EJE, vol. 103 (2006), issue 3
Variability in the karyotypes, testes and ovaries of planthoppers of the families Issidae, Caliscelidae, and Acanaloniidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea)
Anna MARYAŃSKA-NADACHOWSKA, Valentina G. KUZNETSOVA, Vladimir M. GNEZDILOV, Sakis DROSOPOULOS
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 505-513, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.066
The aim of this study was to obtain information on the karyotypes, testes and ovaries of three fulgoroid families, mainly in the Issidae but also in the Caliscelidae and Acanaloniidae. For the Issidae, the data is for 19 species belonging to 11 genera of the subtribes Issina (2 species, 1 genus), Hysteropterina (14 species, 9 genera) and Agalmatiina (3 species, 2 genera) of the tribe Issini. The male karyotypes are shown to be quite uniform across the tribe, with 2n = 26 + X in all species studied except Latilica maculipes (Melichar, 1906) with 2n = 24 + X. The modal karyotype, 2n = 26 + X, matches the most probable ancestral state in the Fulgoroidea....
Activity of endo-polygalacturonases in mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) and their inhibition by plant cell wall proteins (PGIPs)
Francesca FRATI, Roberta GALLETTI, Giulia DE LORENZO, Gianandrea SALERNO, Eric CONTI
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 515-522, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.067
Endo-polygalacturonases (PGs) are hydrolytic enzymes involved in the degradation of pectin, one of the major components of plant cell wall. While PGs from fungi, bacteria and plants have been extensively studied, PGs from insects are much less known, although they are likely to play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Presence of PGs has been reported for both piercing-sucking and chewing insect species, and possibly more commonly in mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae). A screening of some common mirid species and other insects, belonging to different orders and families, was conducted using agarose diffusion assays run at different...
Endocrine regulation of the reproductive arrest in the long-winged females of a flightless bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)
Magdalena HODKOVÁ, Radomír SOCHA
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 523-529, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.068
Mechanisms of the suppression of gonadotropic activity of the corpus allatum (CA) in macropterous females were compared with those previously reported for either diapause or starving non-diapause brachypterous females by reciprocal transplantations of the neuroendocrine complexes (comprising the brain-suboesophageal ganglion-corpora cardiaca-CA). The denervated CA stimulated reproduction in most females of all experimental groups suggesting an inhibition of the CA via nervous connections with the brain. The inhibition of the CA within the transplanted neuroendocrine complex was measured by the reproductive performance of feeding recipient females deprived...
The effect of environmental conditions on diapause in the blister beetle, Mylabris phalerata (Coleoptera: Meloidae)
Fen ZHU, Fangsen XUE, Chaoliang LEI
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 531-535, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.069
In the field, the blister beetle Mylabris phalerata Pallas (Coleoptera: Meloidae) undergoes larval diapause in the ground, which lasts for nearly six months. The effect of the soil environment on this diapause was examined. Final instar larvae kept at temperatures of >= 26°C do not enter diapause and continued to develop regardless of the soil water content and photoperiod. Below 25°C the final instar larvae entered diapause regardless of soil water content and photoperiod. The early stages, particularly L2, appeared to be more important for diapause induction than the later stages. However, the other instars were also sensitive. Temperature,...
BOOK REVIEW: Nilsson A.N. & Vondel B.J. van: Amphizoidae, Aspidytidae, Haliplidae, Noteridae and Paelobiidae (Coleoptera). In: World Catalogue of Insects, Volume 7.
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 536, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.070
Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark, 2005, 171 pp. ISBN 87-88757-49-8. Price excluding postage DKK 320 from the publisher.
Effect of photoperiod on the duration of summer and winter diapause in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris melete (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)
Hai-Jun XIAO, Dong YANG, Fang-Sen XUE
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 537-540, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.071
Effect of photoperiod on the duration of summer and winter diapause was investigated in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris melete. By keeping naturally induced aestivating and hibernating pupae under various photoperiods, it was shown that diapause duration of aestivating pupae was significantly longer at long than at short daylengths, whereas diapause duration of hibernating pupae was significantly shorter at long than at short daylengths, suggesting both aestivating and hibernating pupae require opposite photoperiodic signals to promote diapause development. By transferring diapausing pupae, induced under various photoperiods, to 20°C with a naturally...
