EJE, vol. 102 (2005), issue 2

Diagnostic molecular markers and the genetic relationships among three species of the Cheilosia canicularis group (Diptera: Syrphidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 125-131, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.020

To re-evaluate the taxonomic status of Cheilosia canicularis (Panzer, 1801), C. himantopus (Panzer, 1798) and C. orthotricha Vujić & Claussen, 1994, variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and 18 nuclear allozyme genes were surveyed in allopatric and sympatric populations from Serbia and Montenegro. Genetic relationships among five populations of these species from the Fruška Gora (Serbia), Kopaonik (Serbia) and Durmitor (Montenegro) mountains were analyzed. Seven allozyme loci (Aat, Aco, Fum, Idh-1, Idh-2, Mdh-2 and Sdh) were diagnostic for delineating...

Molecular phylogeny of the Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) based on DNA sequences of 16S rRNA, 18S rDNA and ATPase 6 genes

Min SHI, Xue-Xin CHEN

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 133-138, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.021

Phylogenetic relationships among 16 genera of the subfamily Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were investigated using sequence data from three genes: the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (16S), 18S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial ATPase 6. All sequences were downloaded from the GenBank database. A total of 2775 base pairs of aligned sequence were obtained per species from these three genes. The results support the existence of three-tribes: Ephedrini, Praini and Aphidiini, with the Ephedrini occupying the basal position; Aphidiini could be further subdivided into three subtribes: Monoctonina, Trioxina and Aphidiina. The genus Aphidius...

Digestive proteolytic activity in the gut and salivary glands of the predatory bug Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae); effect of proteinase inhibitors

Howard A. BELL, Rachel E. DOWN, John P. EDWARDS, John A. GATEHOUSE, Angharad M.R. GATEHOUSE

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 139-145, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.022

Proteinase activity in the midgut of the pentatomid stinkbug Podisus maculiventris was investigated. The optimal pH for adult and nymph proteolysis was pH 6.0 and pH 6.5, respectively. Proteinase activity was characterised using a range of diagnostic inhibitors. Activity of both adult and nymphal gut extracts, detected by the hydrolysis of Z-Phe-Arg-pNA, was inhibited to <20% of control levels by several inhibitors (e.g. E-64 and chicken egg white cystatin) associated with the inhibition of cysteine proteinases. The less specific inhibitor leupeptin reduced proteolytic activity to around 1.0% of the control values. In-gel analysis...

Trypsin-like activity of membrane-bound midgut proteases from Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Luciana Pereira XAVIER, Maria Goreti ALMEIDA OLIVEIRA, Raul Narciso Carvalho GUEDES, Agenor Valarades SANTOS, Salvatore Giovanni DE SIMONE

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 147-153, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.023

Membrane-bound proteases from preparations of the midgut of 5th instar velvetbean caterpillars, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) were obtained by resuspension of the pellet obtained after 100,000 g centrifugation. As expected of trypsin-like proteases, they hydrolyzed casein and the synthetic substrates N-α-benzoyl-L-Arg-p-nitroanilidine (L-BApNA) and N-α-p-tosyl-L-Arg methyl ester (L-TAME). Higher activities were observed at 50°C, and at pH 8.5 and 8.0 for both synthetic substrates L-BApNA and L-TAME. The membrane-bound proteases were inhibited by EDTA, phenylmethan sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF), tosyl-L-lysine...

BOOK REVIEW: Adler P.H., Currie D.C. & Wood D.M.: The Black Flies (Simuliidae) of North America.


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 154, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.024

Adler P.H., Currie D.C. & Wood D.M.: The Black Flies (Simuliidae) of North America. With a foreword by D.H. Jansen and illustrations by R.M. Idema & L.W. Zettler. Comstock Publishing Press, Ithaca & London in association with the Royal Ontario Museum. ROM publication in science, 2004, xv + 1999 pp., 255 distribution maps, 888 line drawings, 97 black-and-white photos and 24 page color folio. ISBN 0-8014-2498-4.

Honeydew production and honeydew sugar composition of polyphagous black bean aphid, Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various host plants and implications for ant-attendance

Melanie K. FISCHER, Wolfgang VÖLKL, Klaus H. HOFFMANN

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 155-160, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.025

The black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, is polyphagous and its life cycle involves seasonal migration between summer and winter host plants. The aphids are regularly tended by honeydew-collecting ants. This study investigates whether differences exist in honeydew production and honeydew sugar composition for A. fabae subspecies feeding on various host plants and whether such differences reflect differences in the intensity of ant-atttendance (Lasius niger).
A. f. fabae feeding on the perennial summer host, Tanacetum vulgare, produced twice the amount of honeydew (ca. 110 µg per aphid . h-1)...

