Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 363-369, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.046

Stage specific consumption and utilization of aphids, conspecific and heterospecific eggs by two species of Coccinella (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Bhupendra KUMAR, Mahadev BISTA, Geetanjali MISHRA, OMKAR*
Centre of Excellence in Biocontrol of Insect Pests, Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007, India; e-mails: omkaar55@hotmail.com; bistamahadev@yahoo.com; geetanjalimishra@hotmail.com

The nutritive quality of aphids, conspecific and heterospecific eggs as food for ladybirds is a controversial issue. If ladybirds find aphids more palatable than eggs then they are more likely to efficiently exploit and be biocontrol agents of aphids. If eggs of conspecific or heterospecific ladybirds are more palatable than aphids these biocontrol agents may either impede aphid pest suppression or become a threat to other species of ladybirds. Thus, prior to formulating predatory guilds of ladybirds the nutritive quality of their eggs compared to that of the target aphid needs to be determined. In this regards, the present study evaluates the nutritive quality of an ad libitum supply of: (i) pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), (ii) conspecific eggs and (iii) heterospecific eggs as food for Coccinella septempunctata (L.) and Coccinella transversalis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), by determining the stage specific predation and developmental attributes of these two ladybirds reared on these diets. The conversion efficiencies and growth rates of young (first, second and third) larvae of both species of ladybirds were higher than those of fourth instar larvae and the consumption rates of fourth instar were higher than those of young larvae when fed on the three diets. When fed aphids the pre-imaginal development was faster, the consumption rates, conversion efficiencies and growth rates higher, adults bigger and mortality lower than when fed on conspecific eggs. The larvae of C. septempunctata consumed and completed their development when fed eggs of C. transversalis but the first instar larvae of C. transversalis did not consume the eggs of C. septempunctata and died of starvation. The dominance of C. septempunctata over C. transversalis in agricultural fields may be due to it consuming and utilizing aphids more efficiently and as a consequence growing faster and suffering a lower mortality along with its ability to consume and complete its development on eggs of C. transversalis. Thus, both these predators may not continue to coexist as predators of the pea aphid in agricultural fields since C. septempunctata may become a greater threat to C. transversalis in the future.

Keywords: Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Coccinella septempunctata, C. transversalis, conspecific, heterospecific, conversion efficiency, eggs, aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, consumption rate, growth rate, developmental duration

Received: November 25, 2013; Accepted: February 12, 2014; Prepublished online: May 6, 2014; Published: July 14, 2014

