EJE, vol. 102 (2005), issue 4
Winter climates and coldhardiness in terrestrial insects
William J. TURNOCK, Paul G. FIELDS
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 561-576, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.081
Overwintering insects must avoid injury and death from the freezing of tissues and from metabolic disruptions associated with exposure to low, non-freezing temperatures. The winter climates of the world are classified in relation to insect overwintering on the basis of their minimum temperatures and the duration of the winter (when temperatures are below the thermal range for activity and development). Outside the Tropical Wet zone, the severity of exposure to cold (temperature, snowfall, duration of exposure, predictability, variability) can vary from a few days at 0°C to months below -20°C with extremes as low as -60°C. The severity of the temperature...
Current knowledge on genes and genomes of phytophagous beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea, Curculionoidea): a review
Jesús GÓMEZ-ZURITA, José GALIÁN
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 577-597, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.082
Fifteen years after the publication of the first genomic sequence of a phytophagous beetle, we review here the wealth of genetic and genomic information generated so far for the species-rich beetle superfamilies Chrysomeloidea (longhorn, seed and leaf beetles) and Curculionoidea (weevils and bark beetles). In this review we briefly describe the most common methods used to investigate the beetle genomes and also compile the nucleotide sequence information stored in public gene databases until December 2004. The motivations and relevance of these research initiatives are described in certain detail, distinguishing among structural and population studies,...
Molecular insights into speciation in the Agrilus viridis-complex and the genus Trachys (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
Detlef BERNHARD, Guido FRITZSCH, Pia GLÖCKNER, Claus WURST
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 599-605, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.083
Species of the Agrilus viridis-complex and the genus Trachys are morphologically difficult to identify or even indistinguishable. However, all of them are ecologically clearly separated because their larvae develop in different host plants. Hitherto, it was unclear whether they represent varieties, ecological races or true species. In this paper the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships within these groups are analysed using partial sequence data from mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA, and a fragment containing regions of ND1 and 16S rDNA). The phylogenetic analyses yielded largely congruent tree topologies and indicate that all...
BOOK REVIEW: Jolivet P., Santiago-Blay J.A. & Schmitt M. (eds): NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE BIOLOGY OF CHRYSOMELIDAE.
J. BEZDĚK, A. BEZDĚK
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 606, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.084
SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague, 2004, 804 pp., 793 figs, 80 tables. ISBN 90-5103-142-4. Price EUR 290.00, USD 345.00.
Phylogenetic evaluation of the taxonomic status of Timandra griseata and T. comae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Sterrhinae)
Erki ÕUNAP, Jaan VIIDALEPP, Urmas SAARMA
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 607-615, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.085
The sterrhine loopers Timandra griseata and T. comae have been treated as distinct species since 1994. However, morphological differences between the taxa are minor and therefore their status has often been disputed. Here, we present a molecular phylogenetic study, which separates T. griseata and T. comae into different clades. Altogether, 43 Timandra specimens from eight European countries were studied. The phylogeny is based on a comparative sequence analysis of mitochondrial genes coding for the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). Nevertheless, a single individual of both...
BOOK REVIEW: Brown J.W.: TORTRICIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA) - IN: WORLD CATALOGUE OF INSECTS 5.
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 616, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.086
Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 2005, 741 pp. ISBN 87-88757-41-2. Price DKK 960.00.
Molecular and morphological phylogeny of the parasitic wasp genus Yelicones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae)
Buntika AREEKUL, Miharu MORI, Alejandro ZALDIVAR-RIVERÓN, Donald L.J. QUICKE
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 617-624, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.087
Phylogenetic relationships of the braconid wasp genus Yelicones Cameron are studied using the D2-D3 region of the nuclear 28S rRNA gene, both alone and simultaneously with morphology. The results support a morphology-based phylogeny, presented elsewhere, with Yelicones being divided into two major groups corresponding to the New and Old World faunas. The African and Asian species largely form separate clades except for Yelicones wui Chen & He from China which is associated with the Afrotropical species. Potential molecular synapomorphies are illustrated.