Climate change and the effect of increasing spring temperatures on emergence dates of the butterfly Apatura iris (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Dennis DELL, Tim H. SPARKS, Roger L.H. DENNIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 161-167, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.026

Data on pupation and emergence dates for the nymphalid Purple Emperor butterfly Apatura iris have been collected at Basel, Switzerland, between 1982 and 2002. The butterfly has been shown to emerge on average 9 (males) to 12 (females) days earlier per decade, 19 and 24 days earlier respectively over the study period. Emergence dates relate strongly to spring temperatures, particularly with daily maximum temperatures for the months March to May. Temperatures for these months have increased significantly during this period (0.7°C to 1.8°C per decade). Three factors suggest that the strongest influence of the rise in spring temperatures has been...

Time of oviposition and reproductive success in Argiope bruennichi (Araneae: Araneidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 169-174, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.027

Time of oviposition and investment in reproduction output are a crucial decision for animals which could affect their fitness. In this study, the factors determining the time of oviposition and the consequences it has for clutch size and juvenile survival were investigated in the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. Egg-sacs laid at different times in the field were collected and inspected for eggs, hatching success and presence of parasites. Relationships between spider body condition, clutch size and time of oviposition were established. The influence of supplementary food on the number of eggs in a clutch and on the time of oviposition was...

Indirect effects of ant predation (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 175-180, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.028

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is one of the dominant plants of the Fennoscandian boreal coniferous forest and constitutes a major food source for many insect herbivores. A common ant species in these forests is the wood ant Formica (Formica) aquilonia Yarrow, which preys heavily on other invertebrates within its territories. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aquilonia's predation on the insect herbivores may have indirect positive or negative effects on bilberry. Damage to the bilberry, its vegetative growth and reproduction were quantified in order to contrast localities close to...

Effects and interactions of temperature, host deprivation and adult feeding on the longevity of the parasitoid Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

Panagiotis A. ELIOPOULOS, George J. STATHAS, Stelios L. BOURAS

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 181-187, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.029

A laboratory study was carried out to determine the effects and interactions of temperature, host deprivation and adult feeding on the longevity of the parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). The effect of body size was also examined. Large wasps (hind tibia length > 1.96 mm) lived significantly longer than smaller conspecifics (hind tibia length < 1.89 mm). Adults reared at 15°C lived longer regardless of whether supplied with hosts or food. Correspondingly, adults had a shorter life at 30°C. Honey-fed adults lived significantly longer than starved adults at all temperatures and irrespective of host presence,...

Mate choice and reproductive success of two morphs of the seven spotted ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 189-194, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.030

Mate choice, reproductive success and fecundity of typical and melanic morphs of C. septempunctata were studied. Melanic as well as typical individuals preferred to mate with melanic males and females. Mate choice was mainly determined by females and to a lesser degree by males. Mating duration, oviposition period, and lifetime fecundity were highest (51.20 ± 2.82 min, 47.00 ± 2.79 days and 705.40 ± 69.85 eggs) when a melanic female mated with a melanic male and lowest (38.94 ± 1.68 min, 26.10 ± 2.54 days, 395.9 ± 36.25 eggs) when a typical female mated with a typical male. Longevity of both sexes of...

Fluctuating asymmetry as a measure of ecological stress in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Vincenzo TROTTA, Federico Corrado Fulceri CALBOLI, Flavio GAROIA, Daniela GRIFONI, Sandro CAVICCHI

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 195-200, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.031

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the small and random departures from perfect symmetry of an organism's bilateral traits, has been used as a measurement of developmental stability and an indicator of stress in endangered populations. We were interested in testing if the level of developmental stability is the same in different populations experiencing the same conditions, as the use of FA as an indicator of ecological stress is only meaningful if this is true. In order to do this, the effect of thermal stress on wing size FA over a range of temperatures was determined on three different lines of Drosophila melanogaster: two lines were maintained...

Host-plant flowering status and the concentration of sugar in phloem sap: Effects on an ant-treehopper interaction


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 201-208, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.032

Host-plant mediation in ant-hemipteran mutualisms requires three conditions. First, hemipteran attractiveness to ants should vary with plant quality. Second, ants should preferentially tend those Hemiptera that produce the most nutritious attractant. Third, increased ant attendance based on a richer food reward should have a significant effect on some measure of hemipteran fitness. A field experiment is used to test these conditions. This is the first study to simultaneously test these three conditions, and the first to test the effect of plant flowering status on the ant-derived benefits for a honeydew-producing hemipteran. It is hypothesized that...

