EJE, vol. 103 (2006), issue 2
A karyotype study on the pseudoscorpion families Geogarypidae, Garypinidae and Olpiidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones)
Frantiąek ©«ÁHLAVSKÝ, Jiří KRÁL, Mark S. HARVEY, Charles R. HADDAD
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 277-289, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.036
The karyotypes of pseudoscorpions of three families, Geogarypidae, Garypinidae and Olpiidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones), were studied for the first time. Three species of the genus Geogarypus from the family Geogarypidae and 10 species belonging to 8 genera from the family Olpiidae were studied. In the genus Geogarypus the diploid chromosome numbers of males range from 15 to 23. In the family Olpiidae the male chromosome numbers vary greatly, from 7 to 23. The male karyotype of single studied member of the family Garypinidae, Garypinus dimidiatus, is composed of 33 chromosomes. It is proposed that the karyotype evolution of the...
A bumblebee thioredoxin-like protein gene that is up-regulated by a temperature stimulus and lipopolysaccharide injection
Yong Soo CHOI, Kwang Sik LEE, Hyung Joo YOON, Iksoo KIM, Hung Dae SOHN, Byung Rae JIN
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 291-296, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.037
A thioredoxin-like protein (txl) gene was cloned from the bumblebee, Bombus ignitus. The B. ignitus txl (Bitxl) gene spans 1777 bp and consists of three introns and four exons coding for 285 amino acid residues with a conserved active site (CGPC). The deduced amino acid sequence of the Bitxl cDNA was 65% similar to the Drosophila melanogaster txl. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of Bitxl transcripts in all tissues examined. When H2O2 was injected into the body cavity of B. ignitus workers, Bitxl mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissue. In addition,...
Unusual complement of three AKH octapeptides in two species of grasshoppers (Caelifera)
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 297-304, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.038
The corpora cardiaca (CC) of the two grasshopper species Zonocerus elegans (Pyrgomorphidae) and Lamarckiana sparrmani (Pamphagidae) contain (a) substance(s) that cause(s) hyperlipaemia in the migratory locust and hypertrehalosaemia in the American cockroach. Isolation of neuropeptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family was achieved by single-step reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography of CC extracts from both species and monitoring tryptophan fluorescence. The material of both species showed three distinct fluorescence peaks with adipokinetic activity in the migratory locust. The peptides were identifid...
Haemolymph amino acid, sugar and glycerol levels in the Namib Desert tenebrionid Physadesmia globosa (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) during dehydration and rehydration
Strinivasan G. NAIDU
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 305-310, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.039
Haemolymph levels of amino acids, sugars and glycerol were investigated in the tenebrionid Physadesmia globosa during dehydration and rehydration. The absolute amount of amino acid decreases during dehydration and increases during rehydration, indicating active regulation of this solute (the osmolal contribution of amino acids is large - approx. 25%). Changes in the amino acid content of the haemolymph during dehydration are not the result of interchange with soluble protein; the possibility exists during rehydration (between 1 h and 48 h). Trehalose and glucose are the only sugars found in appreciable quantity in the haemolymph of this species....
Kairomone involvement in the host specificity of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae)
Gianandrea SALERNO, Eric CONTI, Ezio PERI, Stefano COLAZZA, Ferdinando BIN
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 311-318, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.040
This paper reports the results of a comparative laboratory analysis of the behavioural responses of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) to semiochemical cues from four species of pentatomid bugs, Nezara viridula (L.), Eurydema ventrale Klt., Murgantia histrionica Hahn. and Graphosoma semipunctatum F. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). In a Y-tube olfactometer, T. basalis was attracted by volatile chemicals from N. viridula, but not from other pentatomid species. In an open arena, the parasitoid reacted to chemical trails left on filter paper by all the species but most...
Regular periods of abdominal contractions recorded from larvae of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
Marika MÄND, Aare KUUSIK, Ants-Johannes MARTIN, Ingrid H. WILLIAMS, Anne LUIK, Reet KARISE, Luule METSPALU, Külli HIIESAAR
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 319-322, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.041
Using an opto-cardiograph combined with an infrared gas analyzer regular bouts of abdominal contractions were recorded from last instar larva of Bombus terrestris. The rate of CO2 release was about 0.7 ml g-1 h-1. The bouts of contractions were of two types: weak extracardiac pulsations and vigorous pumping. The frequencies of pulsations and pumping were 25-35 per min and 8-12 per min, respectively. Bouts of extracardiac pulsations and abdominal pumping were independent of each other and sometimes overlapped. Cardiac contractions (heartbeats) were continuous (57-63 pulses/min). This study suggests that the periodically...