Conservation of HP1 and methylated H3 histones as heterochromatic epigenetic markers in the holocentric chromosomes of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera)
Federica BORSATTI, Mauro MANDRIOLI
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 625-632, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.088
The methylated H3 histone and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are markers of heterochromatin in several eukaryotes possessing monocentric chromosomes. In order to confirm that these epigenetic markers of heterochromatin are evolutionary conserved, the distribution of methylated H3 histones and HP1 homologues on the holocentric chromosomes of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera) were studied. In particular, PCR experiments with degenerated primers identified a HP1 homologue (called MbHP1) in the M. brassicae genome. Sequencing showed that the MbHP1 gene is 737 bp long including a 102 bp 5'UTR and a 635 bp coding...
Mitochondrial DNA provides an insight into the mechanisms driving diversification in the ithomiine butterfly Hyposcada anchiala (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae)
Alaine WHINNETT, Keith R. WILLMOTT, Andrew V.Z. BROWER, Fraser SIMPSON, Marie ZIMMERMANN, Gerardo LAMAS, James MALLET
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 633-639, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.089
Geographic subspecies of several ithomiine butterflies on the lower east Andean slopes display a black and orange "melanic tiger" aposematic wing pattern that occurs from Colombia to Bolivia, while geographically adjacent lowland subspecies typically bear a coloured, "tiger" pattern. However, it is not clear whether subspecies with similar wing patterns in different regions have arisen through independent events of convergent adaptation, possibly through parapatric differentiation, or result from allopatric differentiation, as proposed by the refuge hypothesis. Here, we examine geographic patterns of divergence in the widespread and common ithomiine...
Physiological determinants of male mating performance in aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Dinah F. HALES
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 641-646, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.090
When investigating sexual strategies of aphids, it is necessary to set up multiple replicates to compensate for the small number of eggs laid per female. Genetic variation among replicates can be minimised if members of the same clone are used, but problems can arise unless the participants are also physiologically equivalent. A series of experiments on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was performed to investigate aspects of male maturation and semen transfer that should be considered in planning or interpreting experiments on aphid sexual strategies.
Systemic effects of phytoecdysteroids on the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)
Roman PAVELA, Juraj HARMATHA, Martin BÁRNET, Karel VOKÁČ
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 647-653, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.091
The systemic effects of phytoecdysteroids were investigated by applying tested compounds to the roots of the rape plants. Evaluation of the effects was based on mortality, longevity, rate of development and fecundity of the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L., Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) feeding on the shoot of the treated plants. The major ecdysteroid compounds tested were natural products isolated from a medicinal plant Leuzea carthamoides DC (Willd.) Iljin (Asteraceae): 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), ajugasterone C (ajuC) and polypodine B (polyB). The compounds were tested in two concentrations (0.07 and 0.007 mg/ml) in water. In addition,...
BOOK REVIEW: Christensen T.A. (ed.): Methods in insect sensory NEUROSCIENCE.
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 654, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.092
CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2004, 435 pp. ISBN 0849320240. Price GBP 79.99, USD 139.95.
Exploitation of kairomones and synomones by Medetera spp. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), predators of spruce bark beetles
Jiri HULCR, Marc POLLET, Karel UBIK, Jan VRKOČ
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 655-662, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.093
The semiochemical relationships in a predator-prey-host plant system were studied by a series of multiple-choice field assays. The studied system included predatory flies of the genus Medetera (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), the bark beetles Ips typographus and Pityogenes chalcographus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) as prey and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) as the host plant. Of the nine species of predators collected, only M. setiventris and M. melancholica provided sufficient data for statistical analysis. The response of the predators to monoterpenic products of the host (alpha-pinene, limonene, camphor),...
Circadian patterns in the activity of the Brazilian cave cricket Strinatia brevipennis (Ensifera: Phalangopsidae)
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 663-668, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.094
This paper presents data on the activity rhythms of the Brazilian cave cricket, Strinatia brevipennis. Recordings were made in the laboratory in a sound-proof constant environment. Recordings were made either under constant darkness or LD cycles, with food provided ad libitum or not, and with crickets isolated or with a conspecific near the cage. Some crickets were tested with pulses of sound. Raw data are presented in the form of single plot actograms and analyzed using the phase weighted stack (PWS) method. These cave crickets showed a somewhat erratic patterns of activity, although a circadian component could be detected. All the environmental...
