EJE, vol. 97 (2000), issue 4

Defence, oviposition and sex: semiochemical parsimony in two species of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)? A short review.

Jean-Louis HEMPTINNE, Anthony F.G. DIXON

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 443-447, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.068

Certain alkanes or their mixture present on the surface of ladybird elytra is important in the recognition of potential mates. Similar chemicals are present in the tracks of larvae, which deter conspecific female ladybirds from laying eggs in aphid colonies already being attacked by larvae. Finally, the shell of ladybird eggs is covered with alkanes that deter other species of ladybirds from eating the eggs. In each case the alkanes are similar although they fulfil different functions. There are, therefore, indications that ladybirds exploit their natural product with parsimonious versatility.

Sexual activity in Coccinellidae (Coleoptera): a review


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 449-456, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.069

Although there are few studies of the sexual life of coccinellids these phenomena have attracted the interest of isolated groups of coccinellidologists. Probably the most important finding is that at least some coccinellid species (Adalia bipunctata and Harmonia axyridis) do not mate at random with the females prefering certain males. This phenomenon was first observed in Adalia bipunctata by Lusis and then studied in detail by Majerus, O'Donald, de Jong and others. In Japan, Harmonia axyridis was similarly studied by Osawa and Ueno. While the former author found that in this species (as in A. bipunctata) the colour...

Study of anatomical changes in Coccinella septempunctata induced by diet and by infection with the larva of Dinocampus coccinellae using magnetic resonance microimaging

Irene E. GEOGHEGAN, John A. CHUDEK, Regina L. MACKAY, Christian LOWE, Sven MORITZ, Ronald J. MCNICOL, A. Nicholas E. BIRCH, Geoffrey HUNTER, Michael E.N. MAJERUS

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 457-461, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.070

A range of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, 1H liquid spectroscopy and T1 and T2 relaxation measurements, and microimaging, have been used to observe changes taking place within the bodies of live samples of Coccinella septempunctata, under a variety of conditions. NMR measurements showed that various organs could be seen and identified. It also showed that by changing the diet of the ladybird from aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] to a standard artificial diet, major changes took place in the insects' tissues. By using a combination of all three techniques it was concluded that on changing...

Unconditioned and conditioned responses to colour in the predatory coccinellid, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Edward B. MONDOR, Jessie L. WARREN

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 463-467, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.071

We determined if mature ladybirds use colour to initially find suitable host plants. We also determined whether ladybird beetles are capable of associating characteristics such as colour with the presence of prey. Here, we show that the multicoloured Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis, has a differential response to yellow compared to green colours. Naive ladybirds, of both sexes, make significantly more visits and spend more time on yellow vs. green coloured pillars. After pairing yellow and green colours with the presence or absence of aphid prey, ladybirds alter their foraging behaviour. Beetles conditioned to having food on both pillar...

Morphology of invasion: body size patterns associated with establishment of Coccinella septempunctata in western North America

Edward W. EVANS

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 469-474, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.072

The Old World ladybird Coccinella septempunctata has rapidly established itself as an abundant, widespread species throughout North America. Overwintering individuals of this species, and of native ladybirds, were collected from early season alfalfa in northern Utah during the period of initial establishment of the invader (1989 to 1999), and were measured for body size. Adult body size can vary widely within insect species, often reflecting differential success of individuals as immatures in obtaining food. Here I examine patterns of ladybird body size to address two questions associated with the establishment of C. septempunctata: (1)...

The impact of individual ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata, Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on aphid colonies


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 475-479, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.073

Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) have been reported to produce winged offspring in the presence of predatory ladybirds. These offspring may leave host plants by flight after they have developed into winged adults. The inter-generational nature of this response raises the question about the chances of survival of aphids developing in attacked colonies. We studied the behaviour of predatory ladybirds on host plants by releasing adult 7-spot ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata) on bean plants hosting either no prey individuals or colonies of 10 or 30 pea aphids. Interactions between predator and prey were recorded until the ladybird left...

Influence of host plants on specialist / generalist aphids and on the development of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 481-485, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.074

The aim of this work was to determine the impact of allelochemicals (glucosinolates/isothiocyanates) from Brassicaceae (Brassica napus and Sinapis alba) at two trophic levels in relation to biological control efficacy. The impact of these plants on aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and ladybird Adalia bipunctata (L.) biology can be assessed by observation of several developmental parameters: mortality, development duration and adult weight. Sub-lethal toxicity can also be measured through the reproductive parameters of fecundity and/or egg viability. While both specialist and generalist...

