EJE, vol. 101 (2004), issue 3

Using internally transcribed spacer 2 sequences to re-examine the taxonomic status of several cryptic species of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Zheng-Xi LI, Li ZHENG, Zuo-Rui SHEN

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 347-358, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.049

Mass releases of Trichogramma confusum Viggiani and T. maidis Pintureau & Voegele are widely used to control lepidopterous pests. They have long been considered to be the subspecies of T. chilonis Ishii and T. brassicae Bezdenko, respectively. To re-examine the taxonomic status of these closely related Trichogramma species, the internally transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA was used as a molecular marker to detect between-species differences. The ITS2 regions of 7 different Trichogramma species collected from China, Germany and France were sequenced and the inter-species distances were calculated....

Influence of slug defence mechanisms on the prey preferences of the carabid predator Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 359-364, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.050

Two-choice experiments on prey preferences of a generalist predator Pterostichus melanarius, and five species of slug prey, were conducted in the laboratory. Different preferences of P. melanarius for each of the slug species are described. They are interpreted as the outcome of differing slug species-specific defence mechanisms. The influence of hunger level, temperature, day/light period, condition of slugs and beetles, weight of slugs and beetles, and the sex of beetles were controlled experimentally or statistically. The order of slug species preference for predation by P. melanarius was: Deroceras reticulatum (Agriolimacidae),...

Dung feeding in hydrophilid, geotrupid and scarabaeid beetles: Examples of parallel evolution


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 365-372, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.051

The maximum size of ingested ball-shaped particles was determined in three species of adult dung feeding beetle: Anoplotrupes (Geotrupes) stercorosus and Geotrupes spiniger (Geotrupidae, Geotrupinae) and Sphaeridium lunatum (Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae). Maximum diameters were 40-65 µm, 60-75 µm and 16-19 µm in A. stercorosus, G. spiniger and S. lunatum, respectively, and it was concluded that these beetles feed in the same way as found in previous studies on coprophagous scarabaeids (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae). Coarse particles, mainly indigestible plant fragments, are rejected...

Sex- and morph-specific predation risk: Colour or behaviour dependency?


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 373-377, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.052

The coexistence of discrete morphs within a species, with one morph more conspicuous than the other(s) is often thought to result from both sexual selection and predation. In many damselflies, sexual dimorphism occurs jointly with multiple female colour morphs. Typically, one morph is coloured like the male (andromorph), while the other(s) is not (gynomorph(s)). The mechanisms contributing to the maintenance of such female polymorphism in damselflies remain poorly understood, especially the role of predation. We tested the detectability of two different female colour morphs of the damselfly, Enallagma cyathigerum, using human observers as model...

BOOK REVIEW: Ryan M.F.: Insect Chemoreception - Fundamental and Applied.


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 378, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.053

Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2002, 330 pp.

The influence of temperature and food supply on the development of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 379-384, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.054

The development of Adalia bipunctata larvae feeding on the grain aphid Sitobion avenae was investigated at 15, 20 and 25°C and two different levels of food supply. Increased temperatures accelerated development and reduced mortality rates. A reduced food supply slowed down development and increased mortality at all life stages. The total food intake of larvae ranged from 24-65 mg, which is equivalent to up to 190 aphids. Larvae compensated for low food supply by reducing development rates, high prey exploitation efficiencies, reaching up to 100%, and by high prey-biomass conversion efficiencies, reaching over 40%. The findings are discussed...

BOOK REVIEW: Andersen N.M. & Weir T.A.: Australian Water Bugs. Their Biology and Identification (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha).


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 408, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.055

Entomograph Vol. 14. Apollo Books, Denmark, CSIRO Publishing, Australia, 2004. 344 pages + 8 colour plates.

Grub-like larvae of Neuroptera (Insecta): a morphological review of the families Ithonidae and Polystoechotidae and a description of Oliarces clara


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 409-417, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.056

First instar larvae of Polystoechotidae sp., and first and older instar larvae of Ithone fusca Newman and Oliarces clara Banks are described; those of the latter species for the first time. The family Ithonidae is unique in Neuroptera in having grub-like C-shaped older instar larvae. Potential morphological synapomorphies of mature larvae of Ithonidae and Polystoechotidae are the mandibles with exceptionally broad base and markedly thickened apical part; antennal curvature is fixed and rather characteristic in shape; ocular area reduced or absent; cardo and stipes are markedly enlarged with stipes much larger than the cardo; presence...