Comparison of the incidence of sibling cannibalism between male-killing Spiroplasma infected and uninfected clutches of a predatory ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Kayo NAKAMURA, Kazuki MIURA, Peter DE JONG, Hideki UENO
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 323-326, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.042
The incidence of sibling cannibalism in clutches of Harmonia axyridis infected by the male-killing Spiroplasma was compared with that in uninfected clutches, and the way in which fitness compensation was realized by sibling cannibalism was investigated. Primarily the rate of sibling cannibalism was determined by the hatching rate as all unviable eggs were consumed both in infected and uninfected clutches. Per capita consumption of roughly 0.1 individuals was estimated for uninfected clutches in the present study, as compared to 0.3 individuals in previous studies. The per capita consumption in infected clutches was 1.4, showing that the...
Life history and reproductive behavior of the endemic Hawaiian Anomalochrysa hepatica (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): A comparative approach
Maurice J. TAUBER, Catherine A. TAUBER, Timothy W. HILTON
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 327-336, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.043
Our study focuses on a series of biological characteristics that Anomalochrysa hepatica exhibits; herein, we compare these features with those expressed by two other species within the endemic Hawaiian lacewing genus. Some of the characteristics (No. 2-3, below) vary greatly among the three congeners and may be of phylogenetic importance; others (No. 1, below) probably are not. Our study showed the following: (1) Developmental response to temperature. Anomalochrysa hepatica's developmental rates under a range of temperatures parallel those of the congener A. maclachlani, but A. hepatica's thermal threshold is lower. It is...
Effect of temperature and photoperiod on the life cycle in lineages of Myzus persicae nicotianae and Myzus persicae s. str. (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Despoina POUPOULIDOU, John T. MARGARITOPOULOS, Thiresia E. KEPHALOGIANNI, Kostas D. ZARPAS, John A. TSITSIPIS
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 337-346, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.044
Male production was examined in 70 Myzus persicae s.str and M. persicae nicotianae clonal lineages at 17°C and 10L : 14D. Sixty nine were characterised by a partial loss of sexuality (androcyclic producing few males, and intermediates producing some males and mating females), and one was found to be permanently parthenogenetic. High within and between lineage variation was detected. Most (81%) of the clonal lineages produced few males (0-5 males per parent) and only 6% had male production (10-16 males per parent) comparable to that (12-23 males per parent) of seven lineages with a sexual phase (holocyclic) which were examined under the...
Life-history variation in three coexisting species of carnid flies (Diptera: Carnidae), Carnus hemapterus, Hemeromyia anthracina and Hemeromyia longirostris
Francisco VALERA, Manuel MARTÍN-VIVALDI, Miguel CARLES-TOLRÁ
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 347-353, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.045
Seasonal cycles constitute a major challenge for organisms since they may influence the genetic composition of a population, the species structure of a community and the interactions between organisms. Diapause is frequently used by insects to synchronize their life cycle with seasonal changes and is regarded as a key factor in the coexistence of competing species. Here the occurrence, abundance and emergence patterns of three poorly-known species of carnid flies (Carnus hemapterus Nitzsch, 1818, Hemeromyia anthracina Collin, 1949 and Hemeromyia longirostris Carles-Tolrá, 1992), which overwintered in the nests of...
BOOK REVIEW: Ben-Dov Y. & German V.: A Systematic Catalogue of the Diaspididae (Armoured Scale Insects) of the World, Subfamilies Aspidiotinae, Comstockiellinae and Odonapidinae. Ben-Dov Y.: A Systematic Catalogue of the Scale Insect Family Margarodidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the World. Miller D.R., Gimpel M.E. & Rung A.: A Systematic Catalogue of the Cerococcidae, Halimococcidae, Kermesidae, Micrococcidae, Ortheziidae, Phenacoleachiidae, Phoenicococcidae, and Stictococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the World.
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 354, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.046
Ben-Dov Y. & German V.: A Systematic Catalogue of the Diaspididae (Armoured Scale Insects) of the World, Subfamilies Aspidiotinae, Comstockiellinae and Odonapidinae. Intercept, Andover, UK, 2003, 1111 pp. ISBN 1-898298-93-9. Price GBP 80.00.
Ben-Dov Y.: A Systematic Catalogue of the Scale Insect Family Margarodidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the World. Intercept, Wimborne, UK, 2005, 400 pp. ISBN 1-84585-000-9. Price GBP 40.00.
