Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (3): 510-519, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.049

Measuring saproxylic beetle diversity in small and medium diameter dead wood: The "grab-and-go" method

Anna L.M. MACAGNO1,2, Sönke HARDERSEN1, Gianluca NARDI1, Giuseppe LO GIUDICE1,2, Franco MASON1
1 CNBFVR - Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversità Forestale "Bosco Fontana" di Verona, Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Strada Mantova 29, 46045 Marmirolo (MN), Italy; e-mails: anna.macagno@gmail.com; s.hardersen@gmail.com; l_nardi@hotmail.com; fmason@tin.it
2 Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie "Charles Darwin", Sapienza Università di Roma, Via Borelli 50, 00161 Roma, Italy; e-mail: giuseppelogiudice78@gmail.com

Saproxylic organisms play a key role in a variety of forest ecosystem functions, which result in an increase in overall forest productivity and biodiversity. At present, dead wood is frequently removed from exploited forests. Estimating the effect of current forest management on biodiversity, and what gain in biodiversity would result from implementing restoration programs, requires the use of standardized sampling protocols. These protocols need to be suitable for use in different sampling areas and cost effective. In this paper, we developed, tested, and optimized a method for sampling saproxylic insects during a single visit to a sample site (i.e., the "grab-and-go" method). In the spring of 2011, we collected samples of downed decaying small and medium diameter wood debris in two Italian beech forests: Sega di Ala (Alps) and Vallombrosa (Apennines). We used ex situ emergence traps in the laboratory to collect the beetles emerging from the wood sampled. At both sites, the minimum number of wood samples that resulted in a satisfactory description of the saproxylic beetle assemblage was 20. Wood moisture, mean diameter, and geographical location were significantly associated with the beetle assemblages. We discuss the implications of using the "grab-and-go" method in large-scale forest monitoring programs. In this context, we recommend collecting at each site twenty 50 cm-long samples of wood lying on top of the litter, with a diameter of 12 ± 2 cm, cortex cover < 50%, and at Hunter's stage of decay class 2.

Keywords: Coleoptera, saproxylic beetles, Alps, Apennines, biodiversity, emergence trap, Fagus sylvatica, "grab-and-go" method

Received: July 21, 2014; Accepted: February 6, 2015; Prepublished online: March 9, 2015; Published: July 15, 2015

