EJE, vol. 101 (2004), issue 1

Genomic structure and phylogenetic analysis of the luciferase gene of the firefly, Luciola lateralis (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

Jong Gill KIM, Yong Soo CHOI, Keun Young KIM, Jin Sik BAE, Iksoo KIM, Hung Dae SOHN, Byung Rae JIN

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 1-11, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.001

The complete nucleotide sequence and the exon-intron structure of the luciferase gene of the firefly, Luciola lateralis (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) is described. The luciferase gene of the L. lateralis firefly spans 1,971 bp and consists of six introns and seven exons coding for 548 amino acid residues. From samples collected at Boun and Muju, Korea, three isoforms, with identical exon-intron structure, named BU, MJ1 and MJ2, respectively, were obtained. Although the amino acid sequences of MJ1 and MJ2 were identical to those of known luciferase genes of Korean origin, the BU type was novel, differing from each of the MJ1 and MJ2 types by...

BOOK REVIEW: Riley E.G., Clark S.M. & Seeno T.N.: Catalogue of the Leaf Beetles of America North of Mexico.


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 12, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.002

Coleopterists Society, Special publication No. 1, Sacramento, 2003, spiral bound, 290 pp.

Phylogeography of the Eurasian pine shoot beetle Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 13-19, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.003

Tomicus piniperda is a pest in pine stands in Eurasia and is also found in the USA, where it has caused a decline in the abundance of pine since 1992. Knowledge of the genetic structure of pine shoot beetle populations is important for understanding their phylogeographic history and for quarantine control. In this study, European, Asian and American T. piniperda populations were analyzed by sequencing a region of the mitochondrial COI gene. Twenty-five haplotypes (HT) were detected and over 70% of these HT were found in individual areas, e.g. 5 HT in China, 5 HT in France and 3 HT in Spain. Nested clade analysis revealed that most European...

BOOK REVIEW: de Tonnancour J.: Insects Revealed. Monsters or Marvels?


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 20, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.004

With foreword by Sue Hubbell. Cornell University Press (Comstock Publ. Assoc.), Ithaca & London, 2002, 160 pp.

Polyploid spermatozoa in Pityogenes chalcographus and Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 21-27, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.005

Abnormal spermatogenesis in Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) and Ips typographus (L.) results in oversized spermatozoa in all the populations investigated. They can be identified by light microscopy and classified as 2n up to 16n polyploid. The percentage of polyploid sperm increases when allopatric parents are crossed: Parental populations with less than 1% polyploid, result in male F1 with more than 20% polyploid. Wild populations of P. chalcographus and I. typographus have very different percentages of polyploid sperm. Populations from allochthonous sites for the host tree, Picea abies (Karst.), are distinguished...

BOOK REVIEW: Beneš J., Konvička M., Dvořák J., Fric Z., Havelda Z., Pavlíčko A., Vrabec V., Weidenhoffer Z. (eds): Butterflies of the Czech Republic: Distribution and Conservation I, II. SOM.


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 28, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.006

Prague, Czech Republic, 2003, 857 pp.

The kind of AKH-mobilized energy substrates in insects can be predicted without a knowledge of the hormone structure

Radomír SOCHA, Dalibor KODRÍK, Petr ŠIMEK, Markéta PATOČKOVÁ

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 29-35, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.007

The aim of this study was to show that the kind of AKH-mobilized energy substrates in insects can be predicted on the basis of the results obtained with the application of heterologous, i.e. inter-species, AKHs. Four different AKHs, the Locmi-AKH-I inducing hyperlipaemia and hyperglycaemia in Locusta migratoria, Tenmo-HrTH inducing hyperglycaemia in Tenebrio molitor, and Pyrap-AKH and Peram-CAH-II inducing hyperlipaemia in Pyrrhocoris apterus were used, firstly in conspecific tests, secondly in all possible species-AKH combinations, and finally in individual applications on the test species, the cotton bug Dysdercus cingulatus....

BOOK REVIEW: Holland J.M. (ed.): The Agroecology of Carabid Beetles.


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 36, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.008

Intercept, PO Box 716, Andover, Hampshire SP10 1YG, UK, 2002, xiv+356 pp.

Predation upon the oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by two aphidophagous coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the presence and absence of aphids


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 37-41, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.009

Our goal has been to determine the effect of the presence of aphids on voracity (measured as number of prey eaten and biomass consumed) of Coccinella septempunctata L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding upon the oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). For each coccinellid predator, treatments using a single prey species, with either 30 first instar C. rosaceana or 100 third instars Aphis pomi DeGeer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were compared with two-prey treatments in which the two prey species were present simultaneously. For both predators,...

BOOK REVIEW: Lepš J. & Šmilauer P.: Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data Using CANOCO.


