, Roger WORLAND

Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 717-723, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.095

Modality in the supercooling points of cold tolerant but freezing intolerant terrestrial arthropods has proved a pragmatically reliable means of distinguishing between summer and winter cold hardiness in such species. This paper proposes an ecologically realistic method of modal analysis which may either be used in lieu of the traditional separation of supercooling points into "high" and "low" groups, or as a complementary assessment of the risk of freezing mortality. Instead of a posteriori determinations of modal break points, animal supercooling points are assigned a priori to one of four categories of cold hardiness: (1) summer cold-hardy; (2)...

Geographical versus food plant differentiation in populations of Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in Northern Hungary


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 725-732, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.096

The taxonomic status of Alcon Blues in Central and Western Europe (conventionally: Maculinea alcon and M. rebeli) is confused. Some authors distinguish them as separate species within the M. alcon species group, while others consider them to be subspecies or simply ecological forms. Our aim was to study the geographical versus food plant pattern of genetic differentiation among several populations of these taxa in Northern Hungary. Imagines were collected from 11 localities between 2000 and 2003. M. alcon feeding on G. pneumonanthe from three subregions and on G. cruciata from two subregions were analysed....

Diapause completion in the almond seed wasp, Eurytoma amygdali (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) following early low temperature treatment


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 733-742, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.097

Fruit of two almond, Prunus amygdalus Linnaeus, cultivars (Retsou and Truoito) containing diapausing larvae of Eurytoma amygdali Enderlein, were collected in early August from coastal areas in northern Greece. Some larvae were removed from the fruit and maintained singly in open plastic vials and others left in the fruit until the end of the low-temperature period. They were kept at a low temperature of 10°C from the beginning, or after 8 weeks at 20°C. The larvae were subsequently maintained at 20°C and whether they completed the two diapause stages was recorded for 60 more weeks. When the larvae in vials, were kept initially for 8 weeks...

Seasonal wing dimorphism and life cycle of the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae)

Chihiro ENDO

Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 743-750, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.098

Control of seasonal wing dimorphism in the oriental mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis Brumeister (1839) from a wetland habitat in western Japan is described. The long-winged (LW) morph appeared from mid-June to September, whereas the short-winged (SW) morph appeared from September to mid-June. Individuals overwintered in either the adult or juvenile stage. The seasonal shift in wing morphology was linked to the overwintering stage. Individuals that hatched in May became SW adults in September-October and then overwintered, whereas those that hatched in June and July overwintered as juveniles and became LW adults in June of the following year....

Mating competition and parentage assessment in Ptomascopus morio (Coleoptera: Silphidae): A case for resource defense polygyny


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 751-755, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.099

Ptomascopus morio
of both sexes are attracted to vertebrate carcasses, a necessary resource for reproduction. The stage during reproduction that resource defense was most intense and the hypothesis that large beetles were better competitors and sired a larger share of the offspring were supported and tested. Male-male aggression (pushing, biting and mounting) was commonly observed before and during oviposition, but rarely after the larvae hatched. Few female-female aggressive interactions were observed at any time. Parentage analysis of the offspring of six groups of two males and two females each reproducing on a separate carcass revealed...



Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 756, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.100

Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, xvi + 388 pp. ISBN 954-642-233-9. Price EUR 78.90 (hardcover).

Oviposition-deterring effects of conspecific and heterospecific larval tracks on Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 757-763, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.101

The oviposition deterring effects of fresh larval tracks of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (F.), Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Schneider), Cycloneda limbifer Casey, and Harmonia dimidiata (F.) on C. sexmaculata females were compared in standard laboratory choice tests. Moreover, the persistence of intraspecific effects of C. sexmaculata larval tracks were investigated. Fresh tracks of C. sexmaculata, C. limbifer and C. undecimnotata larvae effectively deterred C. sexmaculata females from ovipositing. The effect of fresh larval tracks of H. dimidiata was not statistically significant....

BOOK REVIEW: Fellowes M.D.E., Holloway G.J & Rolff J. (eds) 2005: Insect Evolutionary Ecology.


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 764, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.102

CABI Publishing, Cambridge MA, USA, 448 pp. ISBN 0-85199-812-7. Price GBP 85.00, USD 160.00.

Oviposition at low temperatures - late season negatively affects the leaf beetle Galeruca tanaceti (Coleoptera: Galerucinae) but not its specialised egg parasitoid Oomyzus galerucivorus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 765-770, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.103

Insects experience important selection pressures from their parasitoids, which affect both their population dynamics and their evolutionary responses. The interaction between the egg parasitoid Oomyzus galerucivorus Graham (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and its chrysomelid host Galeruca tanaceti L. (Coleoptera: Galerucinae) was investigated with the particular aim determining whether the chrysomelid host can escape its parasitoid by ovipositing late in the year as early as September. Although the leaf beetle and its parasitoid emerge in April, G. tanaceti starts to oviposit after spending the summer in reproductive diapause. The objective...