Ladybird (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) dispersal in experimental fragmented alfalfa landscapes

Audrey A. GREZ, Tania ZAVIEZO, Marta RÍOS

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 209-216, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.033

Habitat fragmentation may affect the dispersal behaviour of individuals across the landscape. If there is a high boundary contrast between the remaining fragments and the matrix, individuals should tend to stay inside the fragments, but the configuration of the landscape, i.e. the level of fragmentation and isolation distance between fragments, may modulate this. To test these ideas, we made several mark-recapture experiments with the ladybird Eriopis connexa (Germ.) in manipulated alfalfa model landscapes (30 × 30 m). Specifically we evaluated (i) ladybird movement and permanence in alfalfa and bare ground areas, (ii) how they move across fragment/matrix...

Species diversity and niche separation of cocoon parasitoids in different forest types with endemic populations of their host, the Common Pine Sawfly Diprion pini (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae)

Annette HERZ, Werner HEITLAND

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 217-224, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.034

Species diversity and potential impact of cocoon parasitoids on the abundance of the common pine sawfly, Diprion pini L. (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), were explored in different forest habitats, with endemic sawfly populations, by the regular exposure of laboratory reared sawfly cocoons. Different cocoon spinning sites of the sawfly were simulated by exposing cocoons at several strata (soil, litter, trunk and stem of pine trees) in a forest. In more fertile, mixed spruce/pine-forests, parasitism on exposed cocoons was lower than in typical outbreak stands with a lower vegetational diversity. The parasitoid communities comprised of up to...

Two types of refuge have opposite effects on the size of larval aggregations in a tropical defoliator

Finbarr G. HORGAN

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 225-230, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.035

Many gregarious insects aggregate in naturally occurring refuges on their host plants. However, when refuges are filled, they may be forced to aggregate on exposed areas of the plant. This study examines the effects of refuge saturation on group size and defence against parasitism in larvae of Ammalo helops Cramer (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) that form day-resting groups on the trunks of weeping laurel, Ficus benjamina L., in El Salvador. Population densities, group sizes and parasitism were recorded on eight trees for each of four generations in 1995 and 1996. When population densities were low, all larvae were located in small groups in...

Description of the larval stages of Gymnochthebius jensenhaarupi and phylogenetic analysis of the relationships with other species of the subfamily Ochthebiinae (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 231-240, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.036

The three larval instars of Gymnochthebius jensenhaarupi (Knisch, 1924) are described and illustrated, including a detailed analysis of their chaetotaxy and porotaxy. The specimens used in this study were collected with adults of G. jensenhaarupi and have been identified as such by association. Comparative notes on the morphology of these larvae with other species of the subfamily Ochthebiinae are given. A hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships between G. jensenhaarupi and other members of Ochthebiinae with thoroughly described larvae is presented. The monophyly of Ochthebiinae is supported by additional larval features....

Comparative study of larvae of Tenebrionoidea (Coleoptera: Cucujiformia)


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 241-264, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.037

External and internal head structures and external structures of the thorax and abdomen of larval representatives of Melandryidae (Orchesia), Ulodidae (Meryx), Oedemeridae (Pseudolycus) and Pythidae (Pytho) are described. The obtained data were compared to characters of other tenebrionoid larvae and to larval characters of other representatives of Cucujiformia. Characters potentially relevant for phylogenetic reconstruction are listed and were analysed cladistically. The data set is characterised by a high degree of homoplasy and the resolution of the strict consensus trees of 2650 or 815 (second analysis) minimal length...

Systematics and bioacoustics of the Poecilimon sanctipauli-group (Orthoptera: Tettigonioidea: Phaneropteridae)

Klaus-Gerhard HELLER, Hasan SEVGILI

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 265-277, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.038

In this paper a combination of characters by which Poecilimon species (Orthoptera: Tettigonioidea: Phaneropteridae) can be recognised as members of the P. sanctipauli group are described. Most important are the wide fastigium, short ovipositor and song characters. The morphological characters are figured and described (Table 1), and the song patterns illustrated by oscillograms. The proposed phylogenetic relationships of the members of this group are written as [P. mytilenensis (P. pulcher, P. lodosi, P. sanctipauli)]. All species of the group are known from southwest Turkey and some east Aegean islands. The...

Nearctic Achalcinae with a first Australachalcus species of North America (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 279-288, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.039

Both sexes of Achalcus bicolor sp.n., Achalcus longicercus sp.n., and Australachalcus latipennis sp.n. are described as additions to the Nearctic achalcine fauna. Diagnoses of five unnamed Achalcus species represented only by females are given. A key to Nearctic males and females including 10 unnamed species is provided. The new Achalcus records considerably extend the known distribution of the genus in North America, especially in the central and eastern states. Australachalcus latipennis sp.n. is the first known Nearctic species of this predominantly Neotropical and New Zealand genus. Achalcus bicolor...

