EJE, vol. 94 (1997), issue 1

Evolutionary and genetic aspects of aphid biology: A review


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 1-55, 1997

In this paper we review recent work on aspects of aphid biology related to evolution and genetics, and suggest some directions for future research. Sections include aphid annual cycles, sexual reproduction, cytogenetics, classical genetics and molecular generics, as well as the influence of annual cycle components on the genetic structure of aphid populations. The related topic of symbiont genome, evolution and function is also briefly reviewed.

Book Review: Aphids on the World's Trees. An Identification and Information Guide.


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 56, 1997

Blackman R.L. & Eastop V.F.: Aphids on the World's Trees. An Identification and Information Guide. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, 1994, 987 pp., 722 figs, 108 photographs.

Ecdysone 20-hydroxylation in Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) midgut: Development-related changes of mitochondrial and microsomal ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activities in the fifth larval instar


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 57-65, 1997

In the mid fifth-larval-instar tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, the midgut has high ecdysone 20-monooxygenase (E20MO) activity, with a peak at the onset of wandering on day five. Activities of E20MO, present both in mitochondria and in microsomes, were determined around the time of the peak. During the day preceding the peak the microsomal E20MO increased 60-fold (total activity) or 115-fold (specific activity), and it decreased to one half or less of the peak activities within two days after the peak. The mitochondrial E20MO increased only 1.3 to 2.4-fold (total and specific activities, respectively) before the peak, but declined more rapidly...

Book Review: Modeling Biological Systems: Principles and Applications.


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 66, 1997

Haefner J.W.: Modeling Biological Systems: Principles and Applications. Chapman & Hall, New York, 1996. 473 pp., hardcover.

Diapause intensity and ecdysiotroph: Comparisons between two Antheraea species (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) having summer and winter diapause at pupae


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 67-73, 1997

The photoperiodic and neuroendocrine regulations of diapause termination were investigated in two Antheraea species, A. yamamai and A. pernyi which have pupal diapause to aestivate and overwinter, respectively. The types of photoperiodic responses were inverse between the two species, a short-day type in A. yamamai and a long-day type in A. pernyi. When the diapause intensity was compared among A. yamamai and two strains of A. pernyi, the intensity in the univoltine strain of A. pernyi was the strongest, while that in A. yamamai the weakest. Although the timing of ecdysteroid release, a...

Book Review: Flies of the Nearctic Region.


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 73, 1997

Griffiths G.C.D.: Anthomyiidae. In Griffiths G.C.D. (ed.):  Flies of the Nearctic Region. Vol. VIII, Pt. 2, No. 11. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Ngele u. Obermiller), Stuttgart, 1996, 244 pp., 275 figs.

Book Review: Hills and Streams. An Ecology of Hong Kong.


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 74, 1997

Dudgeon D. & Corlett R.: Hills and Streams. An Ecology of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, 1995, xv + 237 pp.

Site-specific effects of parasitism on water balance and lipid content of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 75-82, 1997

The site of parasitism on a host selected by the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis affected the water composition of developing larvae. Second instar wasp larvae developing on anteriorly-parasitized pharate adults of Sarcophaga bullata contained 12% more water by mass than wasps feeding on the posterior end of the fly. Similar differences, although less pronounced, were detected in third instar larvae and are attributed to a greater dry weight (fat). Regardless of the amount of fat present in wasp larvae, rates of water loss and oxygen consumption were the same. This suggests that variation in parasitoid fat content did not contribute...

Reproduction of Aphelinus albipodus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) hosts


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 83-96, 1997

Reproduction in Aphelinus albipodus (Hayat & Fatima) from China on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) hosts was studied in the laboratory. Studies were conducted at three constant temperatures, 10.0, 21.1, and 26.7C (± 1.0C), 14L : 10D photoperiod, and 50-70% R.H. The longevity of both males and females was greatest at 10.0C (26.0 and 41.5 d, respectively); differences in longevity were not significant (p > 0.05) between 21.1 and 26.7C in both sexes (males 13.1 vs. 10.0 d, females 20.9 vs. 16.4 d, respectively). Fecundity was greater at 26.7 (294.7 ± 27.6 mummies) and 21.1C (214.8 ± 33.5 mummies) than at 10.0C...

The effect of temperature on the activity of Carabidae (Coleoptera) in a fallow field


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 97-104, 1997

In 1992-1994, the activity of ground surface arthropods was investigated on a fallow field divided into small plots with different regimes of weed management. Daily operated pitfall traps were placed in a transect across the field. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of temperature on the magnitude of total arthropod catches. The pooled catches of all arthropod species were poorly correlated with temperature since its effects were damped by differences in timing of peak abundance of the species. To compensate for the effect of this variation groups of species with similar patterns of annual variation of abundance were selected. The regressions...