Pollen preference of the Chrysoperla species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) occurring in the crop environment in western France

Johanna VILLENAVE, Bruno DEUTSCH, Thierry LODÉ, Elizabeth RAT-MORRIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 771-777, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.104

Two species of the Chrysoperla carnea complex: Ch. carnea sensu Henry and Ch. lucasina, occur in the crop environment in western France. Within the framework of a conservation biological control program for protected seed crops, the pollen consumption of these common green lacewings was investigated. The diverticulum contents of collected specimens were analysed to determine their food preference. Ch. carnea sensu Henry and Ch. lucasina are opportunistic feeders, which are attracted to large patches of flowering plants. The establishment of monitoring an attractive environment for these predators is discussed.

BOOK REVIEW: Drosopoulos S. & Claridge M.F. (eds) 2005: INSECT SOUNDS AND COMMUNICATION. Physiology, Behaviour, Ecology and Evolution.


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 778, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.105

CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 532 pp. ISBN 0-8493-2060-7 (hardback). Price: USD 139.95.

Western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) preference for thrips-damaged leaves over fresh leaves enables uptake of symbiotic gut bacteria

Egbert J. DE VRIES, Rutger A. VOS, Gerrit JACOBS, Hans A.J. BREEUWER

Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 779-786, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.106

To understand the evolution of insect gut symbionts it is important to determine how they are passed on to the next generation. We studied this process in Erwinia species bacteria that inhabit the gut of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This is a polyphagous herbivore and a world-wide pest in agricultural crops. With bacteria in the gut, the thrips larval development time can be shorter and its oviposition rate higher compared to bacteria-free thrips. Bacteria are not directly transmitted from mother to offspring, but larvae acquire bacteria from the leaves right after they hatch....

Effect of temperature on the life history of Encarsia bimaculata (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

Bao-Li QIU, Paul J. DE BARRO, Cai-Xia XU, Shun-Xiang REN

Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 787-792, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.107

Encarsia bimaculata
(Heraty & Polaszek) is an abundant parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci in southern China. The effects of constant temperatures on a range of life history traits, including development, survival of immatures, longevity and reproduction of adults, were studied in the laboratory. The developmental period from egg to adult ranged from 34.3 ± 0.4 d at 20°C to 8.7 ± 0.6 d at 32°C, A total of 181.4 ± 2.4 degree-days were required to complete development with a lower developmental threshold of 11.6 ± 0.3°C. The survivorship of E. bimaculata from 2nd instar to adult varied from...

Spatial variation in the incidence of a sexually transmitted parasite of the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

K. Mary WEBBERLEY, Matthew C. TINSLEY, John J. SLOGGETT, Michael E.N. MAJERUS, Gregory D.D. HURST

Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 793-797, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.108

Whilst sexually transmitted pathogens and parasites are common on insects and other animals, the factors affecting their incidence are currently uncertain. In order to understand the factors important in determining the presence of sexually transmitted parasites, it would be helpful to have information on intraspecific variation in incidence, as the causes of this variation are likely to reflect the likely causes of the presence/absence of sexually transmitted parasites across species. We therefore mapped the incidence of the parasite Coccipolipus hippodamiae within Europe on its primary host, the ladybird Adalia bipunctata. We observed...

Prevalence and association of the laboulbenialean fungus Hesperomyces virescens (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) on coccinellid hosts (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Kentucky, USA

James D. HARWOOD, Carlo RICCI, Roberto ROMANI, Kevin M. PITZ, Alex WEIR, John J. OBRYCKI

Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 799-804, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.109

The laboulbenialean fungi occur throughout the world and are closely associated with a range of arthropods, including many coleopteran hosts. Throughout the summer of 2004, coccinellids were collected from a Bluegrass savanna woodland ecosystem, dominated by blue ash Fraxinus quadrangulata and Chinkapin Oak Quercus muehlenbergii, and the adults were examined for the presence of Hesperomyces virescens using binocular and scanning electron microscopy. Over 80% of adult Harmonia axyridis, a species previously reported as having a persistent association with the fungus, were infected. No significant differences were observed...

Unique phenotypes and variation in the sex comb patterns and their evolutionary implications in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Paras K. MISHRA, Bashisth N. SINGH

Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 805-815, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.110

Understanding the genetic mechanisms of morphological evolution is one of the greatest challenges in evolutionary biology and for such studies sexually dimorphic traits in closely related species are of prime interest. In the Drosophila bipectinata species complex, which consists of four closely related species, namely D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata, D. malerkotliana and D. pseudoananassae, the pattern of sex combs (a sexually dimorphic trait) is found to be highly diversified. The present investigation documents some unique and new sex comb phenotypes and demarcates intra- and interspecific variations...

BOOK REVIEW: Lyneborg L. & Barkemeyer W. 2005: The Genus Syritta. A World Revision of the genus Syritta Le Peletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Syrphidae). In: ENTOMONOGRAPH. Vol. 15.