Diapause development and cold hardiness of Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae in Greece
Olga P. KALTSA, Panagiotis G. MILONAS, Matilda SAVOPOULOU-SOULTANI
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 541-545, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.072
Larval diapause development and termination and some characteristics of cold hardiness in Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied under field conditions in northern Greece. P. gossypiella overwintering larvae were sampled at 20 to 30 day intervals and subjected to two photoperiodic regimes at 20°C. In larvae kept under a long-day photoperiod (16L : 8D) diapause development was accelerated compared to those kept under a short-day photoperiod (8L : 16D). There was no difference in response to the two photoperiods after February. Mean number of days to pupation of P. gossypiella overwintering larvae...
BOOK REVIEW: Cerretti P., Hardersen S., Mason F., Nardi G., Tisato M. & Zapparoli M. (eds): Invertebrati di una foresta della Pianura Padana, Bosco della Fontana. Secondo contributo. Conservazione Habitat Invertebrati, 3.
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 546, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.073
Cierre Grafica Editore, Verona, 2004. 304 pp., 163 figs, 44 tabs.
Effects of low temperatures on Chilocorus kuwanae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) trophic activity
Carlo RICCI, Andrea PRIMAVERA, Valeria NEGRI
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 547-551, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.074
Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri is an effective predator of Unaspis euonymi (Comstock), a scale insect harmful to spindle trees (Euonymus europeus L. and E. japonicus Thumb). The feeding behaviour was studied on wild adults, collected from spindle trees in the Botanic Garden of Perugia University, and fed on overwintering U. euonymi females. The insects were exposed to gradually changing constant temperatures (13°-->10°-->8°-->6°-->4°-->2°-->13°-->15°C) for a ten day period at each temperature. C. kuwanae adults preyed on the scale also at low temperatures. The number of scales...
Preferences and differences in the trail pheromone of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens sexdens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
E. David MORGAN, Sarah J. KEEGANS, Jozef TITS, Tom WENSELEERS, Johan BILLEN
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 553-558, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.075
The amount of the trail pheromone substance, 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens sexdens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) increases with increasing size of the ant from 0 to 35 ng per individual. The compounds 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and trimethylpyrazine are also consistently present. Trails of venom gland extracts are followed with unequal fidelity by different castes. Minor workers follow best, mediums least well. Workers walk sinuously on narrow trails and less sinuously on wider trails up to 9 mm. Trails wider than 9 mm are not followed. The optimum concentration of pheromone on synthetic trails lies between 15 and...
Within and between species scaling in the weight, water, carbon and nitrogen contents of eggs and neonate larvae of twelve satyrine butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 559-568, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.076
The fresh weight, dry weight, and C and N content of the eggs, egg shells and neonate larvae of several satyrines were measured. This was done in order to assess the specificity of the composition of the egg and larvae, the phylogenetic or ecological nature of the variation and the existence of structural constraints on the composition of the offspring. All the traits investigated were found to be highly species-specific. The nature of the variation was not primarily phylogenetic, suggesting that the composition of the offspring has an ecological meaning. However, only a slight association was detected between three life history traits or habitat features...
Females of the specialist butterfly Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalinae: Melitaeini) select the greenest leaves of Lonicera implexa (Caprifoliaceae) for oviposition
Constantí STEFANESCU, Josep PEÑUELAS, Jordi SARDANS, Iolanda FILELLA
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 569-574, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.077
In Mediterranean habitats, the specialist butterfly Euphydryas aurinia oviposits on Lonicera implexa. Previous work has shown that ovipositing females select and lay a higher number of egg clusters on certain plants. In this paper the results of a field study aimed at assessing whether females use plant size and/or plant or leaf greenness (i.e., chlorophyll concentrations) as cues for oviposition are described. Size of plants did not appear to be an important factor in determining host plant selection, probably because even small plants provide enough resources for the young larvae to reach the diapausing stage and because last instar...