Download citation

References

  1. Agarwala B.K. 1991: Why ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) cannibalise? - J. BioSci. 16: 103-109 Go to original source...
  2. Agarwala B.K. & Dixon A.F.G. 1992: Laboratory study of cannibalism and interspecific predation in ladybirds. - Ecol. Entomol. 17: 303-309 Go to original source...
  3. Agarwala B.K. & Dixon A.F.G. 1993: Why do ladybirds lay eggs in clusters? - Funct. Ecol. 7: 541-548 Go to original source...
  4. Ahlawat D.S., Singh H., Singh D. & Rohilla H.R. 2008: Predatory potential of ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L. on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). - J. Oilseeds Res. 25: 62-63
  5. Brown P.M.J., Frost R., Doberski J., Sparks T., Harrington R. & Roy H.E. 2011: Decline in native ladybirds in response to the arrival of Harmonia axyridis: early evidence from England. - Ecol. Entomol. 36: 231-240 Go to original source...
  6. Cottrell T.E. 2007: Predation by adult and larval lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on initial contact with lady beetle eggs. - Environ. Entomol. 36: 390-401 Go to original source...
  7. De Clercq P., Bonte M., van Speybroeck K., Bolckmans K. & Deforce K. 2005: Development and reproduction of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) and pollen. - Pest Manag. Sci. 61: 1129-1132 Go to original source...
  8. Dixon A.F.G. 2000: Insect Predator-Prey Dynamics: Ladybird Beetles and Biological Control. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 257 pp
  9. Dong Q. & Polis G.A. 1992: The dynamics of cannibalistic populations: a foraging perspective. In Elgar M.A. & Crespi B.J. (eds): Cannibalism Ecology and Evolution among Diverse Taxa. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 13-37
  10. Elliot N., Kieckhefer R. & Kauffman W. 1996: Effects of an invading coccinellid on native coccinellids in an agricultural landscape. - Oecologia 105: 537-544 Go to original source...
  11. Eubanks M.D. & Denno R.F. 2000: Health food versus fast food: the effects of prey quality and mobility on prey selection by a generalist predator and indirect interactions among prey species. - Ecol. Entomol. 25: 140-146 Go to original source...
  12. Evans E.W. 2008: Multitrophic interactions among plants, aphids, alternate prey and shared natural enemies - a review. - Eur. J. Entomol. 105: 369-380 Go to original source...
  13. Evans E.W. 2009: Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera. - Biol. Control. 51: 255-267 Go to original source...
  14. Evans E.W. & Guhther D.I. 2005: The link between food and reproduction in aphidophagous predators: a case study with Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). - Eur. J. Entomol. 102: 423-430 Go to original source...
  15. Felix S. & Soares A.O. 2004: Intraguild predation between the aphidophagous ladybird beetles, Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae); the role of body weight. - Eur. J. Entomol. 101: 237-242 Go to original source...
  16. Ferran A. & Larroque M.M. 1977: Etude des relations hote-predateur: la consommation et l'utilisation d'un puceron, Myzus persicae Sulz. par les differents stades larvaires de la coccinelle Semiadalia undecimnotata Schn. en serre. - Agronomie 4: 357-376
  17. Finlayson C.J., Alyokhin A.V., Gross S. & Porter E.W. 2010: Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species. - Insect Sci. 10: 31. doi: 10.1673/ 031.010.3101 Go to original source...
  18. Gagne I., Coderre D. & Mauffette Y. 2002: Egg cannibalism by Coleomegilla maculata lengi neonates: preference even in the presence of essential prey. - Ecol. Entomol. 27: 285-291 Go to original source...
  19. Gupta A.K., Srivastava S., Mishra G., Singh K. & Omkar 2006: Survival, development and life tables of two congeneric ladybirds in aphidophagous guilds. - Insect Sci. 13: 119-126 Go to original source...
  20. Hemptinne J.L., Gaudin M., Dixon A.F.G. & Lognay J. 2000a: Social feeding in ladybird beetles: adaptive significance and mechanism. - Chemoecology 10: 149-152 Go to original source...
  21. Hemptinne J.L., Lognay G., Gauthier C. & Dixon A.F.G. 2000b: Role of surface chemical signals in egg cannibalism and intraguild predation in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). - Chemoecology 10: 123-128 Go to original source...
