EJE, vol. 100 (2003), issue 4

Survival strategies of chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) living in temporary habitats: a review

Jan FROUZ, Josef MATĚNA, Arshad ALI

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 459-465, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.069

Many species of chironomids undergo their immature development in habitats that rapidly change in suitability, such as rain pools, phytotelmata, freshly filled ponds or soil layers that seasonally dry out. Strategies for the utilization of these habitats can be divided into two groups: i) physiological or behavioral adaptations of larvae, which enable them to survive unsuitable conditions (in situ resistance) or ii) repeated recolonization of temporarily suitable habitats. In situ resistance, includes desiccation or frost resistance, often in combination with cocoon building and migration of larvae into the sediment. Generally, the species that use...

Isolation of angiotensin converting enzyme from testes of Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera)


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 467-474, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.070

By means of a tracer assay using a labeled synthetic angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) substrate hippurylglycylglycine, we have detected high ACE activity in the testes of the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. Lower, but significant, ACE activity was observed in midgut and hemolymph. In a two-step purification procedure involving anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography, we have purified LomACE from the locust testes. The enzyme of approximately 80 kDa shows substantial amino-acid sequence homology with ACE from both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The ACE identity of the purified enzyme was further confirmed...

The dragonfly Libellula quadrimaculata (Odonata: Libellulidae) makes optimal use of the dorsal fovea of the compound eyes during perching

Manuela SAUSENG, Maria-Anna PABST, Karl KRAL

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 475-479, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.071

We studied visual orientation and perching behaviour of a territorial libellulid dragonfly species, Libellula quadrimaculata. The studies were performed during sunny, cloudless conditions at a pond in southern Styria, Austria, from May to July of 2001 and 2002. Individual males were observed for periods of 3 to 4 weeks.
We measured dragonfly's horizontal orientation relative to the solar azimuth, and vertical orientation relative to the solar altitude. The measurements indicated that the males had a favourable view of the sky during perching. In addition, the relative amounts of ultraviolet (UV) and blue-violet radiation in scattered light...

BOOK REVIEW: Furth D.G. (ed.): Special Topics in Leaf Beetle Biology.


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 480, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.072

Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on the Chrysomelidae, 25-27 August 2000, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, XXI International Congress of Entomology. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow, 2003, 338 pp.

Effects of low temperature on the condition of flight muscles and flight propensity in a water strider, Aquarius paludum (Heteroptera: Gerridae)

Tetsuo HARADA, Shizuna INOUE, Masao WATANABE

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 481-484, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.073

Effects of chilling on dispersal characteristics of adults of the water strider, Aquarius paludum were studied in the laboratory. The condition of flight muscles was monitored during overwintering under natural conditions in Kochi (33°N), Japan. For diapause adults kept under 12h light-12h dark (12L : 12D), chilling at 7°C for 48h from the 70th day after emergence caused lower Supercooling Point (SCP) and promoted higher flight propensity than among gerrids not exposed to chilling. For reproductive adults kept under 15.5L : 8.5D, 91.3% of 34 adults retained well-developed flight muscles 1 week after the chilling (49 days after emergence), whereas...

Sexual size and development time dimorphism in a parasitoid wasp: an exception to the rule?

Jeffrey A. HARVEY, Michael R. STRAND

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 485-492, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.074

Sexual dimorphisms in adult size (SSD) and development time (SDTD) occur in many groups of organisms. In insects, some of the best examples occur in parasitoid wasps where most studies report that females are larger than males but take longer to develop. Sex-specific differences in the effects of size on reproductive success is generally regarded as the main factor responsible for SSD in parasitoids. Most studies also assume that development time must be extended in order to achieve larger size. Here, SSD and SDTD were compared in the solitary endoparasitoid, Microplitis mediator that develops in larvae of the moth Pseudoplusia includens....