BOOK REVIEW: Lampel G. & Meier W.: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha - Aphidina. Vol. 1: Non-Aphididae. Fauna Helvetica 8.


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 418, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.057

Centre Suisse de cartographie de la faune and Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, Neuchâtel, 2003, 312 pp.

In vitro rearing of Anagrus breviphragma (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of Cicadella viridis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), from second instar larva to adult on diets without insect components

Elisabetta CHIAPPINI, Maria Luisa DINDO, Ilaria NEGRI, Luca SIGHINOLFI

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 419-422, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.058

We describe here the in vitro rearing of Anagrus breviphragma Soyka, an egg parasitoid of Cicadella viridis (Linnaeus), from the second instar larva to the adult stage. Three media, containing mainly either a commercial tissue culture medium (IPL-41), skimmed milk or veal homogenate, were tested. Larval development occurred on all the diets but few larvae reached the pupal stage on the diets containing skimmed milk or veal homogenate. On the tissue culture medium, pharate adults, albeit malformed, developed. Supplementing the tissue culture medium-based diet with chicken egg yolk alone, or combined with yeast extract, further improved...

Effect of temperature on the biology of Noctua atlantica (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a species endemic to the Azores

Maria Luísa Melo OLIVEIRA, Virgílio VIEIRA, Patrícia Ventura GARCIA

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 423-426, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.059

The effect of constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C) on several biological parameters of Noctua atlantica (Warren), a noctuid endemic to the Azores, was studied using an artificial diet as food. At 5 and 30°C no eggs hatched. Developmental time (egg, larval, pupal and egg-to-adult) differed significantly at each temperature. Pupal weight (males and females) was significantly higher at 10°C and lower at 25°C. Adult longevity and the pre-oviposition period were longer at 10 and 15°C and differed significantly from those observed at higher temperatures. The mean number of eggs laid per female (fecundity) was significantly higher at...

Diapause development in Aquarius paludum (Heteroptera: Gerridae)

Tetsuo HARADA, Ken ITO, Magdalena HODKOVA, Ivo HODEK

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 427-430, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.060

Diapause fixation and development were studied in females of a Czech population of Aquarius paludum by monitoring changes in oxygen uptake, weight and reproduction potential in field adults between August and February. The fall in oxygen uptake related to fresh weight (from > 1000 µl O2 per g per h to around 500 µl O2 per g per h) in field adults during early diapause was similar in two age cohorts, although the time of adult ecdysis differed by 50 days and thus occurred at markedly different temperatures and photoperiods of late August vs. early October. The different conditions affected the weight of females...

Proceedings of the TEMP 2003 International Symposium on Animal and Plant Cold Hardiness.

O. Nedvěd, I. Hodek

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 431, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.061

Proceedings of the TEMP 2003, International Symposium on Animal and Plant Cold Hardiness organised by the Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Czech Republic

The roles of insect cocoons in cold conditions


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 433-437, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.062

The cocoons characteristic of the prepupal and pupal stages of many insects vary widely in size, durability, structure, shape and colour, as well as in other features such as orientation and attachment to the substrate. In some species they vary seasonally. Most cocoons provide little direct insulation, although they may reduce the rate at which temperature changes, but many provide the mechanical protection required for overwintering beneath insulating substrates such as soil and snow. The cocoons of some terrestrial species prevent inoculative freezing by isolating the integument from ice crystals on the cocoon surface or its surroundings. In some...

Physiological traits of invertebrates entering cryptobiosis in a post-embryonic stage

Masahiko WATANABE, Takahiro KIKAWADA, Akihiko FUJITA, Ewa FORCZEK, Taro ADATI, Takashi OKUDA

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 439-444, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.063

Cryptobiosis is the state when the metabolic activity of an organism is hardly measurable or is reversibly at a standstill. Many groups of invertebrates have this ability, and can be divided into two types according to the developmental stage in which it occurs; embryonic (eggs) or post-embryonic stages (larvae and adults). The latter must be able to reversibly regulate the physiology and biochemistry of development and cryptobiosis. There are several reviews on cryptobiosis and its regulation, but none on the physiological mechanism of cryptobiosis in chironomids. The present paper reviews the physiological traits of invertebrates entering cryptobiosis...