Effects of Wolbachia-targeted tetracycline on a host-parasitoid-symbiont interaction
Hosagavi P. PUTTARAJU, Bandekodigenahalli M. PRAKASH
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 669-674, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.095
The uzifly, Exorista sorbillans (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasite of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), causes heavy losses to the silk industry. This parasitoid harbours a Wolbachia endosymbiont, which controls the fly's reproduction. In the present study a method for curtailing this notorious pest by administering Wolbachia-targeted tetracycline via its silkworm host's diet is investigated. Tetracycline not only influenced the larval growth of the silkworms' by decreasing larval duration, increased silk production and fecundity, without affecting hatchability, it also decreased the reproductive fitness...
Diet composition and body size in insect herbivores: Why do small species prefer young leaves?
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 675-681, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.096
The hypothesis that small body size is correlated with preference for young leaves was tested in a community of leaf-chewing insect herbivores feeding on Ficus wassa in a humid tropical forest in Papua New Guinea. Feeding experiments on 48 species of herbivorous insects revealed a negative correlation between body size and a preference for feeding on young leaves. While small species preferred young leaves, large species showed no preferences, or preferred young leaves only slightly. This relationship was found for the entire leaf-chewing community, as well as for many of the constituent taxa on several taxonomic levels, from orders to genera....
Resumed forest grazing restored a population of Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in SE Finland
Kimmo SAARINEN, Juha JANTUNEN, Anu VALTONEN
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 683-690, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.097
In 1996, an old forest pasture grazed from the 1960s to 1988 was restored by coppicing, fencing and grazing by cattle to protect a local population of the endangered butterfly Euphydryas aurinia. An adjoining ungrazed meadow provided a control. In the first years, the butterfly became almost extinct due to the nearly complete consumption of the host plant of the larva, Succisa pratensis, by cattle. The butterfly population quickly recovered when the grazing pressure was lowered. Thus, the intensity of management should be adjusted by continuous monitoring of the target species. In the 2000s, the annual population was about 50 butterflies,...
Foraging activity and demographic patterns of two termite species (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) living in urban landscapes in southeastern Brazil
Alberto ARAB, Ana Maria COSTA-LEONARDO, Fabiana Elaine CASARIN, André De Camargo GUARALDO, Ricardo C. CHAVES
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 691-697, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.098
Coptotermes gestroi and Heterotermes tenuis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) are important pests in southeastern Brazil causing serious economic damage. In this study we determined the demographic patterns and foraging activity of these species using mark-release-recapture and the consumption of wooden stakes. Using both the weighted mean and Lincoln index methods, population estimates ranged from ≈ 0.57 to 1.99 million individuals for C. gestroi and from ≈ 0.20 to 1.37 million for H. tenuis. Territory size of the colonies ranged from 172.5 to 5235 m2 for C. gestroi and from...
BOOK REVIEW: Gorb S.: Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle.
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 698, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.099
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2001, 305 pp. ISBN 0-7923-7153-4. Price USD 179.00.
Adult demography, dispersal and behaviour of Brenthis ino (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): how to be a successful wetland butterfly
Kamil ZIMMERMANN, Zdeněk FRIC, Ladislava FILIPOVÁ, Martin KONVIČKA
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 699-706, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.100
Continent-wide loss of traditionally managed humid meadows is raising concern for associated butterfly specialists across Europe. However, not all species associated with this biotope are threatened, and the Lesser Marbled Fritillary (Brenthis ino) has even spread locally. We employed mark-recapture and transect walks to study its population structure and patterns of landscape occupancy in a hilly region of western Bohemia, Central Europe, to determine which life history or demography traits might be responsible for its success. A population studied by mark-recapture harboured more than 1000 individuals and was interconnected with other populations....
Fluctuating asymmetry, body size, reproductive period and life time mating success of males of Cercion lindeni (Odonata: Coenagrionidae)
Gianmaria CARCHINI, Marco Di DOMENICO, Flavia CHIAROTTI, Carla TANZILLI, Tiziana PACIONE
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 707-712, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.101
Mating success is linked to reproductive success in males, but parameters influencing it are poorly known. The relationships between lifetime mating success (LMS), fluctuating asymmetry (FA), body size (SIZE), reproductive period (RP) and emergence date (MD) of males of Cercion lindeni were investigated. Males were marked and photographed in their pre-reproductive period, and their matings monitored. RP was assumed to be the period between the MD and the last sighting of each individual. Three different FA measures and the size of each individual were determined. The results showed that the individuals not present at the pond during the reproductive...
