Eur. J. Entomol. 114: 42-52, 2017 | 10.14411/eje.2017.007

Spatial variability in the level of infestation of the leaves of horse chestnut by the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and in the number of adult moths and parasitoids emerging from leaf litter in an urban environment

Michal KOPAČKA1,2, Rostislav ZEMEK2
1 University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Agriculture, Studentská 13, České Budějovice, Czech Republic; e-mail: michalkopacka@seznam.cz
2 Biology Centre CAS, Institute of Entomology, Branišovská 31, České Budějovice, Czech Republic; e-mail: rosta@entu.cas.cz

The horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was first recorded in Europe near lake Ohrid in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in 1985 since when it has spread throughout the whole of Europe. The reasons for its spread are well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the population density of the first generation of C. ohridella at eight sites in the urban area of České Budějovice, Czech Republic in two consecutive years. The density was estimated visually in terms of the damage done to horse chestnut leaves by C. ohridella larvae at each site during the vegetative season. The results revealed high variability in the mean percentage of the leaf area damaged ranging from 1.43% to 31.00% and from 0.26% to 23.40% in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The effect of site, year and interaction between these two factors were statistically highly significant. Spatial analysis revealed no autocorrelation in damage among sites indicating that the distribution of C. ohridella is random and not affected by the level of infestation at neighbouring sites. In autumn, samples of leaves were collected and the mortality of diapausing pupae of C. ohridella determined. It ranged from 12.50% to 25.82% and from 10.31% to 22.35% in 2012 and 2013, respectively. There was no significant effect of site and year and their interaction on pupal mortality. The leaf samples were then weighed and put into photo-eclectors, which were placed outdoors. Numbers of adults of C. ohridella and hymenopteran parasitoids that emerged in spring were recorded daily. There were statistically significant associations of the total number of adults that emerged from samples in spring with both site and year as well as their interaction. The number of moths that emerged was positively correlated with the damage done by the first generation of C. ohridella the previous year. Similarly, the total number of parasitoids that emerged was correlated with the number of moths that emerged. The implications of these findings for the optimization of C. ohridella control are discussed.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Aesculus hippocastanum, leaf damage, population density, pest focus, parasitoids

Received: May 18, 2016; Accepted: December 23, 2016; Published online: January 24, 2017

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