Photoperiod, diapause and cold-hardiness

Magdalena HODKOVA, Ivo HODEK

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 445-458, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.064

Great progress has recently been made in cryobiology. One field, however, has been neglected: the temporal sequence of the effects of photoperiod and temperature, and their relative importance in cold hardening. This is relevant to the question of importance of diapause in cold-hardiness. Denlinger (1991) outlined the categories of such relations and stressed a great need for further detailed research. A survey of studies done over the past decade revealed many gaps in the evidence and the ambiguous nature of the data on the photoperiodic regulation of cold-hardiness. We hope that this review will stimulate further research in this field. Among several...

Cold hardiness in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Glycerol content, hexose monophosphate shunt activity, and antioxidative defense system


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 459-466, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.065

Many insects in temperate regions overwinter in diapause, during which they are cold hardy. In these insects, one of the metabolic adaptations to the unfavorable environmental conditions is the synthesis of cryoprotectants/anhydroprotectants. The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between the antioxidative system and synthesis of cryoprotectants (mainly glycerol) in diapausing larvae of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). At two periods during diapause (November and February), in three groups of insects (kept under field conditions; -12°C for two weeks; 8°C for two weeks), the activity of key...

The relations between the patterns of gas exchange and water loss in diapausing pupae of large white butterfly Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

Katrin JÕGAR, Aare KUUSIK, Luule METSPALU, Külli HIIESAAR, Anne LUIK, Marika MÄND, Ants-Johannes MARTIN

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 467-472, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.066

The relations between the patterns of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) and water loss were investigated in non-chilled diapausing pupae of the white cabbage butterfly Pieris brassicae kept at room temperature (22-24°C) in Petri dishes. An electrolytic respirometer, combined with an infrared (IR) actographic device was used for the simultaneous recordings of metabolic rate, cyclic release of carbon dioxide (bursts), passive suction inspirations (PSIs) and body movements. The patterns of cyclic gas exchange in four- and five-month-old non-chilled diapausing pupae varied individually to a considerable extent. About 40% of the pupae displayed...

Oviposition, flight and walking capacity at low temperatures of four aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 473-479, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.067

Precocious activity of parasitoids is a key factor for cereal aphid control. We investigated the oviposition, flight and walking capacities at low temperature of four aphid parasitoids (Aphidius rhopalosiphi, A. ervi, Praon volucre, P. gallicum) on one of their aphid hosts (Sitobion avenae). Oviposition behaviour was tested at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20°C, under a photoperiod of 12 h light. Some females of A. rhopalosiphi oviposited at 6°C while the percentage of parasitization below 10°C remained low for the other species. The proportion of males decreased with temperature for A. ervi, P. volucre and P. gallicum...

The influence of environmental factors on the supranivean activity of flies (Diptera) in Central Poland


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 481-489, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.068

More than half of the insects collected on snow in Central Poland were flies (Diptera). Altogether 83 species of Diptera from 27 families were identified, of which 9 families were recorded for the first time. Two thirds of the Diptera belonged to the Mycetophilidae and Trichoceridae, which were also very species-rich. Other families with many species were the Heleomyzidae, Sphaeroceridae and Phoridae.
The peak activity was in the first part of December. Flies were most active on snow when the humidity ranged from 80 to 100%, temperatures between -1 to 5°C and the snow was from 20 to 40 cm deep. The occurrence of Trichoceridae was strictly associated...

Water loss of male and female Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) maintained under dry conditions


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (3): 491-494, 2004 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2004.069

Survival under dry conditions was examined in males and females of Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), a beetle of tropical origin. The range of individual responses and the effect of gender on water loss were also evaluated. Females exhibit significantly longer survival (Lt50 and Lt90) than males under desiccating conditions. Larger females beetles have a greater initial water mass and hence can tolerate greater water losses. Such beetles have longer survival under dry conditions. Males and females loose an average of 54.8 and 58.9% of their body water prior to death. The insects were inactive most...