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 816, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.111

Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 224 pp., ISBN 87-88757-53-6. Price USD 89.50, DKK 420.00.

Cockroach tergal glands producing female sex attractant pheromones and male aphrodisiacs in particular in the subfamily Blaberinae (Blattaria: Blaberidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 817-829, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.112

Two principal pheromones are essential in all cockroach sexual behavioral sequences: the volatile sex attractant pheromone released by one partner for long distance attraction and an aphrodisiac sex pheromone produced exclusively by male tergal glands for female mounting and feeding behavior. In the Blaberinae subfamily, the female produces volatile sex attractant pheromones and the male, aphrodisiacs. A close relationship is known to exist between the release of these pheromonal signals from specific glands and the corresponding behaviors (female calling posture and male wing raising). However, in this cockroach group, no data on the glands secreting...

BOOK REVIEW: Ruxton G.D., Sherratt T.N. & Speed M.P. 2004: AVOIDING ATTACK. The evolutionary ecology of crypsis, warning signals, and mimicry.


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 830, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.113

Oxford University Press, Oxford, 249 pp. ISBN 0-19-852859-0 (hardback) / 0-19-852860-4 (paperback). Price GBP 75.00 / GBP 37.50.

Descriptions of larvae of Megadytes (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Dytiscinae): The hypothesis of monophyletic origin revisited

Mariano C. MICHAT

Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 831-842, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.114

The three larval instars of Megadytes (Paramegadytes) glaucus (Brullé, 1838) and the third-instar larvae of M. (Bifurcitus) magnus Trémouilles & Bachmann, 1980 and M. (Trifurcitus) robustus (Aubé, 1838) are described and illustrated for the first time, with particular emphasis on the morphometry and chaetotaxy. A key to the subgenera of Megadytes Sharp, 1882 is presented. In a cladistic analysis of third-instar larval characters, Megadytes is resolved as non-monophyletic; the species of Cybistrini studied, except those included in the subgenus Trifurcitus Brinck,...

Calling songs of sympatric and allopatric populations of Cicada barbara and C. orni (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on the Iberian Peninsula


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 843-852, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.115

Calling songs of the sibling species Cicada barbara and C. orni were studied in sympatric and allopatric populations on the Iberian Peninsula, where the distribution ranges of both species overlap. No difference was found in any acoustic property for the sympatric and allopatric populations of C. barbara studied and only one variable (minimum frequency) was significantly different between sympatric and allopatric populations of C. orni. No hybrids with intermediate songs were found and no character displacement in the calling song was detected. It is very likely that these species were already considerably differentiated...

Bioacoustics and systematics of the Poecilimon heroicus-group (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae: Barbitistinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 853-865, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.116

The species of the Poecilimon heroicus-group occur around the Caucasus (from north-eastern Turkey to south-eastern Ukraine). We describe the diagnostic morphological characters of all these species and the male calling song of three of the four species. Based on this data the following phylogenetic relationship is derived (P. tschorochensis (P. tricuspis (P. heroicus, P. bifenestratus))). Within the genus Poecilimon, the species can be recognised by a relatively wide pronotum and large tegmina. In one species, Poecilimon tschorochensis Adelung, 1907 (type species of the monotypic genus Artvinia...

BOOK REVIEW: Chen P.-P., Nieser N. & Zettel H. 2005: The aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha & Gerromorpha) of Malesia. Fauna Malesiana Handbooks 5.


Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 866, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.117

Brill, Leiden-Boston. 546 pp. ISSN 1388-3895, ISBN 90-04-14768-3; (hard cover) Price EUR 149.00; USD 199.00.

Expression of the melittin gene of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in insect cells

Wan-Jun SHI, Jia-An CHENG, Chuan-Xi ZHANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 867-870, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.118

A fragment encoding melittin cDNA from Apis cerana cerana fused with glutathione S-transferase gene was inserted into the multiple cloning site of the pBacFastHTb to construct a recombinant donor plasmid, pBacHT-GSTAccM, which was transposed to the target bacmid in E. coli (DH10) by Tn7 transposition function. Then the recombinant baculovirus Bacmid-GSTAccM was transfected into Tn-5B1-4 cells of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, mediated by lipofectin. The expressed protein of about 34 kDa was detected by Western blotting and triple antibody sandwich ELISA, indicating that the recombinant protein is the fusion protein of GSTAccM....



Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (4): 876, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.119

Grill A., Gkiokia E. & Alvarez N. 2006: Evolutionary history and patterns of differentiation among European Maniola butterflies (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae). Eur. J. Entomol. 103(3): 613-618.

In Fig. 1 (on p. 615) of the above paper the name of the outgroup species in the cladogram should be the same as in text and Table 1, i.e., Pyronia cecilia, not Pyronia tithonus.