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 42, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.010

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003, 269 pp. ISBN 0-521-81409-X (hardback), ISBN 0-521-89108-6 (paperback), price: paperback GBP 27.95, hardback GBP 75.00

Seasonality, abundance, species richness and specificity of the phytophagous guild of insects on oak (Quercus) canopies

T. Richard E. SOUTHWOOD, G.R. William WINT, Catherine E.J. KENNEDY, Steve R. GREENWOOD

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 43-50, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.011

1. A study was made by knockdown sampling and branch clipping of the arthropod fauna of two native oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) and of two introduced species (Q. cerris and Q. ilex) in woods near Oxford, U.K., and of two native species (Q. ilex and Q. pubescens) in southern France. Sampling was undertaken for five years in England and four years in France. All the phytophagous species except Acarina and Cecidomyidae from the Oxford samples were identified to species.
2. In England a marked seasonal pattern was observed in all years: chewing insects peaked in May, followed sequentially by sucking species,...

Host-plant specialisation and habitat restriction in an endangered insect, Lycaena dispar batavus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) I. Larval feeding and oviposition preferences

Lynn A. MARTIN, Andrew S. PULLIN

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 51-56, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.012

The Large Copper butterfly, Lycaena dispar, is extinct in Britain and rapidly declining in the rest of Europe, due predominantly to loss of its wetland habitats. In the Netherlands the sub-species L. d. batavus is at the edge of its range in Northern Europe and, as with most marginal butterflies, has more specialised food plant and habitat requirements than the core populations of L. d. rutilus. We investigate reasons for the relative specialisation of L. d. batavus on Rumex hydrolapathum in a fenland habitat when compared to the more widespread and common L. d. rutilus. Host-plant choice by ovipositing females...

Host-plant specialisation and habitat restriction in an endangered insect, Lycaena dispar batavus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) II. Larval survival on alternative host plants in the field

Lynn A. MARTIN, Andrew S. PULLIN

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 57-62, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.013

The Large Copper butterfly, Lycaena dispar batavus, is extinct in Britain and rapidly declining in Europe, due predominantly to loss of its wetland habitats. Northern populations have more specialised foodplant and habitat requirements than their more southerly counterparts and rely solely on Rumex hydrolapathum, the Great Water Dock, as their hostplants. Southern colonies use a greater range of Rumex. Previous work has shown that specialisation is not due to foodplant chemistry and in this paper we investigate the ability of different Rumex species to support the larval stages of L. d. batavus in a natural environment....

Lepidoptera of a raised bog and adjacent forest in Lithuania


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 63-67, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.014

Studies on nocturnal Lepidoptera were carried out on the Laukėnai raised bog and the adjacent wet forest in 2001. Species composition and abundance were evaluated and compared. The species richness was much higher in the forest than at the bog. The core of each lepidopteran community was composed of 22 species with an abundance of higher than 1.0% of the total catch. Tyrphophilous Hypenodes humidalis (22.0% of all individuals) and Nola aerugula (13.0%) were the dominant species in the raised bog community, while tyrphoneutral Pelosia muscerda (13.6%) and Eilema griseola (8.3%) were the most abundant species at the...

A general model for the life cycle of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 69-73, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.015

A general model of the Dolichopoda cave cricket life cycle was produced using RAMAS/stage simulations based on the Beverton & Holt recruitment function. The model indicates the main population parameters responsible for life cycle adjustments to ecologically different cave habitats. The lack of a uniform rate of oviposition throughout adult life, combined with egg and nymphal diapause, results in regular population growth characterized by adults emerging every two years and cohorts overlapping every other year. This pattern is common in populations living in artificial caves where the scarcity of food is likely to favour individuals that...

The comparative biology of the solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on five noctuid pest species


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 75-81, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.016

The comparative biology of the solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Thun.) was investigated in five noctuid pest species. Meteorus gyrator parasitized all larval stages of the noctuid pests Lacanobia oleracea, Mamestra brassicae, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera littoralis and Chrysodeixis chalcites. When female parasitoids were offered host larvae of all developmental stages, host larvae in their third stadium were parasitized most frequently in all species. When the parasitoid was offered a choice of third stadium larvae from each of the five lepidopteran host species, L. oleracea was the...

Life-history parameters of Encarsia formosa, Eretmocerus eremicus and E. mundus, aphelinid parasitoids of Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 83-94, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.017

Life-history parameters (juvenile development time, adult longevity, host instar preference and rate of parasitism) of four parasitoids of Bemisia argentifolii (two strains of Encarsia formosa (D and B), Eretmocerus eremicus and Eretmocerus mundus) were studied in the laboratory. At 15°C juvenile development time was the shortest for E. formosa B (48 days), longest for E. eremicus (79.3 days) and intermediate for E. formosa D (62.8 days) and E. mundus (64 days) at 15°C. With increase in temperature, development time decreased to around 14 days for all species/strains at 32°C. The lower developmental...