The use of RAPD markers to detect genetic patterns in Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations from the Canary Islands

Carmen CALLEJAS, Francisco J. BEITIA, Antonio GOBBI, Ana VELASCO, M. Dolores OCHANDO

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 289-291, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.040

Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a highly polyphagous species, has since the 90's been an important pest of ornamentals and tropical crops in the Canary Islands. In this study the RAPD-PCR technique was used to study the genetic structure of this whitefly in this archipelago. A total of 68 different bands were scored in seven populations using six primers for amplification. No differences in RAPD patterns were found among populations from different islands of the Canaries. These findings indicate a very high genetic similarity among populations and low level of genetic variability and support a single colonization event...

Molecular differentiation of the B biotype from other biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), based on internally transcribed spacer 1 sequences

Zhengxi LI, Dunxiao HU, Yue SONG, Zuorui SHEN

Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 293-297, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.041

Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a worldwide pest of vegetable, ornamental and field crops. Biotype B of B. tabaci, which is economically most important of the biotypes, is distinct from all other biotypes (non-B biotypes). Fourteen populations of B. tabaci were collected from different localities and host plants in the Chinese mainland and Taiwan, namely TWYDH (tassel flower, Taiwan), HNYC (tobacco, Hainan), GXNG (pumpkin, Guangxi), GDYPH (poinsettia, Guangdong), GDBSM (croton, Guangdong), GDFS (Chinese hibiscus, Guangdong), SHYPH (poinsettia, Shanghai), FJGS (sweet potato, Fujian), SDFQ (tomato, Shandong), BJXHL (squash,...

BOOK REVIEW: Hall J.C. & Evenhuis N.L.: Homeodactyla and Asilomorpha. In Griffiths G.C.D. (ed.): Flies of the Nearctic Region. Vol. V, Part 13, No. 7, Bombyliidae. pp. 657-713.


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 298, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.042

Hall J.C. & Evenhuis N.L.: Homeodactyla and Asilomorpha. In Griffiths G.C.D. (ed.): Flies of the Nearctic Region. Vol. V, Part 13, No. 7, Bombyliidae. pp. 657-713. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 2004, 60 pp., 46 Figs. ISBN 3-510-70027-9.

Geographical distribution of three oceanic Halobates spp. and an account of the behaviour of H. sericeus (Heteroptera: Gerridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 299-302, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.043

Halobates spp. are the only insects inhabiting the open sea. One sea skater species, Halobates sericeus, was collected at 18 locations in the East China Sea area (27°10´N- 33°24´N, 124°57´E-129°30´E), and H. micans and/or H. germanus at only 8 locations in the area south of 29°47´N, where water temperatures were more than 25°C. At three locations, where the water temperature was less than 23°C, neither H. micans nor H. germanus were caught. The effect of photoperiod on the aggregation and mating behaviour of the sea skater, H. sericeus, was studied under laboratory conditions during a one-month...

Non-host volatiles do not affect host acceptance by alate virginoparae of Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) settled on the host plant surface


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 303-304, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.044

Using electrical penetration graphs to monitor aphid feeding, it was shown that volatiles of a non-host plant (alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.) did not disrupt the process of host acceptance by alate virginoparae of the birdcherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., once it was settled on a host plant (wheat, Triticum aestivum L.).

Mate searching in the scale insect, Dactylopius coccus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 305-306, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.045

Dactylopius coccus is a sessile scale insect living on cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica which has commercial importance as a source of carminic acid. We herein present behavioural evidence of the existence of a sex pheromone in D. coccus, based on olfactometric experiments using both biological sources of odours and collected chemical extracts.

Development of neotenics induced by a temporary absence of functional reproductives in Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 307-311, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.046

The effect of removing the functional pair of Kalotermes flavicollis from an experimental colony for 12, 24 or 48 h and the repeated removal for a particular number of hours per day (2, 4, 6, 12, 18, 20, and 22 h) was studied. An absence of the functional pair for 12 h had no affect on the development of new neotenics, whereas 24-h absence induced the development of new neotenics in 5 out of 12 experimental groups. A 48-h absence induced development of new neotenics in all 12 experimental groups. Pseudergates and nymphs can be orphaned for up to 12 h a day without being stimulated to differentiate, after which the number of new neotenics increased...

BOOK REVIEW: Griffiths G.C.D.: Anthomyiidae. In Griffiths G.C.D. (ed.): FLIES OF THE NEARCTIC REGION. Vol. VIII, Part 2, No. 15. pp. 2485-2635.


Eur. J. Entomol. 102 (2): 312, 2005 | 10.14411/eje.2005.047

Griffiths G.C.D.: Anthomyiidae. In Griffiths G.C.D. (ed.): FLIES OF THE NEARCTIC REGION. Vol. VIII, Part 2, No. 15. pp. 2485-2635. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 2004, 151 pp., 178 Figs. ISBN 3-510-70027-9.