Determination of female-biased sexual size dimorphism in moths with a variable instar number: The role of additional instars
Toomas ESPERK, Toomas TAMMARU
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 575-586, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.078
While the ultimate causes and adaptive significance of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) have been extensively studied, the developmental mechanisms behind this phenomenon have received little attention. Going through an additional larval instar may form a specific way of achieving SSD in arthropods. In the present study, the mechanisms of SSD determination of two lymantriid moths, with marked SSD, were studied. In both species, females tended to go through an additional instar compared to males, and form pupae that were more than twice the weight of the males. To reveal the role of an extra instar, larval growth was monitored in the laboratory and...
Egg-laying preferences of the xerophilous ecotype of Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in the Aggtelek National Park
Ervin ÁRNYAS, Judit BERECZKI, Andrea TÓTH, Katalin PECSENYE, Zoltán VARGA
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 587-595, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.079
The oviposition sites of the xerophilous ecotype of M. alcon (= "Maculinea rebeli") were surveyed in the managed (transitional) zone of the Aggtelek National Park and Biosphere Reserve in Northern Hungary. The M. alcon population is distributed over a territory of about 3 ha. In 2001, habitat reconstruction with selective cutting of shrubs and mowing, was started in this area. The number of stems of Gentiana cruciata (the food plant for the young larvae) and M. alcon eggs layed on them were counted in a selected area within this 3 ha: before (in 1992, 1993 and 1998) and after habitat reconstruction (in 2003,...
Phylogenetic relationships in the
Jurga TURČINAVIČIENĖ, Rimantas RAKAUSKAS, Bo Vest PEDERSEN
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 597-604, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.080
Phylogenetic relationships among Palaearctic Ribes and/or Onagraceae inhabiting Aphis species from five countries were examined using mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) and nuclear gene elongation factor 1 α (EF-1α) sequences. There was no major conflict between the trees obtained from two data sets; nodes with strong bootstrap support from one analysis never contradicted those strongly supported by the other analysis. Palaearctic species of the subgenus Bursaphis (= "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis) form a monophyletic group within the genus Aphis. All these...
Genetic variation in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in China inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequence
Jianhong LI, Feng ZHAO, Yong Soo CHOI, Iksoo KIM, Hung Dae SOHN, Byung Rae JIN
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 605-611, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.081
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a notorious insect pest of cruciferous plants. To examine the pattern and magnitude of genetic variation in this species in China a portion of the mitochondrial (mt) COI gene of P. xylostella, collected at six Chinese and two Korean localities, which cover ~2,151,600 km2, was sequenced. Sequence analysis of the 681-bp mt COI gene from 80 individuals resulted in 16 haplotypes, ranging in sequence divergence from 0.1% (one nucleotide) to 0.9% (six nucleotides). One nucleotide position among 16 variable sites was a transversional substitution and the remaining positions...
Evolutionary history and patterns of differentiation among European Maniola butterflies (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae)
Andrea GRILL, Erasmia GKIOKIA, Nadir ALVAREZ
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 613-618, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.082
Phylogenetic relationships of European Maniola butterflies are reconstructed using molecular sequences from two regions of the mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cytb). A total of 988 base pairs (486 for Cytb, and 502 for COI) were aligned for 15 individuals of Maniola and an outgroup species. The phylogenetic tree obtained through Bayesian inference analysis of the combined data sets shows evidence that the island endemic M. chia is indistinguishable from M. jurtina on the basis of the mtDNA genes studied. Net nucleotide divergence between M. jurtina...
Phylogeny and evolutionary history of queen polymorphic Myrmecina ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
Florian M. STEINER, Birgit C. SCHLICK-STEINER, Heino KONRAD, Timothy A. LINKSVAYER, Swee-Peck QUEK, Erhard CHRISTIAN, Christian STAUFFER, Alfred BUSCHINGER
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 619-626, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.083
The phylogenetic relationships in the myrmicine ant genus Myrmecina were analyzed using 1,281 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. Intermorphic queens observed in M. graminicola (Europe), M. nipponica (Japan), M. americana (North America; reported for the first time) and M. sp. A (Java) were reconstructed as an ancestral trait in this genus. Molecular-clock-based age estimates suggest that queen polymorphism evolved in Myrmecina at the latest during the Miocene. In terms of biogeographical regions, the inferred chronological order of divergence is: (oriental, (nearctic, (western palearctic,...