Download citation

References

  1. Alexander K.N.A. 2002: The Invertebrates of Living and Decaying Timber in Britain & Ireland. A Provisional Annotated Checklist. Engl. Nat. Res. Rep. No. 467. English Nature, Peterborough, 142 pp.
  2. Alexander K.N.A. 2004: Revision of the index of ecological continuity as used for saproxylic beetles. Engl. Nat. Res. Rep. No. 574. English Nature, Peterborough, 61 pp.
  3. Alinvi O., Ball J.P., Danell K., Hjältén J. & Pettersson R.B. 2007: Sampling saproxylic beetle assemblages in dead wood logs: comparing window and eclector traps to traditional bark sieving and a refinement. - J. Insect Conserv. 11: 99-112. Go to original source...
  4. Anderson M.J. 2001: A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. - Austral. Ecol. 26: 32-46.
  5. Audisio P., Baviera C., Carpaneto G.M., Biscaccianti A.B., Battistoni A., Teofili C. & Rondinini C. (eds) 2014: Lista Rossa IUCN dei Coleotteri Saproxilici Italiani. Comitato Italiano IUCN e Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare, Roma, 134 pp.
  6. Bouget C., Brustel H. & Zagatti P. 2008: The French Information System on Saproxylic Beetle Ecology (FRISBEE): an ecological and taxonomical database to help with the assessment of forest conservation status. - Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 63: 25-28.
  7. Brin A., Bouget C., Brustel H. & Jactel H. 2011: Diameter of downed woody debris does matter for saproxylic beetle assemblages in temperate oak and pine forests. - J. Insect Conserv. 15: 653-669. Go to original source...
  8. Brunet J. & Isacsson G. 2009a: Restoration of beech forest for saproxylic beetles - effects of habitat fragmentation and substrate density on species diversity and distribution. - Biodiv. Conserv. 18: 2387-2404. Go to original source...
  9. Brunet J. & Isacsson G. 2009b: Influence of snag characteristics on saproxylic beetle assemblages in a south Swedish beech forest. - J. Insect Conserv. 13: 515-528. Go to original source...
  10. Brunet J. & Isacsson G. 2010: A comparison of the saproxylic beetle fauna between lowland and upland beech forests in southern Sweden. - Ecol. Bull. 53: 131-139.
  11. Buse J. 2012: "Ghosts of the past": flightless saproxylic weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are relict species in ancient woodlands. - J. Insect Conserv. 16: 93-102. Go to original source...
  12. Bussler H., Müller J. & Dorka V. 2005: European natural heritage: the saproxylic beetles in the proposed Parcul National Defileul Jiului. - Anale ICAS 48: 3-19.
  13. Carpaneto G. 2006: Aspetti faunistici. In Minelli A. (ed.): Le Faggete Appenniniche. Avanguardie e Relitti di Foresta Continentale. Quaderni Habitat n. 15. Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare and Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale, Udine, pp. 71-126.
  14. Cavalli R. & Mason F. (eds) 2003: Techniques for Re-establishment of Dead Wood for Saproxylic Fauna Conservation. LIFE Nature Project NAT/IT/99/6245 Bosco della Fontana (Mantova, Italy). G. Arcari, Mantova, 56 pp.
  15. Cecchi B. & Bartolozzi L. 1997: I coleotteri xilofagi e subcorticicoli del Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna (Insecta: Coleoptera). - Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 29: 119-139.
  16. Cerretti P., Tagliapietra A., Tisato M., Vanin S., Mason F. & Zapparoli M. (eds) 2003: Artropodi dell'Orizzonte del Faggio nell'Appennino Settentrionale, Primo Contributo. Conservazione Habitat Invertebrati 2. G. Arcari, Mantova, 253 pp.
  17. Clarke K.R., Somerfield P.J. & Chapman M.G. 2006: On resemblance measures for ecological studies, including taxonomic dissimilarities and a zero-adjusted Bray-Curtis coefficient for denuded assemblages. - J. Exp. Mar. Biol. 330: 55-80. Go to original source...
  18. Colwell R.K. 2006: EstimateS: Statistical Estimation of Species Richness and Shared Species from Samples. Version 8.0.0. http://purl.oclc.org/estimates. Accessed 12 January 2012.
  19. C.R.A., F.E.M. & C.F.S. 2008: Inventario Nazionale delle Foreste e dei Serbatoi Forestali di Carbonio INFC. Manuale di Campagna per il Rilievo degli Attributi Integrativi (Fase 3+). Ministero delle Politiche Agricole, Alimentari e Forestali, Roma, 114 pp.
  20. Dahlberg A. & Stokland J. 2004: Vedlevande arters krav på substrat - en sammanställning och analys av 3600 arter. [Substrate Requirements of Wood-inhabiting Species - a Synthesisand Analysis of 3600 Species.] Skogsstyrelsen, Jönköping, 70 pp. [in Swedish, English abstr.].
