EJE, vol. 97 (2000), issue 3

Measuring and reporting life-cycle duration in insects and arachnids


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 285-303, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.046

Some previous work on arthropod development is insufficiently detailed or incompletely reported. Much of the published information in this area is of limited use for the general analysis of life cycles. These difficulties arise primarily because many experiments do not control fully for the strain of the material (and even its specific identity) nor for rearing conditions, do not adequately take account of the complexity of life cycles and their stages, or are restricted to only part of the life cycle. For example, 285such factors as variable numbers of instars, sexual differences, abbreviated or hidden stages and dormancies may mean that the "average...

Functional anatomy of the spermatheca and its duct in the seed bug Lygaeus simulans (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 305-312, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.047

Female genitalia of lygaeid bugs are characterized by a tube-shaped ductus receptaculi (spermathecal duct) connecting the bursa copulatrix with the highly coiled receptaculum seminis (spermatheca). In this study the morphology and functional anatomy of these structures in Lygaeus simulans were examined by light-, fluorescence- and electron microscopy. In addition, copulating animals were freeze fixed and their interconnected genital structures observed using light microscopy. The ductus receptaculi is separated from the receptaculum seminis by a complicated valve. The valve is nearly surrounded by the spermathecal muscle, which controls its...

Life history correlates and reproductive biology of Laelius pedatus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in The Netherlands

Peter J. MAYHEW, Wijnand R.B. HEITMANS

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 313-322, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.048

Bethylid wasps are a medium sized family of parasitic Hymenoptera, with biological control potential, which have recently proved excellent model systems for testing evolutionary and life history theory. We report observations on a species of Laelius from The Netherlands. The species is morphologically indistinguishable from Laelius pedatus, previously reported only from the New World. Reciprocal crosses between the Dutch wasps and L. pedatus from Madison, Wisconsin, USA confirmed that the Dutch population belongs to L. pedatus. We compared the life history of the Dutch wasps with those from Madison by rearing them on Trogoderma...

Overwintering of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) at different altitudes in the Karkonosze Mts, SW Poland


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 323-328, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.049

The body length variation, sex ratio, ovarian development and natural enemies (parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi) of Coccinella septempunctata were studied during two dormancy seasons in three hibernation sites in the Karkonosze mountains: the top of Mt. ¦nie¿ka (1,600 m a.s.l.), the top of Mt. Szrenica (1,360 m a.s.l.) and Karpacz, the village at the foot of Mt. ¦nie¿ka (800 m a.s.l.). The proportion of females and mean body length increased with the altitude of the hibernaculum. Post-diapause maturation of ovaries occurred earlier in spring in females from Karpacz than from the mountain tops. The rate of parasitization of C. septempunctata...

Seasonal activity and reproductive biology of the ground beetle Carabus dufouri (Coleoptera: Carabidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 329-338, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.050

This paper concerns the life-cycle of Carabus dufouri Dejean 1829, one of the most representative species of Carabus in the south of the Iberian Peninsula. The study is based on data of the annual activity patterns in the natural habitat, on anatomical observations related to the sex and age of the specimens, on the reproductive condition of females and, finally, on the results of laboratory rearing experiments carried out to study the oviposition patterns and the course of development of immature stages. The results indicate that C. dufouri shows the annual rhythm of autumn breeders. However, the rhythm may also be related to...

Phenology and sex ratio of the parasitoids of a cereal leaf miner Chromatomyia fuscula (Diptera: Agromyzidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 339-346, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.051

The univoltine leaf miner Chromatomyia fuscula Zetterstedt is a Scandinavian cereal pest. We wanted to compare the phenology of C. fuscula in southern Norway with that of its most important natural enemies: 15 parasitoids of the families Eulophidae and Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). The use of two Malaise traps in an organically-grown spring barley field and its boundary through 6 seasons (1992-1997) also allowed us to compare these two habitats and to observe the effect of harvesting on the parasitoid activity without interference from pesticides. C. fuscula overwinters as an adult and oviposits in May/June. Few specimens...

