Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (4): 611-615, 2013 | 10.14411/eje.2013.083

Utilization of the nutrients in the soluble and insoluble fractions of fungal mycelium by larvae of the stag beetle, Dorcus rectus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

Masahiko TANAHASHI1, K˘hei KUBOTA2
1 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan; e-mail: m-tanahashi@aist.go.jp
2 Laboratory of Forest Zoology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan; e-mail: kohei@fr.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Larvae of the stag beetle, Dorcus rectus, feed on decaying wood, which they digest with the aid of symbiotic yeasts; however, they can be successfully reared on artificial diets containing only fungal tissue. In this study we tested whether D. rectus larvae can utilize fungal cell walls, which are an insoluble component of mycelium. Lyophilized Bjerkandera adusta mycelium cultured in potato-dextrose liquid medium consisted of a 47.6% hot-water insoluble fraction by mass, which contains 53.7% of the total nitrogen in the mycelium. D. rectus larvae that hatched from surface-sterilized eggs were reared for 14 days on agar-based diets containing either the soluble fraction, insoluble fraction or both, extracted from 100 mg of mycelium. The larvae increased in mass most on the mixed diet, and there was no difference in their growth on the mixed and positive control diets. Both the soluble and insoluble fractions improved larval growth compared to the negative control diet; however, the growth rates were much lower than those expected from the nitrogen dose-growth response curve obtained in a previous study. Addition of b-chitin to the soluble fraction did not positively affect larval growth. Therefore, we conclude that (1) D. rectus larvae need both the soluble and insoluble fractions of mycelium and (2) the larvae digest the insoluble fraction using their own enzymes.

Keywords: Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Dorcus rectus, saproxylophagous insects, fungal cell wall, chitin, digestion, symbiotic microorganisms, Bjerkandera adusta mycelium

Received: April 3, 2013; Accepted: May 9, 2013; Prepublished online: October 1, 2013; Published: December 1, 2013