Book Review: Current Directions in Research on Ephemeroptera.


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 104, 1997

Corkum L.D. & Ciborowski J.J.H. (eds): Current Directions in Research on Ephemeroptera. Canadian Scholar's Press, Toronto, 1995, xiv + 479 pp.

Trade-off between reproduction and length of adult life in males and mating females of aphids


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 105-109, 1997

Males of the willow-carrot aphid, Cavariella aegopodii (Scopoli) (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae), that were caged with five or more females had shorter adult lives than those caged with one or no females. Similarly mated females had a shorter adult life than unmated females. The difference in lifespan appears to result from a change in the time of onset of senescence rather than a change in the rate of senescence. Contrary to what is observed in most other animals unmated males of the willow-carrot aphid had much longer lives than unmated females. The asymmetry of the sexes in terms of the factors that affect their fitnesses and the deadline to...

Protective role of the egg stalk in Chrysopidae (Neuroptera)


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 111-114, 1997

 First instar larvae of Chrysopa oculata Say cannibalize more eggs without stalks than those with. In choice experiments, unfed males and females of C. oculata avoid feeding on eggs with stalks, but readily cannibalize those without. The degree of cannibalism is similar in both sexes. Although predation of eggs with and without stalks by hungry adult coccinellids is high, the stalks protect the eggs to some extent.

Jesenikia filiformis gen. n., sp. n. (Collembola: Isotomidae) from Czech Republic and Bulgaria


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 115-120, 1997

Jesenikia filiformis gen. n., sp, n. from the subfamily Anurophorinae (Collembola: Isotomidae) is described from Jeseniky Mountains in North Moravia, Czech Republic. The new genus and species are reported also from Rodopi Mountains in Bulgaria. The new genus is related to Pseudanurophorus Stach, 1922 and Antarctophorus Potapov, 1991. The status of Pseudanurophorus alticolus Bagnal, 1949 is discussed.

Redescription of Onychiurus rectospinatus (Collembola: Onychiuridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 121-125, 1997

Onychiurus rectospinatus Stach, 1922 is redescribed. O. arvensis Rusek, 1979 is a junior synonym of O. rectospinatus. Morphological differences between O. rectospinatus and O. circulans Gisin, 1952 are given.

Abaristophora and Puliciphora (Diptera: Phoridae) from Dominican amber and revisionary notes on modern species


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 127-135, 1997

The generic assignments of 84 fossil Phoridae preserved in Oligocene amber from the Dominican Republic are summarised. The fossil species Abaristophora domicamberae Disney sp. n. is described. Antipodiphora Schmitz is returned to the status of being a subgenus of Abaristophora Schmitz. A modern species A. nepalensis Disney sp. n. is described from Nepal. The fossil species Puliciphora rontaleri Disney sp, n. is described. Critical features of the type species of this genus, P. lucifera Dahl, are figured. The recognition of P. tokyoensis Kinoshita is clarified.

Book Review: Atlas zur Biologie der Wasserinsekten.


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 136, 1997

Wichard W., Arens W. & Eisenbeis G.: Atlas zur Biologie der Wasserinsekten. G. Fischer, Stuttgart etc., 1995, xii + 338 pp.

Sphaeroceridae (Diptera) reared from various types of carrion and other decaying substrates in Southern Germany, including new faunistic data on some rarely collected species


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 137-151, 1997

Rearing experiments were conducted in the vicinity of Ulm (Germany) using baits and samples of decaying organic matter collected in the field. Fifteen types of substrates consisted of vertebrate, mollusc and insect carrion (9 types), rotten plant material (3 types), fungi (2 types) and excrement. A total of 49,489 adult Sphaeroceridae belonging to 28 species emerged from these substrates. Seven species were reared for the first time, and for 22 species new larval Feeding substrates are recorded. In addition, the occurrence of thirteen rarely-collected species in traps baited with carrion or fungi and emergence traps is reported. Five species are new...

Book Review: Aquatic Insects of China Useful for Monitoring Water Quality.


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 152, 1997

Morse J.C., Yang L. & Tian L. (eds): Aquatic Insects of China Useful for Monitoring Water Quality. Hohai University Press, Nanjing, 1995, xii + 570 pp.

Feeding of the adults of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 94 (1): 153-156, 1997

The adult feeding of Hylobius abietis on five tree species, Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior and Acer pseudoplatanus was compared in no-choice tests. P. sylvestris was consumed in significantly greater quantities than any of the other species, the order of preference being P. sylvestris >> B. pendula >> P. abies >> F. excelsior > A. pseudoplatanus. In spite of being a broad-leaved tree, Betula pendula was consumed more than the coniferous P. abies, although a high proportion of insects did not feed...