Aggregation and survival of Neophilaenus albipennis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) spittlebug nymphs


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 493-499, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.075

The nymphs of spittlebugs (Hemiptera, Cercopidae) are xylem-feeders and live on herbs, grasses or woody plants within their self-produced spittle masses. Nymphs of the spittlebug Neophilaenus albipennis live aggregated in these spittle masses on their host plant Brachypodium pinnatum, a common grass in dry grassland. The objective of this study was to estimate nymphal mortality rates and to examine what role aggregation and vegetation structure play in the mortality of the nymphs. The aggregation and mortality were measured using two different methods, direct monitoring and caging of nymphs. The nymphs passively aggregated with up to...

BOOK REVIEW: Beuk Paul L. Th. (ed.): Checklist of the Diptera of the Netherlands.


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 500, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.076

KNNV Uitgeverij, Utrecht 2002, 448 pp.

Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a factor inhibiting the survival and population increase of the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae) on cucumber

Dionyssios C. PERDIKIS, Dionyssios P. LYKOURESSIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 501-508, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.077

The influence of cucumber offered as a host plant either alone or with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was studied on the various life table and biological characteristics of the predatory bug Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae). The nymphal development was studied at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C while adult performance was assessed at 15, 20, 25 and 30°C, using a 16L : 8D photoperiod and 65 ± 5% r.h. Nymphs completed their development at all temperatures except at 35°C. Nymphal development took significantly longer time in the absence than in the presence of prey at 20 and 25°C, but the reverse was true at...

Temperature and development of central European species of Amara (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

Pavel SASKA, Alois HONĚK

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 509-515, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.078

Development rates of the eggs of 9 species, larvae of 6 species and pupae of 6 species of the genus Amara (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were recorded at five constant temperatures between 17 and 28°C, and thermal constants for each development stage calculated. The lower development threshold varied between 9.2-13.5°C for different stages and species. Rate isomorphy, which implies the existence of a common temperature threshold for all development stages, was demonstrated in 5 species. The sum of effective temperatures differed between stages. On average the egg stage took 18%, the first larval instar 13%, second instar 13%, third instar 35% and pupa...

Influence of barometric pressure on odor discrimination and oviposition by adult plum curculios (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Tracy C. LESKEY, Ronald J. PROKOPY

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 517-520, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.079

We conducted laboratory experiments to elucidate the influence of barometric pressure on odor discrimination and oviposition and feeding behavior of adult female plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst). Barometric pressure had a significant effect on Response Index values (used as a measure of odor discrimination); odor discrimination of hexane-extracted McIntosh fruit volatiles was high when barometric pressure was high. Barometric pressure also had a significant effect on oviposition as females oviposited more during periods of low barometric pressure on a favored host fruit (wild plum). Observed feeding activity of females was not...

Effects of different atmospheric CO2 concentrations and soil moistures on the populations of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) feeding on spring wheat

Jun ZHANG, Geng-Mei XING, Jian-Xiong LIAO, Zong-Dong HOU, Gen-Xuan WANG, Ya-Fu WANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 521-530, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.080

Spring wheat plants were grown in pots at three CO2 concentrations (350, 550 and 700 ppm) and three soil water levels (40, 60 and 80% of field water capacity) in field open top chambers and were infested with bird cherry-oat aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus). Aphid population dynamics were recorded throughout the growing season and analysis of the chemical composition of spring wheat leaves was conducted at the same time. Results showed that: (1) Aphid populations increased with raised atmospheric CO2 concentrations. (2) The aphid populations showed different responses to different CO2 concentrations. The...

Ground beetles (Carabidae) as seed predators


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 531-544, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.081

The consumption and preferences of polyphagous ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) for the seeds of herbaceous plants was determined. The seeds were stuck into plasticine in small tin trays and exposed to beetle predation on surface of the ground. In the laboratory the effect of carabid (species, satiation) and seed (species, size) on the intensity of seed predation was investigated. The consumption of the generally preferred Cirsium arvense seed by 23 species of common carabids increased with body size. Seed of Capsella bursa-pastoris was preferred by small carabids and their consumption rates were not related to their size. The average...

Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Flemish (north Belgium) wet heathlands, a declining habitat in Europe


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 545-555, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.082

During a survey of 23 wet heathland sites in Flanders (north Belgium) in 1999 and 2000, using both manual nest searching and pitfall traps as sampling techniques, we found 28 ant species. One species (Myrmica lonae) was new to the Belgian fauna and several rare species were encountered. Three ecological groups could be distinguished based on soil preference: the first group of species was characteristic of sandy soil, the second contained species that were more numerous on peat soil (with Sphagnum spp.), and the third group of species had no soil preference. Ant nest numbers increased strongly between 1999 and 2000, especially on the...

BOOK REVIEW: Klowden Marc J.: Physiological Systems in Insects.


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 556, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.083

Academic Press, An Elsevier Science Imprint, San Diego, San Francisco, New York, Boston, London, Sydney, Tokyo, 2002, vii+415 pp.

Stability and change over 67 years - the community of Heteroptera as caught in a light-trap at Rothamsted, UK


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 557-561, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.084

1. The Heteroptera, principally mirids, collected in a light-trap run on a field margin at Rothamsted Experimental Station for various periods between 1933 and 2000, have been identified, and the catches analysed to show the extent of change and stability in the community.
2. Trap catch, both in terms of individuals and species, was correlated with maximum daily temperature.
3. α-diversity showed a U-shaped curve over the period. The dip may have been associated with pesticide use, although a lack of days with high maximum temperatures cannot be ruled out.
4. By the late 1990s, α-diversity had again reached a peak (Fisher's = 11),...

Mouthparts, gut contents, and retreat-construction by the wood-dwelling larvae of Lype phaeopa (Trichoptera: Psychomyiidae)

Bernd SPÄNHOFF, Ulf SCHULTE, Christian ALECKE, Norbert KASCHEK, Elisabeth Irmgard MEYER

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 563-570, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.085

The larvae of Lype phaeopa (Stephens, 1836) are found on dead wood substrates in streams and lakes. Gut content analyses, scanning electron microscopy of larval mouthparts, and gallery structure revealed characteristics of this habitat preference. The guts of the larvae contained mainly wood fragments whereas other food items (detritus, algae, fungi, inorganic particles) were much rarer. The suitability of the mouthparts to scrape wood surfaces, and the adaptative elongation of the silk-secreting spinneret, which facilitates the construction of retreats consisting of a tunnel-like silken net incorporating mainly wood fragments, are discussed....

Pedicellar structures in Reduviidae (Heteroptera) - comments on cave organ and trichobothria

Christiane WEIRAUCH

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 571-580, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.086

Sensillar structures of the antennal pedicel are investigated in Reduviidae and Pachynomidae. The cave organ, a presumably chemoreceptive structure, previously reported only for haematophagous Triatominae, is described here also for representatives of Peiratinae, Reduviinae and Stenopodainae. The systematic implication of the occurrence of this sensillar structure is discussed. Further, four sclerites located in the membrane between pedicel and preflagelloid are described and used as landmarks for the recognition of individual trichobothria in Reduviidae and Pachynomidae. Characters of the trichobothrial socket are studied and discussed systematically....

The Permostridulidae fam. n. (Panorthoptera), a new enigmatic insect family from the Upper Permian of France

Olivier BÉTHOUX, André NEL, Jean LAPEYRIE, Georges GAND

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 581-585, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.087

The unusual wing characters of the Permian insect Permostridulus brongniarti gen. n., sp. n. justifies the creation of a new family, the Permostridulidae fam. n., within the Panorthoptera. Phylogenetic relationships with the extinct order Caloneurodea, related to the Orthoptera (crickets, grasshoppers), are assumed. This assumption suggests an occurrence of the Permostridulidae at least since the Upper Carboniferous. The most prominent feature of the wing venation is a stridulatory apparatus, nonhomologous with those previously known in "panorthopterid" lineages. This is the oldest recorded sound-producing device of an animal.

