Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (2): 344-361, 2015 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.037

Larval morphology and phylogenetic position of Drusus balcanicus, D. botosaneanui, D. serbicus and D. tenellus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae: Drusinae)

Johann WARINGER1, Wolfram GRAF2, Miklós BÁLINT3, Mladen KUČINIĆ4, Steffen U. PAULS3, Ana PREVIŠIĆ4, Lujza KERESZTES5, Halil IBRAHIMI6, Ivana ŽIVIĆ7, Katarina BJELANOVIĆ7, Vladimir KRPAČ8, Simon VITECEK1
1 Department of Limnology and Oceanography, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria; e-mails:;
2 Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecology Management, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria; e-mail:
3 Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (LOEWE BiK-F), Frankfurt a. M., Germany; e-mails:;
4 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia; e-mails:;
5 Hungarian Department of Biology and Ecology, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; e-mail:
6 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina, Mother Theresa p. n., 10000 Prishtina, Kosovo; e-mail:
7 Department of Zoology,University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia; e-mails:;
8 National Institution Macedonian Museum of Natural History, Boulevard Ilinden 86, MK-91000 Skopje, Macedonia; e-mail:

In a recent 3-gene phylogeny of the trichopteran subfamily Drusinae Banks 1916, molecular data clearly correlated with the morphology and feeding ecology of larvae. The largest of three main groups, the Drusinae grazer clade, exhibits an unusual larval feeding ecology for Limnephilidae, and is the most diverse group. In this paper we describe four previously unknown Drusinae larvae included in this clade: Drusus balcanicus Kumanski, 1973 (micro-endemic to Eastern Balkans), Drusus botosaneanui Kumanski, 1968 (Dinaric Western Balkans, Hellenic and Eastern Balkan, Asia Minor), Drusus serbicus Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1971 (micro-endemic to Dinaric Western Balkans), and Drusus tenellus (Klapálek, 1898) (Carpathians, Dinaric Eastern Balkans). Characteristically, the larvae of these species have toothless mandibles typical of the Drusinae grazer clade. Larvae and adults were unambiguously associated using a phylogenetic analysis based on two mitochondrial [mtCOI, mtLSU (=16S) rDNA] and two nuclear genes (nuWG, nuCAD). In addition, information on the morphology of the larvae is given and the diagnostic features necessary for identification are illustrated.

Keywords: Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae, Drusus balcanicus, Drusus botosaneanui, Drusus serbicus, Drusus tenellus, 5th instar larvae, phylogeny, description, identification, distribution

Received: October 14, 2014; Accepted: November 27, 2014; Revised: November 27, 2014; Prepublished online: February 9, 2015; Published: April 2, 2015Show citation

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WARINGER, J., GRAF, W., BÁLINT, M., KUČINIĆ, M., PAULS, S.U., PREVIŠIĆ, A., ... VITECEK, S. (2015). Larval morphology and phylogenetic position of Drusus balcanicus, D. botosaneanui, D. serbicus and D. tenellus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae: Drusinae). Eur. J. Entomol.112(2), 344-361. doi: 10.14411/eje.2015.037.
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