  22. Hemptinne J.L., Magro A., Saladin C. & Dixon A.F.G. 2011: Role of intraguild predation in aphidophagous guilds. - J. Appl. Entomol. 13: 161-170
  23. Hodek I. & Michaud J.P. 2008: Why is Coccinella septempunctata so successful? - Eur. J. Entomol. 105: 1-12 Go to original source...
  24. Hodek I., van Emden H.F. & Honek A. 2012: Ecology and Behavior of the Ladybird Beetles (Coccinellidae). Blackwell, Chichester, 600 pp
  25. Isikber A.A. & Copland M.J.W. 2001: Food consumption and utilization by larvae of two coccinellid predators, Scymnus levaillanti and Cycloneda sanguinea, on cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. - BioControl 46: 455-467 Go to original source...
  26. Jalali M.A., Tirry L. & De Clercq P. 2009: Food consumption and immature growth of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on a natural prey and a factitious food. - Eur. J. Entomol. 106: 193-198 Go to original source...
  27. Kajita Y., Obrycki J.J., Sloggett J.J. & Haynes K.F. 2010: Intraspecific alkaloid variation in ladybird eggs and its effects on con- and heterospecific intraguild predators. - Oecologia 163: 313-322 Go to original source...
  28. Koide T. 1962: Observations on the feeding habit of the larva of Coccinella septempunctata bruckii Mulsant. The feeding behaviour and number of prey fed under different temperatures. - Kontyu 30: 236-241
  29. Lucas E. 2005: Intraguild predation among aphidophagous predators. - Eur. J. Entomol. 102: 351-364 Go to original source...
  30. Lucas E., Demougeot S., Vincent C. & Coderre D. 2004: Predation upon the oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by two aphidophagous coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the presence and absence of aphids. - Eur. J. Entomol. 101: 37-41 Go to original source...
  31. Michaud J.P. & Grant A.K. 2004: Adaptive significance of sibling egg cannibalism in coccinellidae: comparative evidence from three species. - Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 97: 710-719 Go to original source...
  32. Michaud J.P. & Jyoti J.L. 2008: Dietary complementation across life stages in the polyphagous lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata. - Entomol. Exp. Appl. 126: 40-45
  33. Mishra G., Omkar, Kumar B. & Pandey G. 2012: Stage and age specific predation in four aphidophagous ladybird beetles. - Biocontr. Sci. Technol. 22: 463-476 Go to original source...
  34. Noble R.R.P., Harvey S.G. & Sams C.E. 2002: Toxicity of Indian mustard and allyl isothiocyanate to masked chafer beetle larvae. - Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2002-0610-01-RS Go to original source...
  35. Obatake H. & Suzuki H. 1985: On the isolation and identification of canavanine and ethanolamine contained in the young leaves of black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia, lethal for the ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis. - Tech. Bull. Fac. Agric. Kagawa Univ. 36: 107-115
  36. Obrycki B., Pandey G., Mishra G. & Omkar 2013: Predatory performance of four aphidophagous ladybirds: a measure of prey suitability. - Int. J. Trop. Insect Sci. 33: 120-126 Go to original source...
  37. Omkar & Bind R.B. 1993: Records of aphid-natural enemies complex of Uttar Pradesh.II. The Coccinellids. - J. Adv. Zool. 14: 96-99
  38. Omkar & Srivastava S. 2003: Comparative prey consumption and searching efficiency of Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus and Coccinella transversalis Fabricius on different aphid species. - J. Biol. Contr. 17: 35-41
  39. Omkar, James B.E. & Srivastava S. 1999: Prey preference of a ladybeetle, Coccinella transversalis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). - J. Appl. Biosci. 18: 117-122
  40. Omkar, Pervez A. & Gupta A.K. 2004: Role of surface chemicals in egg cannibalism and intraguild predation by neonates of two co-occurring aphidophagous ladybirds, Propylea dissecta and Coccinella transversalis. - J. Appl. Entomol. 128: 691-695
  41. Omkar, Pervez A., Mishra G., Srivastava S., Singh S.K. & Gupta A.K. 2005: Intrinsic advantages of Cheilomenes sexmaculata over two coexisting Coccinella species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). - Insect Sci. 12: 179-184 Go to original source...
  42. Omkar, Pervez A. & Gupta A.K. 2006: Why do neonates of aphidophagous ladybird beetles preferentially consume conspecific eggs in presence of aphids? - Biocontr. Sci. Technol. 16: 233-243