Older-instar larvae of Pseudopsinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae): morphological description of three genera and phylogenetic placement of the subfamily
Vasily V. GREBENNIKOV
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 713-724, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.102
Larvae of three genera representing the staphylinid subfamily Pseudopsinae are described for the first time and illustrated with 33 morphological drawings: Pseudopsis Newman, Zalobius LeConte and Nanobius Herman. Thirty-six characters (mainly of larval morphology) were scored for representatives of six staphylinid subfamilies and a phylogenetic analysis was carried out. The monophyly of the subfamily Pseudopsinae is supported by the presence of a short oblique ridge on ventral side of larval head capsule laterad of maxillary foramina. The monophyly of each of the subfamilies Paederinae and Staphylininae is discussed based on the...
Revision of the Oriental species of the genus Gnypetalia new status (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), with a discussion of its phylogenetic relationships
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 725-736, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.103
The subgenus Gnypetalia Cameron, 1939 is redefined and raised to the genus rank. Eleven valid species are recognised in the genus, six of which are described as new: Gnypetalia armata sp. n. (Solomon Islands), G. cuccodoroi sp. n. (Philippines: Luzon), G. insularis sp. n. (Solomon Islands), G. luzonica sp. n. (Philippines: Luzon, Palawan), G. nitida sp. n. (Indonesia: Sulawesi) and G. penrisseni sp. n. (Malaysia: Sarawak). One new synonym is established: Gnypetalia parva Cameron, 1950 = Ischnopoda (Caliusa) finitima Pace, 1998 syn. n. Five species are given in new combination:...
Revision of the subgenus Lampetis (Spinthoptera) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) of North and Central America, and the West Indies
Angélica M. CORONA
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 737-776, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.104
The species of Lampetis (Spinthoptera) Casey, 1909 of Central America, North America and the West Indies are revised and 31 species are recognized. Six species from the West Indies [L. aurata (Saunders, 1871), L. aurifera (Olivier, 1790), L. bahamica (Fisher, 1925), L. guildini (Laporte & Gory, 1836), L. straba (Chevrolat, 1867), and L. torquata (Dalman, 1823)], eight species from Mexico [L. auropunctata (Kerremans, 1893) (new record for the USA), L. chalconota (Waterhouse, 1882), L. christophi Théry, 1923, L. dilaticollis (Waterhouse, 1882), L. geniculata (Waterhouse,...
Pljushtchia prima, new moth genus and species from Tadjikistan (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
Jaan VIIDALEPP, Igor KOSTJUK
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 777-785, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.105
A new genus and species of geometrid moths from Tadjikistan is described and its position in the taxonomic structure of the subfamily Larentiinae is analysed. The new genus is grouped, based on the parsimony analysis of 38 morphological characters, to coniferous-feeding genera of the tribe Cidariini as follows: (Thera (Pennithera (Protothera (Pljushtchia gen. n. Heterothera)))). Pljushtchia is characterised by the antennae, unipectinate in males and flat, serrate in females, by a reduced haustellum, the venation of wings and the structure of the genitalia. The Thera firmata species group is validated...
BOOK REVIEW: Heckman CH.W.: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOUTH AMERICAN AQUATIC INSECTS: EPHEMEROPTERA.
J.G. PETERS, T. SOLDÁN
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 786, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.106
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 2002, viii + 419 pp. ISBN 1-4020-0775-2. Price USD 197.00.
Characterisation of the luciferase gene and the 5' upstream region in the European glow-worm Lampyris noctiluca (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)
John C. DAY
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 787-791, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.107
Beetle luciferase, a mono-oxygenase within the AMP-binding superfamily, is synthesized by bioluminescent beetles in concentrated levels within specialised cells clustering in the abdominal light organs. In vivo expression of luciferase has been rarely investigated and little is known about the role of enhancers and promoters in the expression of this gene. In order to investigate the gene structure and potential control of gene expression the luciferase gene along with 6 kb of upstream genomic sequence was characterised from the European glow-worm Lampyris noctiluca. Three TATA box motifs and a CAAT repeat were identified, two of these were...
