Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 535-540, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.071

Morphological variation and sex-biased frequency of wing dimorphism in the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae)

Anja STEENMAN1, Arne W. LEHMANN2, Gerlind U.C. LEHMANN*,1
1 Humboldt-Universitšt zu Berlin, Department of Biology, Behavioural Physiology, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany, e-mails: anjasteenman@yahoo.de; gerlind.lehmann@t-online.de
2 Friedensallee 37, 14532 Stahnsdorf, Germany, e-mail: arne.w.lehmann@t-online.de

Dimorphism in wing length is well known in many insect species. It is generally believed that a trade-off between dispersal and reproduction exists, with the long-winged (LW) morph being a better disperser due to its superior flight capability. The short-winged (SW) morph is less mobile and it is hypothesised that females of this morph invest more of their energy reserves in producing offspring. We determined the variation in body and wing size in the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae). The results of the morphological study support the occurrence of two clearly distinct wing morphs in both sexes. SW individuals, especially males, were smaller and in accord with proposed developmental instability showed greater variability in body size than LW individuals. Using data for 700 wild-caught individuals from 10 populations, we demonstrate a variable frequency in the percentage of LW individuals, ranging from all-LW to all-SW populations, even if the LW morph is by far the most common morph in an area. The male-biased percentage of LW individuals recorded in intermediate populations supports a difference in the dispersal reproduction trade-off between the sexes.

Keywords: Orthoptera, Caelifera, Tetrigidae, Tetrix subulata, pygmy grasshopper, polymorphism, polyphenism, wing-dimorphism, sex-biased frequency