  43. Pasteels J.M., Deroe C., Tursch B., Brakeman J.C., Daloze D. & Hootele C. 1973: Distribution et activite des alcaloides defensifs des Coccinellidae. - J. Insect Physiol. 19: 1771-1784 Go to original source...
  44. Pervez A., Gupta A.K. & Omkar 2006: Larval cannibalism in aphidophagous ladybirds: influencing factors, benefits and costs. - Biol. Contr. 38: 307-313 Go to original source...
  45. Pettersson J., Ninkovic V., Glinwood R., Birkett M.A., Pickett J.A. 2005: Foraging in a complex environment - semiochemicals support searching behaviour of the seven spot ladybird. - Eur. J. Entomol. 102: 365-370 Go to original source...
  46. Pfannenstiel R.S. & Yeargan K.V. 2002: Identification and diel activity patterns of predators attacking Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs in soybean and sweet corn. - Environ. Entomol. 31: 232-241 Go to original source...
  47. Pilipjuk V.I., Bugaeva L.N. & Baklanova E.V. 1982: On the possibility of breeding of the predatory beetle Cryptolaemusmontrouzieri Muls. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) on the eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Ol. - Entomol. Obozr. 1: 50-52
  48. Prabhakar A.K. & Roy S.P. 2010: Evaluation of the consumption rates of dominant coccinellid predators on aphids in north-east Bihar. - Bioscan 5: 491-493
  49. Rieder J.P., Newbold T.A.S., Sato S., Yasuda H. & Evans E.W. 2008: Intraguild predation and variation in egg defence between sympatric and allopatric populations of two species of ladybird beetles. - Ecol. Entomol. 33: 53-58 Go to original source...
  50. Roy H.E., Rudge H., Goldrick L. & Hawkins D. 2007: Eat or be eaten: prevalence and impact of egg cannibalism on two-spot ladybirds, Adalia bipunctata. - Entomol. Exp. Appl. 125: 33-38 Go to original source...
  51. Sato S. & Dixon A.F.G. 2004: Effect of intraguild predation on the survival and development of three species of aphidophagous ladybirds: consequences for invasive species. - Agric. Forest Entomol. 5: 1-4 Go to original source...
  52. Sloggett J.J. & Davis A.J. 2010: Eating chemically defended prey: alkaloid metabolism in an invasive ladybird predator of other ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). - J. Exp. Biol. 213: 237-241 Go to original source...
  53. Sloggett J.J., Haynes K.F. & Obrycki J.J. 2009: Hidden costs to an invasive intraguild predator from chemically defended native prey. - Oikos 118: 1396-1404 Go to original source...
  54. Snyder W.E. & Clevenger G.M. 2004: Negative dietary effects of Colorado potato beetle eggs for the larvae of native and introduced ladybird beetles. - Biol. Control 31: 353-361 Go to original source...
  55. Snyder W.E., Clevenger G.M. & Eigenbrode S.D. 2004: Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles. - Oecologia 140: 559-565 Go to original source...
  56. Snyder W.E., Joseph S.B., Preziosi R.F. & Moore A.J. 2000: Nutritional benefits of cannibalism for the lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) when prey quality is poor. - Environ. Entomol. 29: 1173-1179 Go to original source...
  57. Specty O., Febvay G., Grenier S., Delobel B., Piotte C., Pageaux J.F., Ferran A. & Guillaud J. 2003: Nutritional plasticity of the predatory ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): comparison between natural and substitution prey. - Insect Biochem. Physiol. 52: 81-91 Go to original source...
  58. Takahashi K. 1987: Cannibalism by the larvae of Coccinella septempunctata brucki Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in mass rearing experiments. - J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 31: 201-205 Go to original source...
  59. Ware R., Yguel B. & Majerus M. 2009: Effects of competition, cannibalism and intraguild predation on larval development of the European coccinellid Adalia bipunctata and the invasive species Harmonia axyridis. - Ecol. Entomol. 34: 12-19 Go to original source...
  60. Warren L.O. & Tadic M. 1967: Biological observations on Coleomegilla maculata and its role as a predator of the fall webworm. - J. Econ. Entomol. 60: 1492-1496 Go to original source...
  61. Wheeler A.G. & Hoebeke E.R. 1995: Coccinella novemnotata in northeastern North America, historical occurrence and current status (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). - Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 97: 701-716