Hedyselmis opis: Description of the larva and its phylogenetic relation to Graphelmis (Coleoptera: Elmidae: Elminae)
Fedor ČIAMPOR Jr., Ignacio RIBERA
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 627-636, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.084
The riffle beetle genus Hedyselmis Hinton, 1976 includes two species from the Malay Peninsula, with adults with a highly deviating morphology. Its phylogenetic relationships are unclear, although it has been hypothesized to be related to Graphelmis Delève, 1968, a large genus widely distributed in the Oriental and East Palaearctic regions. In this paper the larva of H. opis Hinton, 1976 is described based on material collected in the Cameron Highlands (Malaysia) and the conspecificity with co-existing adults tested using sequences of one nuclear (5' end of 18S rRNA) and three mitochondrial gene fragments (5' end of the large...
Taxonomy of the genera Scaeva, Simosyrphus and Ischiodon (Diptera: Syrphidae): Descriptions of immature stages and status of taxa
Pavel LÁSKA, Celeste PÉREZ-BAÑÓN, Libor MAZÁNEK, Santos ROJO, Gunilla STÅHLS, M. Angeles MARCOS-GARCÍA, Vítězslav BIČÍK, Jindra DUŠEK
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 637-655, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.085
A review of all known descriptions of immature stages of the species of the genera Scaeva Fabricius, 1805, Ischiodon Sack, 1913 and Simosyrphus Bigot, 1882 is presented using SEM illustrations. The third instar larval and/or pupal morphology of Scaeva dignota (Rondani, 1857), Scaeva mecogramma (Bigot, 1860) and Simosyrphus grandicornis (Macquart, 1842) are newly described. All species of the genera studied in this paper are very similar for all the studied characters of their immature stages, including the chaetotaxy. Molecular characters of the mitochondrial cox1 gene (1128bp) were used for inferring...
Morphology, bioacoustics and phylogeography of the Isophya major group (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae): A species complex occurring in Anatolia and Cyprus
Hasan SEVGILI, Battal ÇIPLAK, Klaus Gerhard HELLER, Ali DEMIRSOY
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 657-671, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.086
The species of the Isophya major-group (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae), are reviewed. I. major Brunner von Wattenwyl and I. mavromoustakisi Uvarov are redescribed. Two new species are described; Isophya mersinensis Sevgili & Çiplak sp. n. and Isophya salmani Sevgili & Heller sp. n. from south Anatolia. Illustrations of morphology and male calling song are provided and a detailed comparison of the four species in the group is presented. We conclude that these four species constitute a natural group in sharing male cerci with two or more denticles not ordered in a line, a character unique...
Review of the genus Vibronychiurus (Collembola: Onychiuridae), with a description of two new species
Romuald J. POMORSKI
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 673-677, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.087
A new diagnosis of Vibronychiurus Pomorski, 1998 is given. V. archivari (Christiansen, 1956) comb. n. and V. hermonicus (Gruia, Poliakov & Broza, 2000) stat. & comb. n. are redescribed on the basis of the types and new specimens. Two new species are described: V. aestimabilis sp. n. from Khakasiya (Russia) and V. caucasicus sp. n. from Caucasus (Russia). A key to the species Vibronychiurus is provided.
Types of haemocytes in saprophagous soil mites (Acari: Oribatida, Acaridida), and the correlation between their presence and certain processes within mites
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 679-686, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.088
The microanatomy of several oribatid and one acaridid mite was studied to determine the role of free cells (haemocytes) in mites. Mites from the field as well as laboratory cultures were observed and analyzed histologically using Masson triple stain. The mites were offered various foods and kept in fluctuating moisture conditions. The presence of haemocytes was significantly correlated with the transport between internal organs of various substance. Three types of transport were recorded: (i) enzymes into the alimentary tract, including the incorporation of haemocytes into the gut walls. This process seemed to be correlated with the amount and type...