  21. Davies Z.G., Tyler C., Stewart G.B. & Pullin A.S. 2008: Are current management recommendations for conserving saproxylic invertebrates effective? - Biodiv. Conserv. 17: 209-234. Go to original source...
  22. Derksen W. 1941: Die Succession der pterygoten Insekten im abgestorbenen Buchenholz. - Z. Morphol. Oekol. Geogr. Tiere 37: 683-734. Go to original source...
  23. DeWalt S.J., Maliakala S.K. & Denslow J.S. 2003: Changes in vegetation structure and composition along a tropical forest chronosequence: implications for wildlife. - Forest Ecol. Manag. 182: 139-151. Go to original source...
  24. Fayt P., Dufrêne M., Branquart E., Hastir P., Pontégnie C., Henin J.M. & Versteirt V. 2006: Contrasting responses of saproxylic insects to focal habitat resources: the example of longhorn beetles and hoverflies in belgian deciduous forests. - J. Insect Conserv. 10: 129-150. Go to original source...
  25. Gedminas A., Lynikiene J. & Zeniauskas R. 2007: Cambio-xylofauna abundance and species diversity of cutting residues in Scots pine and Norway spruce clear-cuts in Lithuania. - Biomass Bioenergy 31: 733-738. Go to original source...
  26. Gibb H., Hjältén J., Ball J.P., Atlegrim O., Pettersson R.B., Hilszczanski J., Johansson T. & Danell K. 2006: Effects of landscape composition and substrate availability on saproxylic beetles in boreal forests: a study using experimental logs to monitor assemblages. - Ecography 21: 191-204. Go to original source...
  27. Gotelli N.J. & Colwell R.K. 2001: Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. - Ecol. Lett. 4: 379-391. Go to original source...
  28. Grove S.J. 2002: Saproxylic insect ecology and the sustainable management of forests. - Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33: 1-23. Go to original source...
  29. Hammond H.E.J., Langor D.W. & Spence J.R. 2004: Saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) using Populus in boreal aspen stands of western Canada: spatiotemporal variation and conservation of assemblages. - Can. J. Forest Res. 34: 1-19. Go to original source...
  30. Hanks L.M., Paine T.D., Millar J.G., Campbell C.D. & Schuch U.K. 1999: Water relations of host tree and resistance to the phloem-boring beetle Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). - Oecologia 119: 400-407. Go to original source...
  31. Hardersen S., Toni I., Cornacchia P., Curletti G., Leo P., Nardi G., Penati F., Piattella E. & Platia G. 2012: Survey of selected beetle families in a floodplain remnant in northern Italy. - Bull. Insectol. 65: 199-205.
  32. Harz B. & Topp W. 1999: Dead wood in commercial forest: a source of danger for the outbreak of pest species? - Forstwiss. Zentralbl. 118: 302-313. Go to original source...
  33. Hövemeyer K. & Schauermann J. 2003: Succession of Diptera on dead beech wood: A 10-year study. - Pedobiologia 47: 61-75. Go to original source...
  34. Hunter M.L. 1990: Wildlife, Forests and Forestry. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 370 pp.
  35. Jonsell M. 2008: Saproxylic beetle species in logging residues: which are they and which residues do they use? - Norw. J. Entomol. 55: 109-122.
  36. Jonsell M., Hansson J. & Wedmon L. 2007: Diversity of saproxylic beetle species in logging residues in Sweden - comparisons between tree species and diameters. - Biol. Conserv. 138: 89-99. Go to original source...
  37. Jonsson B.G., Kruys N. & Ranius T. 2005: Ecology of species living on dead wood - lessons for dead wood management. - Silva Fenn. 39: 289-309. Go to original source...
  38. Kappes H. & Topp W. 2004: Coleoptera from dead wood in a managed broadleaved forest in Central Europe. - Biodiv. Conserv. 13: 1905-1924. Go to original source...
  39. Krell F.T. 2004: Parataxonomy vs. taxonomy in biodiversity studies - pitfalls and applicability of 'morphospecies' sorting. - Biodiv. Conserv. 13: 795-812. Go to original source...
  40. Lassauce A., Paillet Y., Jactel H. & Bouget C. 2011: Dead wood as a surrogate for forest biodiversity: Meta-analysis of correlations between dead wood volume and species richness of saproxylic organisms. - Ecol. Indic. 11: 1027-1039. Go to original source...
  41. Lassauce A., Lieutier F. & Bouget C. 2012: Woodfuel harvesting and biodiversity conservation in temperate forests: Effects of logging residue characteristics on saproxylic beetle assemblages. - Biol. Conserv. 147: 204-212. Go to original source...
  42. Löbl I. & Smetana A. (eds) 2004: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 2. Hydrophiloidea - Histeroidea - Staphylinoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 942 pp.
