Eur. J. Entomol. 112 (1): 75-90, 2015 | 10.14411/eje.2015.021

Feeding and oviposition behaviour of a gall inducing species of Glycaspis (Synglycaspis) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Aphalaridae) and development of galls on the leaves of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha (Myrtaceae) in central western New South Wales, Australia

Anamika SHARMA1, Anantanarayanan RAMAN1,2,*, Gary S. TAYLOR3, Murray J. FLETCHER1,2,4, Helen I. NICOL1
1 Charles Sturt University, PO Box 883, Orange, NSW 2800, Australia; e-mails: araman@csu.edu.au; asharma@csu.edu.au; murvic@aanet.com.au; helen.i.nicol@gmail.com
2 Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Locked Bag 588, Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
3 Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology & Biodiversity and the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia; e-mail: gary.taylor@adelaide.edu.au
4 Orange Agricultural Institute, Forest Road, Orange, NSW 2800, Australia

Glycaspis (Synglycaspis) confined to Australia includes gall-inducing and lerp-forming species that are probably highly specific to different species of Eucalyptus subgenus Eucalyptus. Based on available information, their distribution appears restricted to temperate, south-eastern and southern Australia. This paper reports the biology of an unnamed (suspected new species) of Glycaspis (Synglycaspis) that induces spherical, ostiolate galls on the leaves of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in central western tablelands of NSW. This species completes two generations in a year. Oviposition elicits a passive response in the leaves of E. macrorhyncha. In this work we demonstrate that the host tissue not only supplies water, but also nutrients to the developing embryo via the embedded pedicel. Feeding action of the first instar initiates the gall and morphogenetic gradients become apparent around the feeding site. These gradients direct gall growth. The gall attains its near final spherical shape during the second instar and this spherical gall remains plugged with sugary material, which all the immature stages secrete from the last abdominal segment. No significant gall growth occurs during the occupation of the gall by the third, fourth and fifth instars. The first and second instars feed on the newly differentiated parenchyma tissue in galls, whereas the third, fourth and fifth instars feed on phloem of galls. Consequently the multi-layer parenchymatous nutritive tissue that initially develops lining the chamber dries and shrivels, when the later instars inhabit galls. This shrinkage induces a gradual thinning of gall walls, which is also aggravated by modest expansive growth of the gall.

Keywords: Hemiptera, Psylloidea, Aphalaridae, Glycaspis (Synglycaspis), Eucalyptus, galls, cecidogenesis, host-specificity, nutritive cells, oviposition

Received: May 7, 2014; Accepted: October 14, 2014; Prepublished online: December 1, 2014; Published: January 25, 2015

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