EJE, vol. 93 (1996), issue 1

Antarctic diptera: Ecology, physiology and distribution

CONVEY P., BLOCK W.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 1-13, 1996

n contrast to northern polar areas, the dipteran fauna of Antarctica is depauperate, with only two naturally occurring species of Chironomidae. Surprisingly little is known of the biology of these species. One, Parochlus steinenii, reaches the southern limit of a distribution covering the high Andes, Tierra del Fuego, South Georgia and the South Shetland Islands in the maritime Antarctic. The other, Belgica antarctica, is endemic to the maritime Antarctic. What factors influence the distribution and past colonisation of these two species in the Antarctic?
Distributional data and evidence from an accidental introduction of a third chironomid...

Dorsoventral pattern formation: Morphogenesis of longitudinal coloration in Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

TIETZ D., ZRZAVY J.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 15-22, 1996

Postembryonic development of the adult color pattern of the shieldbug Graphosoma lineatum (organized as six symmetrical pairs of stripes parallel to body axis, i.e., with necessary dorsoventral positional information involved) was analysed and compared with patterns of some similar pentatomoids. All studied species, despite the probably different ecological role of their coloration (cryptic or aposematic), appear to display the same morphological regularities involved in their dorsal color pattern (three longitudinal pairs of stripes on pronotum and scutellum, more or less fused posteriorly and/or reduced). It is possible that a parallel origin...

Different types of external gas exchange found in pupae of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

KUUSIK A., HARAK M., HIIESAAR K., METSPALU L., TARTES U.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 23-35, 1996

In outdoor and laboratory pupal populations of Galleria mellonella four types of external gas exchange were found: (i) a cyclic and sudden deep-air suction-intake, followed instantly by a rapid release of CO2, occurring at every 8-14 s at 30C and identified as UDFµC (Unidirectional Flow Microcycles); (ii) intermittent but slow emission of CO2 without sudden air suction-intake; (iii) chaotic rhythm of gas exchange and (iv) continuous respiration.

Wandering larvae at rest and mobile prepupae in cocoons exhibited the same type of gas exchange and some individual breathing patterns which persisted during later...

Book Review: Ecological Dynamics of Tick-Borne Zoonoses.

BELOZEROV V.N., ALEKSEEV A.N.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 35-36, 1996

Sonenshine D.E. & Mather T.N. (eds): Ecological Dynamics of Tick-Borne Zoonoses. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, 1994, xiii + 447 pp.

Activity of phosphatases and esterases in the aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae), and in the gut wall of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae and pupae

NEMEC V., ZENKA J.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 37-44, 1996

The activity and isozyme patterns of esterases and phosphatases which hydrolyse ecdysteroid conjugates were studied in whole body extracts of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) and in midgut wall extracts of Galleria mellonella (L.). The activity of esterases was almost ten times higher than that of phosphatases (expressed in µM liberated para-nitrophenol/min/mg protein) and seemed to decline with insect age. Cholinesterase sensitive to eserin comprised 14% of total esterase activity in the nymphs of A. pisum, while in other samples it was negligible. Activity of acid phosphatases in the aphid samples was twice as high as that...

Influence of larval crowding and mating on lifespan and fecundity of Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

KAZIMIROVA M.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 45-52, 1996

Lifespan, preoviposition and oviposition periods of Mamestra brassicae were unaffected by larval rearing densities and the group effect. Fecundity of both mated and unmated females was correlated significantly with pupal weight. Weight-related fecundity was not influenced by larval phase variation. Mated females lived, on average, 2 days longer and had 2.2-3.8 times greater potential fecundity than unmated females. Positive fecundity/oviposition period and fecundity/lifespan relationships existed in mated and unmated females, respectively.

Life history responses to host quality changes and competition in the Turkey-oak aphid, Myzocallis boerneri (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Callaphididae)

SEQUEIRA R., DIXON A.F.G.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 53-58, 1996

Populations of tree-dwelling aphids are typically characterised by dramatic fluctuations in density within years. Seasonal changes in host plant quality and intraspecific competition are important factors in aphid population dynamics. The seasonal changes in life history traits under field conditions and the effects of high density on body size and reproductive potential of the Turkey-oak aphid, M. boerneri were investigated. Aphid body size is at its maximum in early spring, soon after bud burst, and declines progressively as the Turkey-oak foliage matures. The fat content of individuals, as a proportion of total body weight, remains constant...

The use of Harmonia axyridis larvae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) against Macrosiphum rosae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) on rose bushes

FERRAN A., NIKNAM H., KABIRI F., PICART J.L., DE HERCE C., BRUN J., IPERTI G., LAPCHIN L.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 59-67, 1996

Third and fourth instar larvae of Harmonia axyridis were released in spring into rose beds infested by the aphid Macrosiphum rosae. These biological treatments induced stabilization or a decrease of the aphid populations. Their efficiency is comparable with that of chemical treatments performed in neighbouring rose beds and the subsequent development of aphid populations was the same after these two types of treatments. The rearing condition of H. axyridis, particularly its feeding on a substitute prey (lepidopteran eggs), the climate, particularly the rainfall and low temperatures, sometimes near the development threshold of the...

Entomopathogenic activity of a whitefly-derived isolate of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) against the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) with the description of an effective bioassay method

MESQUITA A.L.M., LACEY L.A., MERCADIER G., LECLANT F.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 69-75, 1996

This is the first report of the potential of the hyphomycete fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith, for the microbial control of aphids. The LD50 and LD90 of a strain of P. fumosoroseus isolated from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) from Multan, Pakistan and bioassayed against third instar Diuraphis noxia (Mordvillco) were 1.78*103 conidia/cm2 and 1.43*104 conidia/cm2, respectively. Strong dosage-mortality and dosage-mycosis responses were evident with larger proportions of individuals dying within the first three days post-treatment at the...

Revision of the subgenus Mimoncomera of the genus Dryopomera (Coleoptera: Oedemeridae)

SVIHLA V.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 77-88, 1996

Species of the genus Dryopomera subgenus Mimoncomera Pic are revised, illustrated and keyed and species-groups are proposed. The following new species are described: D. (M.) kinabaluensis sp. n. (Sabah), D. (M.) muluensis sp. n. (Sarawak), D. (M.) conifera sp. n. (Malaya), D. (M.) kedahensis sp. n. (Malaya), D. (M.) horaki sp. n. (Vietnam), D. (M.) pahangensis sp. n. (Malaya), D. (M.) javana sp. n. (Java), D. (M.) penangensis sp. n. (Malaya), D. (M.) loebli...

Revision of palaearctic Stiphrosoma, including the Anthomyza laeta-group (Diptera: Anthomyzidae)

ROHACEK J.

Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (1): 89-120, 1996

The genus Stiphrosoma Czemy, 1928 is revised and redefined to include species of the Anthomyza laeta-group and its relationships are discussed. Four Palaearctic species are recognized: Stiphrosoma sabulosum (Haliday, 1837), S. fissum sp. n. (North Korea), S. cingulatum (Haliday, 1855) comb. n., and S. laetum (Meigen, 1830) comb. n. All available type material was revised and 4 lectotypes are designated; all species are (re)described, illustrated, keyed and their relationships, biology and distribution surveyed. Wing polymorphism of S. sabulosum is discussed and sexual dichroism in S. fissum...