  43. Löbl I. & Smetana A. (eds) 2006: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 3. Scarabaeoidea, Scirtoidea, Dascilloidea, Buprestoidea, Byrrhoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 690 pp.
  44. Löbl I. & Smetana A. (eds) 2007: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 4. Elateroidea, Derodontoidea, Bostrichoidea, Lymexyloidea, Cleroidea, Cucujoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 935 pp.
  45. Löbl I. & Smetana A. (eds) 2008: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 5. Tenebrionoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 670 pp.
  46. Löbl I. & Smetana A. (eds) 2010: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 6. Chrysomeloidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 924 pp.
  47. Löbl I. & Smetana A. (eds) 2011: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 7. Curculionoidea I. Apollo Books, Stenstrup 373 pp.
  48. Löbl I. & Smetana A. (eds) 2012: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 8. Curculionoidea II. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 700 pp.
  49. Maleque M.A., Maeto K. & Ishii H.T. 2009: Arthropods as bioindicators of sustainable forest management, with a focus on plantation forests. - Appl. Entomol. Zool. 44: 1-11. Go to original source...
  50. Minelli A., Chemini C., Argano R. & Ruffo S. 2002: La Fauna in Italia. Touring, Milano and Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio, Roma, 448 pp.
  51. Nieto A. & Alexander K.N.A. 2010: European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 56 pp.
  52. Nilsson S.G. & Baranowski R. 1997: Habitat predictability and the occurrence of wood beetles in old-growth beech forests. - Ecography 20: 491-498. Go to original source...
  53. Økland B. 1996: A comparison of three methods of trapping saproxylic beetles. - Eur. J. Entomol. 93: 195-209.
  54. Oksanen J., Blanchet F.G., Kindt R., Legendre P., Minchin P.R., O'Hara R.B., Simpson G.L., Solymos P., Stevens M.H.H. & Wagner H. 2010: vegan: Community Ecology Package. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/vegan/index.html. Accessed 12 January 2012.
  55. Ols C., Victorsson J. & Jonsell M. 2013: Saproxylic insect fauna in stumps on wet and dry soil: implications for stump harvest. - Forest Ecol. Manag. 290: 15-21. Go to original source...
  56. Ranius T. & Fahrig L. 2006: Targets for maintenance of dead wood for biodiversity conservation based on extinction thresholds. - Scand. J. Forest Res. 21: 201-208. Go to original source...
  57. Ranius T. & Jansson N. 2000: The influence of forest regrowth, original canopy cover and tree size on saproxylic beetles associated with old oaks. - Biol. Conserv. 95: 85-94. Go to original source...
  58. Schiegg K. 2001: Saproxylic insect diversity of beech: limbs are richer than trunks. - Forest Ecol. Manag. 149: 295-304. Go to original source...
  59. Similä M., Kouki J., Mönkkönen M., Sippola A.-L. & Huhta E. 2006: Co-variation and indicators of species diversity: Canrichness of forest-dwelling species be predicted in northern boreal forests? - Ecol. Indic. 6: 686-700. Go to original source...
  60. Sobek S., Steffan-Dewenter I., Scherber C. & Tscharntke T. 2009: Spatiotemporal changes of beetle communities across a tree diversity gradient. - Divers. Distrib. 15: 660-670. Go to original source...
  61. Speight M.C.D. 1989: Saproxylic Invertebrates and their Conservation. Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 78 pp.
  62. Stokland J.N. & Siitonen J. 2012: Biodiversity in Dead Wood. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 524 pp.
  63. Tropek R., Cerna I., Straka J., Cizek O. & Konvièka M. 2013: Is coal combustion the last chance for vanishing insects of inland drift sand dunes in Europe? - Biol. Conserv. 162: 60-64. Go to original source...
  64. Ueda M. & Shibata E. 2007: Host selection of small cedar longicorn beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), on Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, in terms of bark water content of host trees. - J. Forest Res. 12: 320-324. Go to original source...
  65. UNI ISO 3130: 1985: Wood. Determination of Moisture Content for Physical and Mechanical Tests. http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=8288
  66. Wikars L.O., Sahlin E. & Ranius T. 2005: A comparison of three methods to estimate species richness of saproxylic beetles in logs and high stumps of Norway spruce. - Can. Entomol. 137: 304-324. Go to original source...