Measuring and modelling the dispersal of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in alfalfa fields


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 487-493, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.075

Dispersal of the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, was measured in a series of mark-release-recapture experiments in Utah alfalfa. In three experiments, samples were taken in a radial pattern around the release point. Released beetles for the most part left the 0.36 ha (68 m diameter) sample area within 24 hours, and their average residence time in the sample area was calculated as 12, 6 and 1.6 h in the three experiments, respectively. The spatial distribution of beetles around the point of release could be described with normal distributions whose variance increased linearly in time with 3.8, 1.1 and 0.34 m2 per...

Key life stages of two predatory ladybird species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Pavel KINDLMANN, Hironori YASUDA, Satoru SATO, Katsuhiro SHINYA

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 495-499, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.076

Development and survival of larvae of two predatory ladybird species, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Coccinella septempunctata L. on hibiscus (Hibiscus syridis L.) trees was followed daily outdoors during four seasons. Data were analysed and stage-specific mortality in a stage-structured model was estimated using Manly's (1997) method. Subsequently, key factor analysis was used to determine the life stages in which the daily mortality was best correlated with the total mortality during larval life. Consistently with the results from the first two years, the larvae suffered the greatest mortality during the first and fourth instars....

Effects of imidacloprid on Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval biology and locomotory behavior

Charles VINCENT, André FERRAN, Ludovic GUIGE, Jacques GAMBIER, Jacques BRUN

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 501-506, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.077

The effects of imidacloprid on 1-day-old third instars of Harmonia axyridis were assessed by topical treatment and contact with treated glass plates in laboratory bioassays. When 5 µl of imidacloprid solutions were applied topically, the LD50 was 0.085 g/l per insect after 24 h. Contact with imidacloprid-treated plates had little effect on the number of third instars that became adults. Average duration of larval development was not significantly affected by duration of contact and imidacloprid concentrations. There were no significant differences in maximal larval weight, weight gain and day at maximum larval weight. There...

Oviposition strategy of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in response to extraguild prey availability


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 507-510, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.078

The capacity of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) to modify its oviposition strategy in response to extraguild prey availability in an oviposition site was studied. Gravid females were placed in presence and absence of aphids. Fecundity, fertility, dispersion and hatching synchrony were compared. Results indicate a statistical difference in the hatching synchrony of eggs. However, no statistical differences were observed in the proportion of infertile eggs and in egg dispersion. We suggest that C. rufilabris can alter hatching synchrony of eggs in condition of food scarcity in order to favour intra-clutch egg cannibalism...

Improved methods of testing and release of Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) for aphid control in glasshouses

Jeroen Van SCHELT, Sandra MULDER

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 511-515, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.079

The gallmidge Aphidoletes aphidimyza is used commercially to control aphids infesting greenhouse crops such as sweet pepper and tomato. In this study we investigated several different ways of improving its use as a biocontrol agent. In the laboratory there was a very strong relation between the availability of spider's webs and successful mating. When mated in cages containing spider's webs a greater proportion of the females were mated and the females laid more eggs compared to the females in cages without spider's webs. As adults emerging from cocoons can crawl up through 15 cm of vermiculite it is possible to transport and release them from...

The role of crop density, seed and aphid presence in diversification of field communities of Carabidae (Coleoptera)

Alois HONĚK, Vojtěch JARO©ÍK

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 517-525, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.080

In 1995-1997, we studied the factors which may influence the ground "activity density" of Carabidae using pitfall traps placed in winter wheat, winter rape and pea stands (1995 only) grown within a 1 km2 area with uniform physical conditions. The traps were placed in plots of bare ground established within the crops and under surrounding intact plant stands. The communities were similar between crops within years (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.60 - 0.81), and between years within crops (r = 0.89 - 0.91), except for the poor winter rape stand in 1997. Factors influencing carabid "activity density" were: (i) Density of crop stand....

Release of Aphidius rhopalosiphi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae) for cereal aphid control: field cage experiments

Amandine LEVIE, Pierre DOGOT, Thierry HANCE

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 527-531, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.081

The potential of the parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi for controlling cereal aphids was tested in 16 m2 field cage experiments in 1998 and 1999. In the first year, aphids and parasitoids were released in cages containing naturally occurring populations of aphids and their natural enemies. In the second year, aphids and parasitoids were released in cages which had been cleared of insects by applying insecticide. The growths of the aphid populations in the different cages were analysed and compared. In 1998, the release of 50 pairs of parasitoids per cage had no significant effect on aphid population growth relative to that in the control...