Download citation

References

  1. ARAYA K. 1993: Relationships between decay types of dead wood and occurrence of lucanid beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). - Appl. Entomol. Zool. 28: 27-33
  2. AWMACK C.S. & LEATHER S.R. 2002: Host plant quality and fecundity in herbivorous insects. - Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47: 817-844 Go to original source...
  3. BATRA L.R. 1963: Ecology of ambrosia fungi and their dissemination by beetles. - Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 66: 213-236 Go to original source...
  4. BOWMAN S.M. & FREE S.J. 2006: The structure and synthesis of the fungal cell wall. - Bioessays 28: 799-808 Go to original source...
  5. BREZNAK J.A. & BRUNE A. 1994: Role of microorganisms in the digestion of lignocellulose by termites. - Annu. Rev. Entomol. 39: 453-487 Go to original source...
  6. BRONNER F. 1993: Nutrient bioavailability, with special reference to calcium. - J. Nutr. 123: 797-802
  7. BROWNING B.L. 1963: The Chemistry of Wood. Interscience Publishers, New York, 689 pp
  8. CLEVELAND L.R. 1924: The physiological and symbiotic relationships between the intestinal protozoa of termites and their host, with special reference to Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). - Biol. Bull. 46: 203-223 Go to original source...
  9. DUBOIS T., HAJEK A.E., SMITH S. 2002: Methods for rearing the Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on artificial diet. - Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95: 223-230 Go to original source...
  10. GEIB S.M., FILLEY T.R., HATCHER P.G., HOOVER K., CARLSON J.E., JIMENEZ-GASCO M., NAKAGAWA-IZUMI A., SLEIGHTER R.L. & TIEN M. 2009: Lignin degradation in wood-feeding insects. - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 12932-12937 Go to original source...
  11. GINDIN G., KUZNETSOVA T., PROTASOV A., YEHUDA S.B. & MENDEL Z. 2009: Artificial diet for two flat-headed borers, Capnodis spp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). - Eur. J. Entomol. 106: 573-581 Go to original source...
  12. HAACK R.A. & SLANSKY F. 1987: Nutritional ecology of woodfeeding Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera. In Slansky F. & Rodriquez J.G. (eds): Nutritional Ecology of Insects, Mites, Spiders, and Related Invertebrates. John Wiley, New York, pp. 449-456
  13. HAMAMURA Y., HAYASHIYA K., NAITO K., MATSUURA K. & NISHIDA J. 1962: Food selection by silkworm larvae. - Nature 194: 754 Go to original source...
  14. JANICKI F.J., HOLTER J.B. & HAYES H.H. 1985: Varying protein content and nitrogen solubility for pluriparous, lactating Holstein cows: digestive performance during early lactation. - J. Dairy Sci. 68: 1995-2008 Go to original source...
  15. JEFFERIES R.L. & EDWARDS K.A. 2008: Soluble carbohydrate content of shoot of Arctic wetland plants that are consumed by lesser snow geese. - Botany 86: 995-1001 Go to original source...
  16. JONES H.L. & WORRALL J.J. 1995: Fungal biomass in decayed wood. - Mycologia 87: 459-466 Go to original source...
  17. KILIC A. & NIEMZ P. 2012: Extractives in some tropical woods. - Eur. J. Wood Prod. 70: 79-83 Go to original source...
  18. KILLINY N., PRADO S.S. & ALMEIDA R.P.P. 2010: Chitin utilization by the insect-transmitted bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 6134-6140 Go to original source...
  19. KUBOTA K. & KUBOTA N. 2004: Beetles of genus Dorcus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) boring into dead wood of willow trees Salix spp. - J. Tree Health 8: 17-22
  20. KURTZMAN C.P., FELL J.W., BOEKHOUT T. & ROBERT V. 2011: Methods for isolation, phenotypic characterization and maintenance of yeasts. In Kurtzman C.P., Fell J.W. & Boekhout T. (eds): The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study. 5th ed. Elsevier, London, pp. 87-110
  21. LEAKE J.R. & READ D.J. 1990: Chitin as a nitrogen source for mycorrhizal fungi. - Mycol. Res. 94: 993-995 Go to original source...
  22. MAHOOD S.A. & CABLE D.E. 1922: The chemistry of wood IV - the analysis of the wood of Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus monticola. - J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 14: 933-934 Go to original source...
  23. PARKIN E.A. 1940: The digestive enzymes of some wood-boring beetle larvae. - J. Exp. Biol. 17: 364-377
  24. POORTER H., NIKLAS K.J., REICH P.B., OLEKSYN J., POOT P. & MOMMER L. 2012: Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. - New Phytol. 193: 30-50 Go to original source...
  25. RISEBROW A. & DIXON A.F.G 1987: Nutritional ecology of phloem-feeding insects. In Slansky F. & Rodriquez J.G. (eds): Nutritional Ecology of Insects, Mites, Spiders, and Related Invertebrates. John Wiley, New York, pp. 421-448
  26. SELITRENNIKOFF C.P. 2001: Antifungal proteins. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 2883-2894 Go to original source...
  27. SLAYTOR M. 1992: Cellulose digestion in termites and cockroaches: what role do symbionts play? - Comp. Biochem. Physiol. (B) 103: 775-784 Go to original source...
  28. STREICHSBIER F. 1983: Utilization of chitin as sole carbon and nitrogen source by Chromobacterium violaceum. - FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 19: 129-132 Go to original source...
  29. TANAHASHI M., MATSUSHITA N. & TOGASHI K. 2009: Are stag beetles fungivorous? - J. Insect Physiol. 55: 983-988 Go to original source...
  30. TANAHASHI M., KUBOTA K., MATSUSHITA N. & TOGASHI K. 2010 Discovery of mycangia and the associated xylose-fermenting yeasts in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). - Naturwissenschaften 97: 311-317 Go to original source...
  31. TSHINYANGU K.K. & HENNEBERT G.L. 1996: Protein and chitin nitrogen contents and protein content in Pleurotus ostreatus var. columbinus. - Food Chem. 57: 223-227 Go to original source...
  32. WILDER S.M., MAYNTZ D., TOFT S., RYPSTRA A.L., PILATI A. & VANNI M.J. 2010: Intraspecific variation in prey quality: a comparison of nutrient presence in prey and nutrient extraction by predators. - Oikos 119: 350-358 Go to original source...