Relationships among coleopteran suborders and major endoneopteran lineages: Evidence from hind wing characters


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 95-144, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.018

A phylogenetic analysis of the four coleopteran suborders (Polyphaga, Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga), four other endoneopteran taxa (Strepsiptera, Neuropterida, Mecopterida and Hymenoptera) and three neopteran outgroups (Orthoneoptera, Blattoneoptera and Hemineoptera) is performed based on 63 characters of hind wing venation, articulation and folding patterns, with character states coded for the groundplan of each taxon (not for exemplar genera or species). The shortest tree found using Winclada with Nona exhibits the following topology: Orthoneoptera + (Blattoneoptera + (Hemineoptera + Endoneoptera: (Hymenoptera + ((Neuropterida + Mecopterida)...

A new Upper Cretaceous species of Chresmoda from Lebanon - a latest representative of Chresmodidae (Insecta: Polyneoptera inc. sed.): first record of homeotic mutations in the fossil record of insects


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 145-151, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.019

The most recent representative of the semi-aquatic insect family Chresmodidae is described from the Lebanese Cenomanian marine lithographic limestone. Its highly specialized legs, with a high number of tarsomeres, never observed in other orders of insects, were probably adapted for water surface skating. We hypothesize the occurrence of a unique, extraordinary "antenna" mutation affecting the distal part of the legs of the Chresmodidae, maybe homeotic or affecting some genes that participate in the leg development and segmentation. The Chresmodidae had a serrate ovipositor adapted to endophytic egg laying in floating or aquatic plants. They were probably...

Ultrastructure of the frontal gland in Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and quantity of the defensive substance


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 153-163, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.020

The frontal gland as a sac-like organ in Prorhinotermes simplex is present only in presoldiers, soldiers, and imagoes, but exists also in nymph-soldier intercastes. The secretory epithelium consists of a single type of secretory cells adhering directly to the cuticular intima. Secretory vacuoles originate in electron dense vesicles, which are transformed into large electron lucent vacuoles. Intermediate vacuoles frequently contain lipid droplets. The frontal gland cells in presoldiers reveal modifications connected with the production of a new cuticle; the new cuticle is thin and compact, whereas the old one is thick, porous, and wrinkled. None...

Larval morphology of Heterogynis (Lepidoptera: Heterogynidae)

Francesca VEGLIANTE, Alberto ZILLI

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 165-184, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.021

The external morphology and chaetotaxy of the larvae of Heterogynidae (Lepidoptera) are described in order to provide information of potential phylogenetic value for the reconstruction of the systematic relationships within the Zygaenoidea. The most outstanding characteristics of heterogynid larvae are their modified habitus during diapause, the presence of an epipharyngeal lamella, the shape of the prothoracic shield, the presence in the first instar of an organ of unknown function on the middorsum of the mesothorax ("Chapman's organ"), the absence of V2, V3 and Va on the head, the absence of V1 on the prothorax and the presence of two primary setae...

Phoresy of Uropoda orbicularis (Acari: Mesostigmata) by beetles (Coleoptera) associated with cattle dung in Poland


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 185-188, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.022

Of 31 species of coprophagous beetles from the following families: Aphodiidae, Geotrupidae, Scarabaeidae, individuals of 25 species carried deutonymphs of Uropoda orbicularis (Müller, 1776). The mite's preferences for attaching to specific parts of an insect's body were determined by examining 4,318 specimens of beetles from the following families: Aphodiidae, Geotrupidae, Scarabaeidae, Hydrophilidae and Histeridae. We recorded 14,507 cases of phoresy (5,822 deutonymphs and 8,685 of pedicels without mites) on 2,056 insects. Elytra and the third pair of legs were the areas most frequently occupied by the mites. The mite's preferences for attaching...

Poor control of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), by native European parasitoids: a synchronisation problem


Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 189-192, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.023

Horse chestnut trees in many regions of Europe have suffered from epidemic infestations of C. ohridella for more than ten years. There has been no obvious decrease in the infestation level anywhere on the continent. One reason is, that the native natural enemies have not been able to control mass outbreaks of the leafminer. Parasitoid Hymenoptera have very little impact on the first generation of the moth in early summer, regardless of the number of parasitoids that overwintered in horse chestnut leaves. This study revealed that there is a considerable time lag between the emergence of the parasitoids from the leaflitter in spring and the appearance...

The biological characteristics and distribution of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum, and Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Argentina and Chile

Ariel CLUA, Ana M. CASTRO, Silvia RAMOS, Daniel O. GIMENEZ, Araceli VASICEK, Hugo O. CHIDICHIMO, Anthony F.G. DIXON

Eur. J. Entomol. 101 (1): 193-198, 2004 | 10.14411/eje.2004.024

The aphids Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (greenbug) and Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Russian wheat aphid, RWA) were collected from several localities in Argentina and Southern Chile. Clones were established from aphids collected at each location. The host preferences were studied in free choice tests. Biotypes were characterized on the basis of aphid antibiosis and host plant tolerance. The production of sexuals was assessed under natural conditions, from March to November in 1997-2001, at La Plata (34°55' S, 57°57' W). The greenbug distribution ranged from 24°40' to 43°28' S, and was bounded between isothermals 18-20°C and 8-10°C, and...