Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 29-36, 2016 | 10.14411/eje.2016.003

Response of the reduviid bug, Rhynocoris marginatus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) to six different species of cotton pests

Kitherian SAHAYARAJ1, Subramanian MUTHU KUMAR2, Annie ENKEGAARD3
1 Crop Protection Research Centre, St. Xavier's College, Palayamkottai - 627 002, Tamil Nadu, India; e-mail: ksraj48@gmail.com
2 UPASI Tea Research Foundation, Tea Research Institute, Nirar Dam (PO), Valparai - 642 127, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India; e-mail: smkkurichi@gmail.com
3 Aarhus University, Science and Technology, Department of Agroecology, Research Centre Flakkebjerg, DK-4200 Slagelse, Denmark, e-mail: annie.enkegaard@agro.au.dk

Abstract. In Indian agro-ecosystems Rhynocoris marginatus (F.) is one of the most abundant predatory arthropods and feeds on a wide range of insect pests. We investigated the responses of R. marginatus to six species of cotton pests: Spodoptera litura (F.), Sylepta derogata (F.), Pericallia ricini (F.), Mylabris indica (Thunberg), Mylabris pustulata (Thunberg) and Dysdercus cingulatus (F.), in terms of its predatory behaviour (approach and handling times), weight gain, macromolecular profile (content of carbohydrates, proteins, free aminoacids and lipids) and haemocytic profile. We also determined the predator's reliance on kairomones from different species of prey. Larvae of the species of Lepidoptera studied were approached and captured more quickly than adults of the two meloid coleopteran and one heteropteran pest and were more beneficial to the predator in terms of weight gain. Predators had a higher total protein content when reared on larvae of the three lepidopteran species, higher lipid content when reared on adults of the two meloid coleopteran species and a higher carbohydrate content when reared on adults of one heteropteran species. The number of haemocytes was greater in predators reared on larvae of the Lepidoptera studied, followed by those reared on adults of the heteropteran and lowest in those reared on adults of the two meloid coleopterans. Response to kairomones was strongest for S. litura followed by S. derogata and M. pustulata. We conclude that the Lepidoptera studied tended to be, for this predator, superior prey, with S. litura being especially beneficial and the prey species for which R. marginatus has the highest kairomonal preference. Moreover, we propose that R. marginatus may be useful as a biocontrol agent against lepidopteran cotton pests.

Keywords: Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Rhynocoris marginatus, macromolecular profiles, kairomone, feeding behaviour, haemocyte levels

Received: October 21, 2014; Accepted: October 23, 2015; Published online: January 8, 2016