BOOK REVIEW: Holzinger W.E., Kammerlander I. & Nickel H.: The Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe. Die Zikaden Mitteleuropas. Volume 1: Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha excl. Cicadellidae.


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 585-586, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.088

Brill, Leiden- Boston, 673 pp.

Revision of European species of the genus Rhabdomastix (Diptera: Limoniidae). Part 1: Introduction and subgenus Lurdia subgen. n.

Jaroslav STARÝ

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 587-608, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.089

The first part of a revision of the European species of the genus Rhabdomastix Skuse, 1890 is presented. The history of taxonomic research on Rhabdomastix is reviewed, relationships of the genus are discussed, and the subgeneric classification outlined and re-assessed. A new subgenus, Lurdia subgen. n., is established for species centred around R. lurida (Loew, 1873), and Palaeogonomyia Meunier, 1899 and Sacandaga Alexander, 1911, previously considered subgenera, are synonymized with Rhabdomastix. A revision of the European species of Lurdia subgen. n. is presented. Two species are redescribed,...

A taxonomic review of Japanese Asteia (Diptera: Acalyptrata: Asteiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 609-623, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.090

The Japanese species of Asteiidae are revised. Six species of Asteia Meigen, 1830, are recorded here in addition to Astiosoma okinawae Sabrosky, 1957, hitherto recorded from Japan. Among them, Asteia gemina, A. longistylus, A. lunaris, and A. nigrigena are described as new to science. Asteia angustipennis Duda, 1934, and A. megalophthalma Duda, 1927, are recorded from Japan for the first time. There are conspicuous morphological differences in the male and female genitalia of the seven species of Asteia. It is suggested that Asteia angustipennis, A. concinna, and A....

The Red Admiral butterfly (Vanessa atalanta, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a true seasonal migrant: an evolutionary puzzle resolved?


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 625-626, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.091

Ornithologists in Finland recorded the autumn migration of the Red Admiral butterfly, Vanessa atalanta (L.). In the best year, 1998, 1240 migrants were counted from a bird tower in September. That is, half a million butterflies migrated over a 100-km front. The butterflies were flying above forests riding on cool northerly winds. Radar indicated that a large proportion migrated at high elevations outside the visible range. These records help to resolve an "evolutionary puzzle" of why migrant butterflies and moths travel to northern latitudes when their offspring have limited possibilities of returning south. Until now, the only butterfly for...

Phalacrotophora beuki (Diptera: Phoridae), a parasitoid of ladybird pupae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 627-630, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.092

In the years 1998-2000, parasitization of the pupae of various ladybird species by scuttle flies of the genus Phalacrotophora was studied in central Poland. Altogether, 12 ladybird species were found to be parasitized by these flies, and one of them, Anatis ocellata (L.), proved to be a host of P. beuki Disney, a species whose biology had not previously been described. Our studies showed that P. beuki can limit the numbers of A. ocellata. In its typical habitat, i.e. Scots pine forests, 35-40% of this ladybird were parasitized by P. beuki. In other habitats, however, where A. ocellata occurred sporadically,...

Narrow flower specialization in two European bee species of the genus Colletes (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae)

Andreas MÜLLER, Michael KUHLMANN

Eur. J. Entomol. 100 (4): 631-635, 2003 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2003.093

Colletes anchusae Noskiewicz, 1924 and C. wolfi Kuhlmann, 1999 (Colletidae) are closely related bee species with vicariant distributions, the former occurring in east and southeast Europe and Turkey, the latter restricted to the Italian peninsula. Microscopical analysis of scopal pollen revealed that in Europe both species are monolectic collecting pollen exclusively from flowers of Cynoglottis barrelieri (All.) Vural & Kit Tan (Boraginaceae). In Turkey, C. anchusae possibly visits also Cynoglottis chetikiana Vural & Kit Tan. The distributions of the two bee species and of Cynoglottis coincide. The females...