Detection of predation on Euzophera pingüis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Estefanía RODRÍGUEZ, Carlos LOZANO, Mercedes CAMPOS
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 793-796, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.108
Euzophera pingüis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a secondary olive pest, which has increased in importance during recent years. In this study, more than 1300 predatory arthropods were collected from a Spanish olive orchard over two years and assayed using a pest-specific ELISA. Abundance and the percentage of positive responses to E. pingüis obtained using ELISA showed spiders to be the main predator, especially in 1998, when they accounted for 18% of the predation, followed by Scymnus suturalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Brachinotocoris ferreri (Heteroptera: Miridae). Neuroptera and ants were less important as predators...
Natural prey of the jumping spider Menemerus taeniatus (Araneae: Salticidae)
Elchin F. HUSEYNOV
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 797-799, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.109
The natural prey of the jumping spider Menemerus taeniatus (L. Koch, 1867) was studied on the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan. The percentage of specimens of M. taeniatus found feeding was low (10.7%). This investigation showed that M. taeniatus is a polyphagous predator feeding on a wide range of arthropods, including representatives of eight arthropod orders. The primary food of M. taeniatus was Diptera and Lepidoptera, which collectively made up about two thirds of total prey. The length of prey killed by M. taeniatus ranged between 1.10 and 13.00 mm (mean 6.14 mm), which is between 15.2 and 216.7% (mean 90.3%)...
BOOK REVIEW: Heckman CH.W.: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOUTH AMERICAN AQUATIC INSECTS: PLECOPTERA.
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 800, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.110
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 2003, viii + 329 pp. ISBN 1-4020-1520-8. Price USD 197.00.
Provisioning patterns and choice of prey in the digger wasp Cerceris arenaria (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): the role of prey size
Carlo POLIDORI, Roberto BOESI, Francesco ISOLA, Francesco ANDRIETTI
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 801-804, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.111
At a nest site in Northern Italy of females of the weevil-hunting digger wasp Cerceris arenaria L. (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) the provisioning activity and predator-prey relationship were investigated, in particular their specialization in choice of prey. Females were active from middle of June to end of July, and from 8.00 to 19.00. The wasps made provisioning flights throughout the day, mostly in late morning and early afternoon. Individual wasps generally only hunted for 1 or 2 prey species of all those available, maybe because of their higher abundance. The size of prey, which is positively correlated with that of the female wasps, seems...
Comparison of the suitability of three pest leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as hosts for the parasitoid Dacnusa sibirica (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Yoshihisa ABE, Tomohiko TAKEUCHI, Susumu TOKUMARU, Jun KAMATA
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 805-807, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.112
The suitability of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, L. trifolii (Burgess) and L. bryoniae (Kaltenbach) as hosts of the solitary larval-pupal parasitoid Dacnusa sibirica Telenga was studied. This parasitoid is used as a biological control agent against L. trifolii and L. bryoniae. The parasitoid laid eggs in L. sativae, but no adult parasitoids emerged from the puparia. In contrast, D. sibirica adults emerged from the puparia of L. trifolii and L. bryoniae, and there was no significant difference in emergence rate, female developmental time, or sex ratio when parasitizing these two host...
BOOK REVIEW: Wichard W., Arens W. & Eisenbeis G.: BIOLOGICAL ATLAS OF AQUATIC INSECTS.
T. SOLDÁN, M. PAPÁČEK
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 808, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.113
Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark, 2002, 340 pp., ISBN 87-88757-60-9, hard cover, price DDK 490.00.
Anthropogenic induced changes in nesting densities of the dune-specialised digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)
Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (4): 809-812, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.114
Data on nesting densities of Bembix rostrata, a digger wasp inhabiting dynamic coastal dunes, were used to document the detrimental effects of trampling by cattle and vacationers. Both types of disturbance resulted in similar sand displacement and prey availability. Nesting densities of Europe's largest digger wasp declined dramatically with increasing trampling, probably below the critical population size. Hence, additional human disturbance, although resulting in similar environmental conditions compared to natural disturbance, significantly affected local population sizes. As a result, anthropogenic has to be avoided disturbance in order...