EJE, vol. 97 (2000), issue 2
Correlation between metabolic depression and ecdysteroid peak during embryogenesis of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 141-148, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.026
Respiratory metabolism of developing eggs of Schistocerca gregaria has been individually monitored by means of scanning microrespirography. The freshly oviposited eggs consumed 7 nl of O2 /min./egg (50 µl O2/g/h) while the pharate 1st instar larvae shortly before hatching consumed 141 nl of O2/min./egg (550 µl O2/g/h), which shows 20-fold metabolic increase during the egg stage. The output of CO2 was also regular, without discontinuous bursts throughout the whole embryonic development. The amounts of CO2 produced were constantly close to R.Q. ratio of 0.7, suggesting...
Cold hardiness of Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) from central and southern Europe
Plamen KALUSHKOV, Oldřich NEDVĚD
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 149-153, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.027
The cold hardiness of individuals from overwintering populations of a freeze susceptible bug Pyrrhocoris apterus from central and southern Europe differed significantly. Supercooling point (SCP) correlated well with both lethal temperature (LT50) and lethal time (Lt50), and is agood index of cold hardiness of adults during and after diapause. In January, diapause terminated, but cold hardiness was similar to that recorded in November; cold hardiness decreased slightly in March and markedly in May. Short exposure (less than a week) to higher temperatures before termination of diapause did not reduce the cold hardiness. Cold...
BOOK REVIEW: Leather S.R. & Bland K.P.: Insects on Cherry Trees.
F. KOCOUREK, A. HONĚK
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 154, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.028
Naturalists' Handbooks 27. The Richmond Publishing, Slough, 1999, 82 pp.
Olfactory orientation of the seven-spot ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Attraction of adults to plants and conspecific females
Mara SCHALLER, Wolfgang NENTWIG
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 155-159, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.029
The olfactory orientation of the aphidophagous ladybird Coccinella septempunctata L. was assessed in a Y-tube olfactometer and a choice arena. The response of the predator to 22 plants, aphid prey and conspecifics was tested. The ladybird was attracted to the odour of chopped Berberis vulgaris L. leaves, and of Tripleurospermum inodoratum (L.) Sch.-Bip. flowerheads, and males were attracted to females. Methanol extracts of B. vulgaris leaves were also attractive.
Adaptive preferential selection of young coccinellid hosts by the parasitoid wasp Dinocampus coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Michael E.N. MAJERUS, Irene E. GEOGHEGAN, Tamsin M.O. MAJERUS
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 161-164, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.030
Dinocampus coccinellae females which eclose in mid-summer have the opportunity to oviposit in overwintered or in newly eclosed coccinellid hosts. Given the short further longevity of overwintered hosts, offspring fitness would be increased by ovipositing preferentially in young hosts. Laboratory choice tests show that female D. coccinellae do exhibit such a preference.
Development of ovaries, allometry of reproductive traits and fecundity of Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae)
Etienne BRANQUART, Jean-Louis HEMPTINNE
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 165-170, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.031
Episyrphus balteatus only matures eggs after emergence. Ovaries develop in 4 stages. In the absence of oviposition sites, females refrain from ovipositing and their ovaries progressively fill the abdomen and then egg resorption occurs. The potential fecundity, which is expressed by the ovariole number, the reproductive biomass and the abdomen volume, scales isometrically with the size of females. Egg size is much less variable and does not rise proportionally to body size. In laboratory conditions, females of E. balteatus might lay between 2,000 and 4,500 eggs during their life-time at a rate of 1 to 2 eggs per ovariole per day. Both...
Male calling, mating and oviposition in Isoperla curtata (Plecoptera: Perlodidae)
José Manuel TIERNO DE FIGUEROA, Julio Miguel LUZÓN-ORTEGA, Antonino SÁNCHEZ-ORTEGA
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 171-175, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.032
The reproductive biology (drumming call, mating behaviour, fecundity and egg structure) of Isoperla curtata, an endemic species from the Southern Iberian Peninsula, is described. The male's mating call has a diphasic pattern, with a mean of 17.3 beats per call (range = 8-27; SD = 4.7) and a duration of 792.9 ms per call (range = 228-1312; SD = 307.9). This call differs from that of other species of Isoperla in having two distinct phases with different millisecond intervals, and is species-specific. Mating lasts between 131 and 3864 seconds (mean = 2180.9 s and SD = 1027.8). Since males and females mate more than once (mean number...