Host-instar selection in the aphid parasitoid Monoctonus paulensis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae): a preference for small pea aphids

Amanda CHAU, Manfred MACKAUER

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 347-353, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.052

Monoctonus paulensis is a solitary parasitoid of several species of aphids, including the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We evaluated host-instar selection by comparing the parasitoid's preference for the four nymphal instars of the pea aphid, presented two at a time in dichotomous choice tests. Females parasitized more, and laid more eggs in, the relatively smaller aphids among those available. This preference was independent of aphid instar: L1 > L2 > L3 > L4. Preference was not influenced by female size or age. Normal and anaesthetized aphids were accepted equally. The total time needed by a female to capture, position, and...

Development of the solitary larval endoparasitoid Glyptapanteles porthetriae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in its host Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 355-361, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.053

The development of the solitary endoparasitic braconid Glyptapanteles porthetriae in gypsy moth larvae of different ages was studied. Host larvae were parasitized during the premolt to the 2nd instar (A-larvae), to the 3rd instar (B-larvae) or to the 4th instar (C-larvae), respectively. The percentage of successfully parasitized larvae decreased markedly with the age of the host at the time of parasitization. When parasitization occurred at the premolt to the second or third instar, parasitoid larvae successfully emerged at rates of 68% and 57%, respectively, in contrast to the 17% from larvae parasitized in the premolt to the fourth instar....

BOOK REVIEW: Hansen M.: Hydrophiloidea (s.str.) (Coleoptera). In: World Catalogue of Insects 2.


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 362, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.054

Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 1998, 416 pp.

Egg distribution in the large copper butterfly Lycaena dispar batavus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): Host plant versus habitat mediated effects

Mark R. WEBB, Andrew S. PULLIN

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 363-367, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.055

The large copper butterfly, Lycaena dispar batavus, a subspecies of much conservation interest, is host-specific to the great water dock, Rumex hydrolapathum, but little is known of the relationship between herbivore and host in wild populations. This study investigated the distribution of both R. hydrolapathum plants and L. d. batavus eggs in four different habitat types within the Weerribben National Park, The Netherlands, during the summer of 1993. As expected, host plant distribution strongly influenced that of its herbivore. Further, both species had significantly aggregated distributions, and that of R. hydrolapathum...

Assessing spider community structure in a beech forest: Effects of sampling method


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 369-375, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.056

The spider community of a beech forest on limestone was studied for one year using four sampling techniques: emergence traps, pitfall traps, soil samples, and arboreal eclectors. 87 spider species were recorded. Emergence traps and arboreal eclectors were particularly efficient in detecting spider species. Dominance identity (percentage similarity) was highest for catches from emergence traps and pitfall traps. Species recorded were assigned to various ecological groups. In terms of proportional abundance, representation of the ecological groups varied and appeared related to the sampling method used. Stratum type and type of prey capture strategy...

BOOK REVIEW: Grodnitsky D.L.: Form and Function of Insect Wings. The Evolution of Biological Structures.


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 375-376, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.057

Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1999, xvi + 261 pp.

Experimental hybridisation between Aphis grossulariae and Aphis triglochinis (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 377-386, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.058

Aphis triglochinis and A. grossulariae clones from southern Poland produced fertile hybrid eggs under experimental conditions. Established hybrid clones expressed normal parthenogenetic reproduction but bisexual generations were obtained only in three hybrid clones out of twenty six. Fertile F1 hybrid eggs were obtained in one hybrid clone. Morphological and host-specificity features of A. grossulariae dominated in the majority of hybrid clones. The present results do not exclude the possibility of natural hybridisation of studied aphid species. Natural hybrids may be difficult to detect because of their "pure" morphological...

Application of ubiquitin SSCP analysis in taxonomic studies within the subgenus Orinocarabus (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Carabus)


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 387-394, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.059

SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analyses of ubiquitin genes were used to investigate evolutionary relationships within the subgenus Orinocarabus of the genus Carabus. After SSCP electrophoresis of PCR-amplified ubiquitin copies, population-specific band patterns were obtained. Ubiquitin-SSCP-analyses of the six central European Orinocarabus species, including three subspecies and thirteen populations, resulted in a dendrogram that differed from that based on morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) did not support the SSCP dendrogram, but was in good accordance with the taxonomy based on morphological...

Larval morphology and biology of two species of Aphodius (Plagiogonus) from the Iberian Peninsula (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae)

José R. VERDÚ, Eduardo GALANTE

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 395-401, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.060

The larval morphology of Aphodius (Plagiogonus) nanus Fairmaire, 1860 and A. (P.) arenarius (Olivier, 1789) are described and redescribed, respectively. The common characters of both species, and the specific diagnostic characters are provided and discussed. The most important morphological characters of the larvae of Plagiogonus Mulsant, 1842 are the longitudinal alignment of the anterior setae of the stipes, the spatulate form of the posterior-lateral setae of the glossae of the hypopharynx, the slight development of the anal lobe slit, the form of the epitorma of the epipharynx, the slight sclerotization...