Miller D.R., Gimpel M.E. & Rung A.: A Systematic Catalogue of the Cerococcidae, Halimococcidae, Kermesidae, Micrococcidae, Ortheziidae, Phenacoleachiidae, Phoenicococcidae, and Stictococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea)...
The mechanism of the emergence of Cotesia kariyai (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) larvae from the host
Yutaka NAKAMATSU, Toshiharu TANAKA, Jeffrey A. HARVEY
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 355-360, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.047
At maturity, the endoparasitoid larvae of several subfamilies of the Braconidae have to emerge from inside of the host to pupate. Although the hosts hormonal milieu and the timing of larval parasitoid emergence have been studied, no report has yet focused on the physiological state of the host in connection with the emergence behavior of endoparasitoids. We investigated the mechanism of larval emergence behavior in a gregarious endoparasitoid, Cotesia kariyai. The parasitoid larvae inserted their mandibles into the host cuticle and perforated the integument by moving their head-capsule backwards and forwards. The emerging parasitoid larva must...
Consumption of fresh and buried seed by ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)
Zdenka MARTINKOVÁ, Pavel SASKA, Alois HONĚK
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 361-364, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.048
Ground beetles (Carabidae: Coleoptera) are predators of the seed of herbaceous plants scattered on the ground, but prefer that of certain species. Foraging beetles encounter both freshly dispersed and seed exhumed from the soil bank. The predation on seed from the soil bank has never been studied and the effect of burial on seed acceptability is unknown. The preferences of two generalist granivorous carabids, Harpalus affinis and Pseudoophonus rufipes, were investigated by offering them fresh (stored frozen after dispersal) and buried (for 6 months in the soil under field conditions) seed of six common weed species. Significantly...
Parasitoid complex and parasitism rates of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia
Lubomír VOLTER, Marc KENIS
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 365-370, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.049
The horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić, is a species of unknown origin that recently invaded most of Europe, causing serious damage to horse chestnut trees, Aesculus hippocastanum. Parasitism was studied over a period of three years in the region of Plzeň in the Czech Republic. Additional collections were made in Slovakia and Slovenia. The parasitoid complex, dominated by polyphagous idiobiont parasitoids of the family Eulophidae, is similar to that found in other studies in Europe. Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees) was the most abundant parasitoid found, except in Slovakia where Pediobius saulius...
Responses of Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to traps baited with pheromones and food volatiles
Christos G. ATHANASSIOU, Nickolas G. KAVALLIERATOS, Pasquale TREMATERRA
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 371-378, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.050
The behavioural responses of two species of stored-product beetles, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, to certain stimuli were studied in laboratory choice tests. The results of these experiments indicated that, with one species present, S. oryzae and T. confusum adults were equally attracted to traps baited with the aggregation pheromone of that species and to traps baited with both pheromones. In contrast, when both species were present, neither S. oryzae nor T. confusum showed specific behavioural trend towards a stimulus. Traps baited with 1 g of a mixture of plant extracts...
Complex phenological responses to climate warming trends? Lessons from history
Tim H. SPARKS, Kerstin HUBER, Roger L.H. DENNIS
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 379-386, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.051
Responsiveness of Lepidoptera phenology to climate has been detected in a number of species during the current trend in global warming. There is still a question of whether climate signals would be evident in historical data. In this paper we examine the climatic response of 155 species of moths and butterflies collected during the period 1866-1884 in Wiltshire, southern England. In general, species responded to increased temperature in the previous October by delayed appearance and to increased temperature in the current spring by advanced appearance. Thus, differential changes in temperatures of the autumn and spring could well affect changes in...
Phytophagous insects of giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in invaded areas of Europe and in its native area of the Caucasus
Steen Ole HANSEN, Jan HATTENDORF, Ruediger WITTENBERG, Sergey Ya. REZNIK, Charlotte NIELSEN, Hans Peter RAVN, Wolfgang NENTWIG
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 387-395, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.052
Giant hogweed, Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae), was introduced from the Caucasus into Western Europe more than 150 years ago and later became an invasive weed which created major problems for European authorities. Phytophagous insects were collected in the native range of the giant hogweed (Caucasus) and were compared to those found on plants in the invaded parts of Europe. The list of herbivores was compiled from surveys of 27 localities in nine countries during two seasons. In addition, literature records for herbivores were analysed for a total of 16 Heracleum species. We recorded a total of 265 herbivorous insects on Heracleum...
BOOK REVIEW: Gielis C: PTEROPHOROIDEA & ALUCITOIDEA (LEPIDOPTERA) - IN: WORLD CATALOGUE OF INSECTS 4.