Cytogenetic differences between Peritelus familiaris and Centricnemus leucogrammus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae: Peritelini)
Dorota LACHOWSKA, Maria ROŻEK, Milada HOLECOVÁ, Lukasz KAJTOCH
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 687-690, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.089
Differences in the karyology of two species, Centricnemus leucogrammus and Peritelus familiaris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated in order to elucidate their taxonomic position of the taxa. Previously both species were placed in one genus whereas the latest taxonomic revision puts them in separate genera. Cytogenetic analysis of P. familiaris and C. leucogrammus showed significant differences in karyotype structure and confirmed their present taxonomic status. The diploid set of C. leucogrammus consists of 22 chromosomes with a fundamental number of arms (FN) of 45 and little variation in morphology and...
Enhancement of cold hardiness by acclimation is stage-specific in the non-diapausing pupae of onion maggot Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)
Shoichiro MIYAZAKI, Takumi KAYUKAWA, Bin CHEN, Michikazu NOMURA, Yukio ISHIKAWA
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 691-694, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.090
When puparia of the onion maggot Delia antiqua were preexposed to 5°C for 5 days starting at different time points after pupariation, a large increase in survival after exposure to -20°C for 5 days was observed only when pre-exposure was initiated at 3-6 days after pupariation. The increase in cold hardiness was not associated with a large increase in the trehalose content of the puparia. The supercooling point of the puparia naturally decreased from -18 to -27°C in the first three days after pupariation, and pre-exposure to 5°C did not have an additional effect. Thus, factors responsible for the enhancement of cold hardiness by acclimation...
Augmentation of managed populations of Osmia cornuta and O. rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Southeastern Europe
Miloje KRUNIĆ, Ljubiša STANISAVLJEVIĆ
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 695-697, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.091
We describe augmentation of managed populations of Osmia cornuta and O. rufa in the vicinity of Belgrade (Serbia). Annual augmentation of O. cornuta populations was more than five-fold during the six years of our study. This was achieved by watering the soil near the Osmia augmentation shelters used for nest building. However, populations of O. rufa under the same treatment only doubled annually. Data are also presented on sex ratios in these managed populations, the sex ratio being an important factor in increasing population numbers and raising pollination efficacy. Sex ratio values (♂...
BOOK REVIEW: Koster J.C. & Sinev S.Yu.: MOMPHIDAE, BATRACHEDRIDAE, STATHMOPODIDAE, AGONOXENIDAE, COSMOPTERIGIDAE, CHRYSOPELEIIDAE. In Huemer P., Karsholt O. & Lyneborg L. (eds): MICROLEPIDOPTERA OF EUROPE 5.
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 698, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.092
Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 2003, 387 pp. ISBN 87-88757-66-8. Price DKK 720.00.
Phoretic relationships between Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) and centipedes (Chilopoda) as an example of evolutionary adaptation of mites to temporary microhabitats
Jerzy BŁOSZYK, Joanna KLIMCZAK, Małgorzata LEŚNIEWSKA
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 699-707, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.093
A survey of soil fauna in Poland revealed 30 cases of centipedes carrying mites of the sub-order Uropodina. The 155 phoretic deutonymphs collected belonged to two species of Uropodina - Oodinychus ovalis (C.L. Koch, 1839) and Uroobovella pulchella (Berlese, 1904). These mites displayed a high degree of selectivity in their choice of carrier. The only species of centipede transporting mites was Lithobius forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758), despite the presence of 30 other species in the same habitats. It is possible that the large size and relatively fast speed of movement of this centipede make it a very good mite carrier. The...
Preliminary phylogeny of Tribolium beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) resolved by combined analysis of mitochondrial genes
Nevenka MEŠTROVIĆ, Brankica MRAVINAC, Miroslav PLOHL, Đurđica UGARKOVIĆ, Branka BRUVO-MAĐARIĆ
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (3): 709-715, 2006 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2006.094
The phylogenetic relationships of the three major species groups of Tribolium (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were inferred using the simultaneous analysis of 642 bp of the most conserved part of mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 448-452 bp of mt 16S rDNA. High sequence divergence was observed for both genes even among sibling species. The analysis of the combined segments of COI and 16S rDNA sequences produced a phylogenetic tree with moderate level of confidence. The tree topology showed monophyly of the genus Tribolium whose species were separated into three groups: "brevicornis" group (with T. brevicornis...