Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 558-570, 2016 | 10.14411/eje.2016.076

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Spilarctia robusta (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Erebidae) and its phylogenetic implications

Yu SUN, Sen TIAN, Cen QIAN, Yu-Xuan SUN, Muhammad N. ABBAS, Saima KAUSAR, Lei WANG, Guoqing WEI, Bao-Jian ZHU*, Chao-Liang LIU*
College of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, 130 Changjiang West Road, Hefei, 230036, China; e-mails: nagato0621@163.com (Y. Sun), 471618348@qq.com (S. Tian), qiancenqiancen@163.com (C. Qian), sun6667@163.com (Y.-X. Sun), abbasmndr@outlook.com (M.-N. Abbas), drkausarsn@hotmail.com (S. Kausar), wanglei20041225@163.com (L. Wang), weiguoqing@tom.com (G.-Q. Wei), zhubaojian@ahau.edu.cn (B.-J. Zhu), clliu@ahau.edu.cn (C.-L. Liu)

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Spilarctia robusta (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Erebidae) was sequenced and analyzed. The circular mitogenome is made up of 15,447 base pairs (bp). It contains a set of 37 genes, with the gene complement and order similar to that of other lepidopterans. The 12 protein coding genes (PCGs) have a typical mitochondrial start codon (ATN codons), whereas cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene utilizes unusually the CAG codon as documented for other lepidopteran mitogenomes. Four of the 13 PCGs have incomplete termination codons, the cox1, nad4 and nad6 with a single T, but cox2 has TA. It comprises six major intergenic spacers, with the exception of the A+T-rich region, spanning at least 10 bp in the mitogenome. The nucleotide composition of the genome is greatly A+T biased (81.09%), with a negative AT skewness (-0.007), indicating the presence of fewer As than Ts, similar to other Noctuoidea. The A+T-rich region is 343 bp long, and contains some conserved regions, including an "ATAGA" motif followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)9 and a poly-A element, a characteristic shared with other lepidopteran mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs using Maximum likelihood methods revealed that S. robusta belongs to the superfamily Noctuoidea.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Erebidae, Spilarctia robusta, phylogenetic analyses, mitogenome, evolution, gene rearrangement

Received: August 28, 2016; Accepted: October 31, 2016; Published online: December 5, 2016

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