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 396, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.053
Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 2003, 198 pp. ISBN 87-88757-68-4. Price DKK 320.00.
A comparison of three trapping methods used to survey forest-dwelling Coleoptera
Esko HYVÄRINEN, Jari KOUKI, Petri MARTIKAINEN
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 397-407, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.054
Sampling of insect communities is very challenging and for reliable interpretation of results the effects of different sampling protocols and data processing on the results need to be fully understood. We compared three different commonly used methods for sampling forest beetles, freely hanging flight-intercept (window) traps (FWT), flight-intercept traps attached to trunks (TWT) and pitfall traps placed in the ground (PFT), in Scots pine dominated boreal forests in eastern Finland. Using altogether 960 traps, forming 576 sub-samples, at 24 study sites, 59760 beetles belonging to 814 species were collected over a period of a month. All of the material...
The head morphology of Ascioplaga mimeta (Coleoptera: Archostemata) and the phylogeny of Archostemata
Thomas HÖRNSCHEMEYER, Jürgen GOEBBELS, Gerd WEIDEMANN, Cornelius FABER, Axel HAASE
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 409-423, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.055
Internal and external features of the head of Ascioplaga mimeta (Coleoptera: Archostemata) were studied with micro X-ray computertomography (µCT) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). These methods allowed the reconstruction of the entire internal anatomy from the only available fixed specimen. The mouthparts and their associated musculature are highly derived in many aspects. Their general configuration corresponds to that of Priacma serrata (the only other archostematan studied in comparable detail). However, the mandible-maxilla system of A. mimeta is built as a complex sorting apparatus and shows a distinct specialisation...
The male genitalia segments in fritillary butterflies: Comparative morphology with special reference to the "rectal plate" in Issoria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
Thomas J. SIMONSEN
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 425-432, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.056
The male genitalia of the fritillary butterfly Issoria lathonia (L.) were examined and reconstructed based on sagittal and horizontal sections. Nine intrinsic muscles were identified consistent with previous results. The retractor of the anal tube probably operates the "rectal plate", a large, sclerotised, arched plate present ventral to the rectum and dorsal to the phallus in all Issoria s. str. species. The function of the rectal plate is still largely unknown, but it has presumably an important function during copulation. The retractor of the phallus inserts on the phallus, and also on a small, ventral sclerite in the anellus. The...
Morphological separation of Tomicus piniperda and T. destruens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): new and old characters
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 433-442, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.057
Tomicus piniperda and T. destruens are sibling species which are extremely difficult to separate by morphological characters. Although several papers report differences between the two species, many characters need confirmation or better description. Moreover, new morphological characters are required for correct species determination. For these purposes, eight populations of T. destruens from Italy, Greece, Spain and Algeria, and ten of T. piniperda from Finland, Poland, Czech Republic, Austria, Sweden and Italy, were investigated considering eleven morphological characters. The morphological differences most useful...
Testing molecular barcodes: Invariant mitochondrial DNA sequences vs the larval and adult morphology of West Palaearctic Pandasyopthalmus species (Diptera: Syrphidae: Paragini)
Santos ROJO, Gunilla STÅHLS, Celeste PÉREZ-BAÑÓN, M. ÁNGELES MARCOS-GARCÍA
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 443-458, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.058
The intra- and interspecific variability in the West Palaearctic tibialis-group species of the subgenus Pandasyopthalmus (Diptera: Syrphidae: Paragus) was analysed. Novel immature and molecular characters were studied and the traditionally used adult characters reviewed with the aim of establishing the status of the most widespread taxa of the tibialis-group in the Palaearctic region. Moreover, a review of the morphology of the larvae of the subgenus Pandasyopthalmus is also presented and includes the first description of the chaetotaxy of the larval head of Syrphidae. The larval morphology showed a continuum between...
Phylogeny of Chrysotoxum species (Diptera: Syrphidae) inferred from morphological and molecular characters
Antonio MASETTI, Andrea LUCHETTI, Daniele SOMMAGGIO, Giovanni BURGIO, Barbara MANTOVANI
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 459-467, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.059
Relationships of nine Italian Chrysotoxum species were analysed using morphological and molecular data. The morphology-derived cladogram revealed three well-defined groups: (i) C. cautum, (ii) the arcuatum group (C. arcuatum, C. fasciolatum) and (iii) the festivum group (C. festivum - C. vernale, C. bicinctum, C. elegans, C. octomaculatum and C. parmense). Trees inferred from COI-tRNALeu-COII sequences were largely in agreement, but they identified (i) C. parmense as an isolated branch, (ii) C. festivum and C. vernale as separate entities, (iii) C. elegans within a paraphyletic...