BOOK REVIEW: Amiet F., Müller A. & Neumeyer R. 1999: Fauna Helvetica 4. Apidae 2 (Colletes, Dufourea, Hylaeus, Nomia, Nomioides, Rhophitoides, Rophites, Sphecodes, Systropha).
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 176, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.033
Centre suisse de cartographie de la faune (CSCF), Neuchâtel, 219 pp., 280 figs, 98 distribution maps.
Fecundity and survival of Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) under different feeding and storage temperature conditions
Laurent A. SAGARRA, Charles VINCENT, Robin K. STEWART
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 177-181, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.034
The parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), has been recently introduced into the Caribbean as a biological control agent against the hibiscus mealybug (HMB), Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Storage of A. kamali that is essential for its use in biological control did not affect the longevity of female and male parasitoids (40.3 ± 14.07 and 31.7 ± 9.57 days, respectively) when kept at 20 ± 2°C in absence of hosts and fed ad libitum with droplets of pure honey. At a storage temperature of 27 ± 2°C the longevity decreased by about 10 days. Fed females did...
Ecological comparisons across geographical distributions: The thistle gall fly Urophora cardui (Diptera: Tephritidae) on two different Cirsium hosts
Mark FRENZEL, Sabine EBER, Stefan KLOTZ, Roland BRANDL
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 183-189, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.035
Populations of the specialist gall-forming fly, Urophora cardui (Diptera: Tephritidae), were studied at the western and eastern margins of its distribution. In western Europe U. cardui attacks the creeping thistle Cirsium arvense, whereas in eastern Europe, in the Ural mountains, it attacks Cirsium setosum, a taxon closely related to C. arvense. Gall densities are high in the Ural mountains and can be predicted by environmental variables. Compared to galls on C. arvense, those on C. setosum are on average larger. This indicates better performance of U. cardui on C. setosum in terms of cell...
Evaluation of population densities of the common wolf spider Pardosa agrestis (Araneae: Lycosidae) in Hungarian alfalfa fields using mark-recapture
Balázs KISS, Ferenc SAMU
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 191-195, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.036
The absolute population density of adult Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1862), the dominant epigeic spider species in many arable lands in Central Europe, was quantified in two alfalfa fields using a multiple mark-recapture method. The resulting density estimates are presented together with catch data from simultaneously performed suction sampling and pitfall trapping. Two week long mark-recapture surveys were conducted in August 1995 and 1996 using grids of 11 × 11 live-catching pitfall traps covering a square area of 400 m2 in the first, and 900 m2 in the second survey. The trap checking and marking procedure, using individual...
A south east Asian pest species newly recorded from Europe: Thrips parvispinus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), its confused identity and potential quarantine significance
Laurence A. MOUND, Dominique W. COLLINS
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 197-200, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.037
The south east Asian pest thrips, Thrips parvispinus is recorded breeding in Europe for the first time, damaging Gardenia plants in Greece. Morphological variation in this species from various Asian countries is recorded and compared to the type specimens. As a result Isoneurothrips jenseni Karny, 1925 and Thrips (Isoneurothrips) taiwanus Takahashi, 1936 are placed as synonyms of Thrips parvispinus (Karny, 1922). In contrast, Thrips compressicornis (Sakimura), a species from the Marquesa Islands of the Pacific that has previously been associated with these taxa, represents a very different...
Revision of the Oriental genus Idiotrephes (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Helotrephidae)
Miroslav PAPÁČEK, Herbert ZETTEL
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 201-211, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.038
The Oriental helotrephid genus Idiotrephes Lundblad, 1933, is taxonomically revised. Species discrimination is based on male genitalia and female terminalia. Three species groups are recognized. The I. chinai group contains I. chinai Lundblad, 1933 (type species; from Sumatra, Borneo, and West Malaysia) and three newly described species; I. asiaticus sp. n. (from Vietnam, Thailand, and west Malaysia); I. yupae sp. n., and I. polhemusi sp. n. (both from Thailand). The I. maior group contains I. maior Papáček, 1994; I. meszarosi Papáček,...