Download citation

References

  1. Ambrose D.P. 1980: Bioecology of an alate assassin bug, Acanthapis quinquespinosa Fab. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). In Goel S.C. (ed.): Proceedings of Symposium on Insect Ecology and Resources Management, Muzafar Nagar, India, pp. 107-115.
  2. Ambrose D.P. 1999: Assassin Bugs. Science Publishers, New Hampshire, USA and Oxford & IBH Publishing, New Delhi, India, 337 pp.
  3. Ambrose D.P. & Claver M.A. 2001: Survey of reduviid predators in seven pigeon pea agroecosystems in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India. - Int. Chickpea Pigeonpea Newslet. 8: 44-45.
  4. Ambrose D.P. & George P.J.E. 1996: Total and differential haemocytes diversity in three morphs of Rhynocoris marginatus (Insecta: Heteroptera: Reduviidae). - Fresen. Environ. Bull. 5: 202-206.
  5. Ananthakrishnan T.N. 1996: Molecular messengers in insect biocommunication: Modality 459 and relevance in biological control. - Curr. Sci. 70: 215-218.
  6. Bragdon J.H. 1951: Colorimetric determination of blood lipids. - J. Biol. Chem. 190: 513-517.
  7. CICR - Central Institute for Cotton Research 2011: http://www.cicr.org.in/ accessed 30 November 2011.
  8. Claver M.A. & Ambrose D.P. 2003: Influence of hunger level and prey density on searching behaviour of the reduviid predator Rhynocoris marginatus (Fabricius) (Heteroptera, Reduviidae). - J. Appl. Entomol. 127: 42-45. Go to original source...
  9. Cohen A.C. 1990: Feeding adaptation of some predaceous Heteroptera. - Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 83: 1215-1223. Go to original source...
  10. David B.V. & Ananthakrishnan T.N. 2004: General and Applied Entomology. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 260 pp.
  11. Easwaramoorthy S., David H., Kurup N.K. & Santhanalakshmi G. 1994: Studies on the spider fauna of sugarcane ecosystem in southern Peninsular. - Indian J. Biol. Contr. 8: 85-93.
  12. Evans D.E. 1962: The food requirements of Phonoctonus nigrofacialis Stal (Hemiptera). - Entomol. Exp. Appl. 5: 33-39. Go to original source...
  13. Geiger G.J., Krolak J.M. & Mills R.R. 1977: Possible involvement of cockroach haemocytes in the storage and synthesis of cuticle proteins. - J. Insect Physiol. 23: 227-230. Go to original source...
  14. Grundy P. & Maelzer D. 2000. Predation by the assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Walker) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentadomidae) in the laboratory. - Aust. J. Entomol. 39: 280-282. Go to original source...
  15. Gupta A.P. 1985: Hemocytes. In Kerkut G.A & Gilbert L.I. (eds): Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology. Vol. 3. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 453-485.
  16. Haridass E.T., Morrison M.N. & Balu A. 1988: Predatory behaviour of Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) (Harpactorinae: Reduviidae: Heteroptera: Insecta). - Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (Anim. Sci.) 97: 41-48. Go to original source...
  17. Hashimoto K. & Hayashi F. 2014: Cantharidin world in nature: a concealed arthropod assemblage with interactions via the terpenoid cantharidin. - Entomol. Sci. 17: 388-395. Go to original source...
  18. Hazarika L.K. & Gupta A.P. 1987: Variation in haemocyte populations during various developmental stages of Blatella germanica. - Zool. Sci. 4: 307-313.
  19. Jones J.C. 1962: Current concepts concerning insect haemocytes. - Am. Zool. 2: 209-246. Go to original source...
  20. Kumaraswami N.S. 1991: Bioecology and Ethology of Chosen Predatory Bugs and their Potential in Biological Control. Ph.D. Thesis, Madurai Kamaraj University, 181 pp.
  21. Lamdin J.M., Howell D.E., Kocan K.M., Murphey D.R., Amold D.C., Fenton A.W., Odell G.V. & Ownby C.L. 2000: The venomous hair structure, venom and life cycle of Lagoa crispata, a puss caterpillar of Oklahoma. - Toxicon 38: 1163-1189. Go to original source...
  22. Lavine M.D. & Strand M.R. 2002: Insect hemocytes and their role in immunity. - Insect Biochem. Mol. 32: 1295-1309. Go to original source...
  23. Lowry O.H., Rosebrough N.J., Farra L. & Randell R.J. 1951: Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. - J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265-275.
  24. McMahan E.A. 1983: Adaptations, feeding preferences, and biometrics of a termite-baiting assassin bug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). - Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 76: 483-486. Go to original source...
  25. Moayeri H.R.S., Ashouri A., Poll L. & Enkegaard A. 2007: Olfactory response of a predatory mirid to herbivore induced plant volatiles: multiple herbivory vs. single herbivory. - J. Appl. Entomol. 131: 326-332. Go to original source...
  26. O'Neill K.M., Blodgett S., Olson B.E. & Miller R.S. 2008: Impact of livestock grazing on abundance of Miridae and Reduviidae (Hemiptera) incrested wheatgrass pastures. - J. Econ. Entomol. 101: 309-313. Go to original source...
  27. Palanivelu P. 2001: Analytical Biochemistry and Separation Techniques. Palkalai Nagar, Madurai, pp. 60-62.
  28. Patton R.L. 1983: Introductory Insect Physiology. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 245 pp.
  29. Phoofolo M.W., Obrycki J.J. & Krafsur E.S. 1995: Temperature dependent ovarian development in Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). - Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 88: 72-79. Go to original source...