Manipulation of plant odour preference by learning in the aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

Gunnar MÖLCK, Helga PINN, Urs WYSS

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 533-538, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.082

Aphelinus abdominalis Dalman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a solitary endoparasitoid of cereal aphids [e.g. Sitobion avenae (F.)] and aphids in greenhouses [e.g. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas)] is available as biological control agent against aphid pests in greenhouses. As little is yet known about its long-range host location after release, the in-flight orientation of female A. abdominalis was investigated with regard to the effects of post-emergence experience, using a wind tunnel bioassay. In no-choice tests experienced females responded to the odour of M. euphorbiae-infested...

Tritrophic interactions between cereals, aphids and parasitoids: Discrimination of different plant-host complexes by Aphidius rhopalosiphi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)

Stephan G. MICHA, Susanne KISTENMACHER, Gunnar MÖLCK, Urs WYSS

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 539-543, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.083

The tritrophic interactions between two different plant-host complexes, Avena sativa-Sitobion avenae, Triticum aestivum-S. avenae and the aphid parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi were studied with respect to odour learning and recognition by the parasitoid. The orientation behaviour of females towards odours from either uninfested or aphid-infested oat or wheat plants was tested in a series of dual choice Y-tube olfactometer experiments. Female parasitoids had the opportunity to gain a single oviposition experience on either the oat-S. avenae or wheat-S. avenae complex before the experiment. In the first set...

Hyperparasitoid volatiles as possible foraging behaviour determinants in the aphid parasitoid Aphidius uzbekistanicus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 545-550, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.084

The foraging behaviour of individual females of Aphidius uzbekistanicus Luzhetski (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on oat plants with one colony of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae F. (Homoptera: Aphididae) was examined in laboratory experiments. Patch time allocation was analysed under semi-natural conditions when individual hyperparasitoid females, Alloxysta victrix Westwood (Hymenoptera: Alloxystidae) or their volatiles 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one or a mixture of iridoid substances soaked on vermiculite dummies were present simultaneously. Patch residence times of foraging primary parasitoid females were significantly reduced in all analysed...

Effects of conspecific and heterospecific larval tracks on the oviposition behaviour of the predatory ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Hironori YASUDA, Takumi TAKAGI, Kazunobu KOGI

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 551-553, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.085

The effect of the oviposition deterring pheromone (ODP) in the larval tracks of conspecific and heterospecific ladybirds on oviposition in Harmonia axyridis Pallas was studied in semi natural conditions. Gravid females of H. axyridis were deterred from ovipositing on plants contaminated with conspecific larval tracks, but not on those with heterospecific tracks. H. axyridis females spent significantly less time on plants contaminated with conspecific ODP than on those with heterospecific ODP. This behaviour may account for why fewer eggs were laid on plants contaminated with conspecific ODP.

Life history of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Japan

Yasuyuki SAKURATANI, Yoshihito MATSUMOTO, Motoki OKA, Takahiko KUBO, Atsushi FUJII, Minatsu UOTANI, Toru TERAGUCHI

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 555-558, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.086

Adalia bipunctata is a well-known predaceous ladybird distributed in Europe, Central Asia and North America. This species has not been recorded in Japan. Recently, we found this species in the Osaka Bay area in central Japan, and assume that it was imported with goods such as timber by ships. We studied the life history and the distribution in the Osaka Bay area since the initial discovery. The larvae and adults preyed on aphids (mainly, Periphyllus viridis) on trees such as Acer buergerianum and Rhaphiolepis umbellata. The over-wintered adults appeared in March and laid eggs. The adults emerged in spring, and were in the...

Nutritive cost of intraguild predation on eggs of Coccinella septempunctata and Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Jean-Louis HEMPTINNE, Anthony F.G. DIXON, Catherine GAUTHIER

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 559-562, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.087

Coccinella septempunctata was approximately 20% more reluctant to eat the eggs of Adalia bipunctata than the reverse. In addition, fourth instar larvae of C. septempunctata failed to complete their development on a diet of A. bipunctata eggs and only 30% of those of A. bipunctata completed their development on a diet of C. septempunctata eggs, and the survivors took nearly 2 times as long as those fed aphids. This is an indication that the costs of intraguild predation might outweigh the benefits.

Effects of structural heterogeneity of a laboratory arena on the movement patterns of adult Eriopis connexa and Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (4): 563-566, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.088

We asked if the structural heterogeneity of a laboratory arena differentially affected the abandonment of the plot, residence time, locomotory rate, pause duration and turning rate of adult Eriopis connexa and Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We simulated an increase in heterogeneity by distributing vertically-oriented toothpicks in a circular arena: one control (without toothpicks), one uniform plot (toothpicks every 1 cm) and one random plot (randomly distributed toothpicks). No food was provided inside the arena. Coccinellids were released individually in the centre of each plot and their movement was videotaped. Fewer...