Dorso-abdominal scent glands and metathoracic evaporatoria in adults of central European Rhopalidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with a discussion of phylogeny and higher systematics
Jitka DAVIDOVÁ-VILÍMOVÁ, Markéta NEJEDLÁ, Carl W. SCHAEFER
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 213-221, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.039
The reservoirs of dorso-abdominal scent glands and the occurrence of the metapleural scent gland evaporatoria in the adults of nine central European and one North American species in the family Rhopalidae (Hemiptera) were studied. All published data about the persistence of the dorso-abdominal scent glands in rhopalid adults are reviewed, and systematic and phylogenetic implications are derived from the patterns of variation.
Larvae of Bembidiini (Coleoptera: Carabidae): Subtribes Tachyina and Xystosomina
Vasily V. GREBENNIKOV, David R. MADDISON
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 223-240, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.040
Larvae of 13 species of the bembidiine subtribes Tachyina (the genera Tachyta Kirby, Tachys Dejean, Polyderis Motschulsky, Elaphropus Motschulsky, Sphaerotachys G. Müller, Paratachys Casey, Porotachys Netolitzky) and Xystosomina (the genus Mioptachys Bates) were studied. Larvae of all studied taxa are described, diagnosed and illustrated. A key to genera is provided separately for the first- and older-instar larvae. Monophyly and phylogenetic position of the subtribes and genera are discussed on the basis of presumably apomorphic character states of larvae. Based on at least six synapomorphic...
Galaicodytes caurelensis gen. n., sp. n., the first troglobitic species of Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichinae) from the western Palaearctic region
Vicente M. ORTUÑO, José M. SALGADO
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 241-252, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.041
This study describes Galaicodytes (gen. n.) caurelensis (sp. n.) which was captured in a limestone cave in the lower Cambric of NW Spain. It is the first known cave-dwelling Platynini in the western Palaearctic region and shows unique morphological adaptations to cave life. The taxonomic position is based on comprehensive character analysis, including external anatomical, male genitalic, and female genitalic and reproductive tract characters. Certain problems concerning its taxonomic position in relation to other genera are discussed and different ecologic and biogeographic aspects are analysed.
Cladistic systematics of the genus Amphimallon (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae)
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 253-270, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.042
A phylogeny of fifty-eight cockchafer species belonging to the genus Amphimallon Berthold, 1827 is proposed, based on sixty-five morphological characters. The cladistic analysis provides seventy-two equally parsimonious trees. The genus Amphimallon is redefined and species-groups are introduced and defined: A. pini-group (seven species), A. vernale-group (five species), A. solstitiale-group (seven species), A. arianae-group (two species), A. peropacum-group (one species), A. fuscum-group (eleven species), A. naceyroi-group (seven species),...
Revision of the genus Wakarumbia (Coleoptera: Lycidae)
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 271-278, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.043
A revision of the genus Wakarumbia Bocák, 1999 from Sulawesi is presented. Altogether 10 species are included in the genus Wakarumbia: the type species W. gracilis Bocák, 1999 is redescribed, a new combination of Wakarumbia celebensis (Kleine, 1933) is proposed (originally placed in Protaphes Kleine, 1926) and the following new species are described: Wakarumbia brendelli sp. n., W. brunnescens sp. n., W. flavohumeralis sp. n., W. grandis sp. n., W. nigra sp. n., W. oculata sp. n., W. pallescens sp. n. and W. similis sp. n. The important diagnostic...
Feeding site location in birch aphids (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): The simplicity and reliability of cues
Graham W. HOPKINS, Anthony F.G. DIXON
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 279-280, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.044
To establish the importance of different cues for feeding site location in aphids, two birch-feeding species were given access to leaves that were either orientated normally or inverted. Euceraphis betulae used gravity and/or light as the main cue, and settled on the surface that was orientated down. Monaphis antennata additionally used leaf surface features to locate its feeding site, and approximately half of the individuals settled on the correct feeding surface whatever its orientation. This is one of the few examples of positive stimuli being used by aphids during feeding site location.
Giant sperm in a Neotropical moth Xenosoma geometrina (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)
Edward H. MORROW
Eur. J. Entomol. 97 (2): 281-283, 2000 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2000.045
The stereotypical sperm is characterised as being tiny but produced in great quantities. However a few species (frequently insects) produce much larger spermatozoa, probably with an associated cost in reduced numbers per ejaculate. Here I present the first evidence that a species within the Lepidoptera also produces giant sperm. It seems likely that given wider sampling this record for the largest sperm produced by a lepidopteran may subsequently be broken.