More than one species of Messor harvester ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Central Europe
Birgit C. SCHLICK-STEINER, Florian M. STEINER, Heino KONRAD, Bálint MARKÓ, Sándor CSŐSZ, Gerhard HELLER, Beatrix FERENCZ, Botond SIPOS, Erhard CHRISTIAN, Christian STAUFFER
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 469-476, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.060
It is commonly held that Central Europe harbours but a single harvester ant species, namely Messor structor. Recently discovered bionomic differences between two Central European populations, which may reflect interspecific variation, cast doubt on this assumption. In the present study we test alternative hypotheses - one versus two harvester ant species in Central Europe and adjacent regions - by investigating the genetic diversity of ants determined as M. structor or close to it ("M. cf. structor"). Sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene revealed two major lineages of different but partially overlapping geographic...
Phaenoglyphis "versus" Hemicrisis, and the description of a new sculptured species of Charipinae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae)
Juli PUJADE-VILLAR, Jordi PARETAS-MARTÍNEZ
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 477-481, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.061
After comparing the morphology of the genus Hemicrisis Förster, 1869 and Phaenoglyphis Förster, 1869, and examining the sculpturing in this genus, the synonymy between Hemicrisis and Phaenoglyphis is re-established. The specific status of Phaenoglyphis pubicollis (Thomson, 1877) comb. n. is re-established and differentiated from Phaenoglyphis ruficornis (Förster, 1869) comb. n. A new species of Charipinae, Phaenoglyphis evenhuisi sp. n. is described from Andorra. It is characterized by the presence of sculpture on the mesonotum, a character only shared with P. pubicollis. Some illustrations are...
The genus Amiota (Diptera: Drosophilidae) from Hengduan Mountains, southwestern China
Wenxia ZHANG, Hongwei CHEN
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 483-495, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.062
A total of 39 Amiota species are found from the southern portion of Hengduan Mountains, southwestern China, including 12 new species: A. gaoi sp. n., A. gracilenta sp. n., A. multispinata sp. n., A. yifengi sp. n., A. angustifolia sp. n., A. bacillia sp. n., A. biacuta sp. n., A. cultella sp. n., A. deltoidea sp. n., A. pianmensis sp. n., A. setosa sp. n. and A. bifoliolata sp. n. A key to all the studied species from Hengduan Mountains is provided.
BOOK REVIEW: Raman A., Schaefer C.W. & Withers T.M. (eds): BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND EVOLUTION OF GALL-INDUCING ARTHROPODS. VOL. 1, 2.
V. SKUHRAVÝ, M. SKUHRAVÁ
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 495-496, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.063
Science Publishers, Enfield (NH), USA & Plymouth, UK, 2005, xxi + 817 pp. ISBN 1-57808-262-5 (Set), 1-57808-345-1 (Vol. 1), 1-57808-346-X (Vol. 2). Price GBP 81.40.
Unusual host plant of Hoplitis pici, a bee with hooked bristles on its mouthparts (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae: Osmiini)
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 497-500, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.064
Hoplitis pici (Friese, 1899) is a rare species of bee occurring in southeast Europe, Turkey and the Near East. The females are equipped with conspicuous hooked bristles on the galeae of the proboscis. Microscopical analysis of both pollen contained in the abdominal scopa and sticking to the bodies of females indicates a distinct preference of H. pici for the flowers of Muscari Miller (Hyacinthaceae), which are characterized by having the anthers completely hidden within an urn-shaped corolla. Field observations showed that the specialized bristles serve to scrape pollen out of the Muscari flowers. Specialized bristles...
Biological and ecological studies on Scymnus syriacus and Scymnus levaillanti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Thabet F. ALLAWI
Eur. J. Entomol. 103 (2): 501-503, 2006 | 10.14411/eje.2006.065
Both Scymnus syriacus Mars. and Scymnus levaillanti Muls. are aphidophagous coccinellids. In the laboratory they consumed and successfully reproduced on several species of aphids. Larvae suck the prey contents from aphid appendages, while adults consume the whole aphid, except for parts of the appendages. Extra-oral digestion is practiced during feeding. The mean number of aphids consumed by the larval stage of S. syriacus when reared at 25°C was 95, and 130 aphids at 30°C. For S. levaillanti it was 125 and 139 aphids at 25°C and 30°C, respectively. The mean number of eggs deposited daily by S. syriacus for the first...