BOOK REVIEW: Schoonhoven L.M., Jermy T. & van Loon J.J.A.: Insect-Plant Biology. From Physiology to Evolution.


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 402, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.061

Chapman & Hall, London, 1998, 409 pp.

Description of the early stages of Anomalipus plebejus plebejulus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from Zimbabwe with notes on the classification of the Opatrinae

Dariusz IWAN, Stanislav BEÈVÁØ

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 403-412, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.062

Immature stages of a South African tenebrionid beetle, account is the first modern description of the egg and first and older larval instars of the genus Anomalipus and the subtribe Anomalipina. The significance of larval characters of Anomalipus and other relevant taxa for classification of the subfamily Opatrinae sensu Medvedev (1968) [= "opatrine lineage: Opatrini" sensu Doyen & Tschinkel (1982)] are discussed. A synopsis of Anomalipus plebejus plebejulus Endrödy-Younga, 1988, of the tribe Platynotini are described and illustrated. This Platynotini larvae is presented.

New genus and species of Oriental Meligethinae with new observations on the genera Cryptarchopria and Kabakovia (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 413-418, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.063

A new genus and species, Horakia kubani gen. n., sp. n., of Meligethinae from Thailand are described and compared with the closely related genus Cryptarchopria Jelínek. Cryptarchopria infima (Grouvelle) is recorded from the islands Ambon and Seram (Maluku, Indonesia), and its association with flowers of the palm Areca catechu L. is established for the first time. Diagnostic characters of the genus Kabakovia Kirejtshuk, 1979 are discussed, and Kabakovia latipes (Grouvelle, 1908) is recorded from Nepal for the first time.

African-Arabian and Asian-Pacific "Mocis frugalis": Two distinct species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Alberto ZILLI

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 419-426, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.064

It is shown that under the name Mocis frugalis (F., 1775), considered to represent a widespread pest of graminaceous crops in the Eastern hemisphere and the Pacific, two species have been hitherto confused. Populations from Africa and Arabian Peninsula are described as Mocis proverai sp. n. The main characters which distinguish the African-Arabian M. proverai from M. frugalis of Asia and the Pacific are found in the genitalia, especially the configuration of the male vesica and female bursa copulatrix.

Merlax bohemicus gen. n., sp. n., a new fossil dragonfly from the Lower Miocene of northern Bohemia (Odonata: Aeshnidae)

Jakub PROKOP, André NEL

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 427-431, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.065

Two aeshnid dragonflies are described from the Lower Miocene deposits in the Bílina mine in the north of the Czech Republic, including a new genus and species of Anactini, Merlax bohemicus gen. n., sp. n., and a further specimen assigned to the genus Aeshna.

Diapausing larvae of the midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) survive at subzero temperatures in a supercooled state but tolerate freezing if inoculated by external ice

Vladimír KO©«ÁL, Jan HAVELKA

Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 433-436, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.066

Diapausing larvae of Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) had relatively low supercooling points (SCP) ranging from -19.0 to -26.4°C. None of the specimens that froze at this temperature survived. A high survival rate (up to 87%) at -10°C for 10 days was observed in supercooled larvae. Such features are characteristic for insects that use a chill-tolerance strategy of cold hardiness. However, the cocoons formed by the diapausing larvae were penetrable by external ice crystals and the larvae showed a relatively high survival rate (23 - 34%) at -10°C for 10 days also in the frozen state caused by inoculation by external ice at...

Differences in the male calling songs of two sibling species of Cicada (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea) in Greece


Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (3): 437-440, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.067

Cicada orni L. is one of the most abundant and common species of cicada in Greece. However, this species was not found during recent field work on the Greek islands of Samos and Ikaria. Instead, the very closely related C. mordoganensis Boulard was found practically everywhere on these islands. C. orni and C. mordoganensis are very closely related species which are morphologically very similar (sibling species), even the male genitalia, and the acoustic signals produced by males during courtship and pair formation have the same general pattern. In order to describe the acoustic signals produced by these sibling species,...