  30. Rocha L. & Redaelli L.R. 2004: Functional response of Cosmoclopius nigroannulatus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to different densities of Spatocera dentiventris (Hemiptera: Coreidae) nymphaea. - Braz. J. Biol. 64: 309-316. Go to original source...
  31. Sadasivam S. & Manickam A. 1997: Biochemical Methods. 2nd ed. New Age International, New Delhi, 257 pp.
  32. Sahayaraj K. 1991: Bioecology, Ecophysiology and Ethology of Chosen Predatory Hemipterans and their Potential in Biological Control (Insecta: Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Ph.D. Thesis, Madurai Kamaraj University, 303 pp.
  33. Sahayaraj K. 1995: Bioefficacy and prey size suitability of Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) to Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) of groundnut (Insecta: Heteroptera: Reduviidae). - Fresen. Environ. Bull. 4: 270-278.
  34. Sahayaraj K. 1999: Effect of prey and their age on the feeding preference of Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.). - Int. Arachis Newsl. 19: 39-41.
  35. Sahayaraj K. 2000: Evaluation of biological control potential evaluation of Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) on four groundnut pests under laboratory condition. - Int. Arachis Newsl. 20: 72-74.
  36. Sahayaraj K. 2002: Small scale laboratory rearing of a reduviid predator, Rhynocoris marginatus Fab. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) on Corcyra cephalonica Stainton larvae by larval card method. - J. Centr. Eur. Agric. 3: 137-147.
  37. Sahayaraj K. 2006: Ecological adaptive features of hunter reduviids (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Reduviinae) and their biological control. In Guptha V.K. & Verma A.K. (eds): Perspective in Animal Ecology and Reproduction. Vol. 3. Daya Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 22-49.
  38. Sahayaraj K. 2007: Pest Control Mechanism of Reduviids. ABD Publisher, Narayan Niwas, Jaipur, 204 pp.
  39. Sahayaraj K. 2008: Approaching and rostrum protrusion behaviours of Rhynocoris marginatus on three prey chemical cues. - Bull. Insectol. 61: 233-237.
  40. Sahayaraj K. 2014: Reduviids and their merits in biological control. In Sahayaraj K. (ed.): Basic and Applied Aspects of Biopesticides. Springer, India, pp. 195-214.
  41. Sahayaraj K. & Ambrose D.P. 1992: Biology and predatory potential of Endochus umbrinus Reuter (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) from South India. - Bull. Entomol. 33: 42-55.
  42. Sahayaraj K. & Ambrose D.P. 1993: Biology and predatory potential of Coranus nodulosus Ambrose & Sahayaraj on Dysdercus cingulatus Fab. and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). - Hexapoda 5: 16-22.
  43. Sahayaraj K. & Ambrose D.P. 1994: Stage and host preference of the predator Acanthaspis pedestris Stal to four cotton pests. - J. Biol. Contr. 8: 23-26.
  44. Sahayaraj K. & Delma J.C.R. 2004: Chemically mediated behaviour of the predator Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) searching insect prey. - Belg. J. Entomol. 6: 75-81.
  45. Sahayaraj K. & Martin P. 2003: Assessment of Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as augmented control in groundnut pests. - J. Centr. Eur. Agric. 4: 103-110.
  46. Sahayaraj K. & Paulraj M.G. 2001: Behaviour of Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to chemical cues from three lepidopteran pests. - J. Biol. Contr. 15: 1-4.
  47. Sahayaraj K. & Ravi C. 2007: Evaluation of reduviid predators and plant products against chosen groundnut pests. - Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Prot. 40: 281-290. Go to original source...
  48. Sahayaraj K. & Sathiamoorthi P. 2002: Influence of different diets of Corcyra cephalonica on life history of a reduviid predator Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.). - J. Centr. Eur. Agric. 3: 53-62.
  49. Sahayaraj K., Delma J.C.R. & Martin P. 2003: Biological control potential of aphidophagous reduviid predator Rhynocoris marginatus. - Int. Arachis Newsl. 23: 29-30.
  50. Sahayaraj K., Thangarani S. & Delma J.C.R. 2004: Comparative prey suitability of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae for Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). - Belg. J. Entomol. 6: 383-392.
  51. Singh P.B. & Paul A.V.N. 2002: Kairomonal effect of some saturated hydrocarbons and other chemicals on the larvae of Chrysoperla carnea in a multi-armed olfactometer. - Ind. J. Entomol. 64: 518-523.
  52. SPSS 2004: SPSS 13.0 for Windows. SPSS Inc, Chicago.
  53. Sujatha S., Vidya L.S. & Sumi G.S. 2012: Prey-predator interaction and info-chemical behavior of Rhynocoris fuscipes (Fab.) on three agricultural pests (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). - J. Entomol. 9: 130-136. Go to original source...
  54. Tebayashi S., Kawahara T., Kim C.S., Nishi A., Takashi K., Miyanoshita A. & Horiike M. 2003: Feeding stimulants eliciting the probing behavior for Peregrinator biannulipes Montrouzier et Signore (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val). - Z. Naturforsch. 58: 295-299. Go to original source...
  55. Wheeler R.E. 1963: Studies on the total haemocyte count and haemolymph volume in Periplaneta americana with special reference to last moulting cycle. - J. Insect Physiol. 9: 223-235. Go to original source...