Received: February 8, 2013; Accepted: March 14, 2013; Published: July 11, 2013

Download citation

References

  1. AUKEMA B. 1995: The evolutionary significance of wing dimorphism in carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). - Res. Pop. Ecol. 37: 105-110 Go to original source...
  2. BADYAEV A.V. 2005: Stress-induced variation in evolution: from behavioural plasticity to genetic assimilation. - Proc. R. Soc. (B) 272: 877-886 Go to original source...
  3. BADYAEV A.V. 2011: Origin of the fittest: link between emergent variation and evolutionary change as a critical question in evolutionary biology. - Proc. R. Soc. (B) 278: 1921-1929 Go to original source...
  4. BERGER M. 1988: Mehrjaehrige Gkologische Untersuchungen an einer Grashuepfer-Population (Orthoptera: Acrididae). PhD Dissertation Univ Marburg, Marburg, Germany
  5. BERGGREN H., TINNERT J. & FORSMAN A. 2012: Spatial sorting may explain evolutionary dynamics of wing polymorphism in pygmy grasshoppers. - J. Evol. Biol. 25: 2126-2138 Go to original source...
  6. BLANCKENHORN W.U., DIXON A.F.G., FAIRBAIRN D.J., FOELLMER M.W., GIBERT P., VAN DER LINDE K., MEIER R., NYLIN S., PITNICK S., SCHOFF C., SIGNORELLI M., TEDER T. & WIKLUND C. 2007: Proximate causes of Rensch's rule: does sexual size dimorphism in arthropods result from sex differences in development time? - Am. Nat. 167: 245-257 Go to original source...
  7. CHOWN S.L. & GASTON K.J. 2010: Body size variation in insects: a macroecological perspective. - Biol. Rev. 85: 139-169 Go to original source...
  8. CHOWN S.L., MARAIS E., TERBLANCHE J.S., KLOK C.J., LIGHTON J.R.B. & BLACKBURN T.M. 2007: Scaling of insect metabolic rate is inconsistent with the nutrient supply network model. - Func. Ecol. 21: 282-290 Go to original source...
  9. DENNO R.E., RODERICK G.K., PETERSON M.A., HUBERTY A.F., DOBEL H.G., EUBANKS M.D., LOSEY J.E. & LANGELLOTTO G.A. 1996: Habitat persistence underlies intraspecific variation in the dispersal strategies of planthoppers. - Ecol. Monogr. 66: 389-408 Go to original source...
  10. DEVRIESE H. 1996: Bijdrage tot de systematiek morfologie en biologie van de West-Palearkitsche Tetrigidae. - Saltabel 15: 2-38
  11. DITRICH T. & PAPACEK M. 2009: Correlated traits for dispersal pattern: Terrestrial movement of the water cricket Velia caprai (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha: Velidae). - Eur. J. Entomol. 106: 551-555 Go to original source...
  12. FAIRBAIRN D.J. 1997: Allometry for sexual size dimorphism: pattern and process in the coevolution of body size in males and females. - Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 28: 659-687 Go to original source...
  13. FLOOK P. & ROWELL C.H.F. 1997: The phylogeny of the Caelifera (Insecta, Orthoptera) as deduced from mtRNA gene sequences. - Mol. Phyl. Evol. 8: 89-103 Go to original source...
  14. FONTANA P., BUZETTI F.M., COGO A. & ODE B. 2002: Guida al riconoscimiento e allo studio di Cavallette, Grilli, Mantidi e insetti affini del Veneto. Guide Natura 1. Museo Naturalistico Archaeologico di Vicenza, Italy, 590 pp
  15. GUERRA P.A. 2011: Evaluating the life-history trade-off between dispersal capability and reproduction in wing dimorphic insects: a meta-analysis. - Biol. Rev. 86: 813-835 Go to original source...
  16. HARRISON R.G. 1980: Dispersal polymorphisms in insects. - Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 95-118 Go to original source...
  17. HARSHMAN L.G. & ZERA A.J. 2007: The cost of reproduction: the devil in the details. - Trends Ecol. Evol. 22: 80-86 Go to original source...
  18. HARTLEY J.C. 1962: The egg of Tetrix (Tetrigidae, Orthoptera), with a discussion on the probable significance of the anterior horn. - Quart. J. Microscop. Sci. 103: 253-259
  19. HARZ K. 1969: Die Orthopteren Europas - The Orthoptera of Europe I. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 749 pp
  20. HARZ K. 1975: Die Orthopteren Europas - The Orthoptera of Europe II. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 939 pp
  21. HELFER J.R. 1987: How to know the grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches and their allies. Dover Publications, New York, 363 pp
  22. HEWITT G.M. 2004: The structure of biodiversity - insights from molecular phylogeography. - Front. Zool. 1: 4 Go to original source...
  23. HOCHKIRCH A. & GRONING J. 2008: Sexual size dimorphism in Orthoptera (sens. str.) - a review. - J. Orthopt. Res. 17: 189-196 Go to original source...
  24. HOCHKIRCH A., FOLGER M., LANDER S., MEYER C., PAPEN M. & ZIMMERMANN M. 1999: Habitatpraeferenzen von Tetrix subulata (Linnaeus, 1758) und Tetrix tenuicornis - (Sahlberg, 1893) in einer Sandkuhle bei Bremen (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae). - Articulata 14: 31-43
  25. HOCHKIRCH A., GRONING J., LOOS T., METZING C. & REICHELT M. 2000: Specialized diet and feeding habits as key factors for the habitat requirements of the grasshopper species Tetrix subulata (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae). - Entomol. Gener. 25: 39-51
  26. HOHNEN R., KLATT R., MACHATZI B. & MOLLER S. 2000: Vorlaeufiger Verbreitungsatlas der Heuschrecken Brandenburgs. - Maerk. Entomol. Nachr. 2000/1: 1-71.
  27. INGRISCH S. & KOHLER G. 1998: Die Heuschrecken Mitteleuropas. Westarp, Magdeburg, 460 pp
  28. KARPESTAM E. & FORSMAN A. 2013: Stable isotopes reveal dietary divergence between dispersal phenotypes in Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae). - Eur. J. Entomol. 110: 65-70 Go to original source...
  29. KING E.G. & ROFF D.A. 2010: Modeling the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in resource allocation in wing-dimorphic insects. - Am. Nat. 175: 702-716 Go to original source...
  30. LANGELLOTTO G.A. & DENNO R.T. 2001: Benefits of dispersal in patchy environments: mate location by males of a wingdimorphic insect. - Ecology 82: 1870-1878 Go to original source...
  31. LANGELLOTTO G.A., DENNO R.T. & OTT J.R. 2000: A trade-off between flight capability and reproduction in males of a wing-dimorphic insect. - Ecology 81: 865-875 Go to original source...
  32. LEHMANN A.W. & LANDECK I. 2007: Pigmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) from North-eastern Turkey. - Articulata 22: 225-234
  33. LEHMANN G.U.C. & LEHMANN A.W. 2008: Variation in body size among populations of the bushcricket Poecilimon thessalicus (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae): an ecological adaptation? - J. Orthopt. Res. 17: 165-169 Go to original source...
  34. LOCK K., VERSLYCKE T. & JANSSEN C.R. 2006: Energy allocation in brachypterous versus macropterous morphs of the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae). - Entomol. Gener. 28: 269-274
  35. MAAS S., DETZEL P. & STAUDT A. 2002: Gefaehrdungsanalyse der Heuschrecken Deutschlands. Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz, Bonn, 401 pp
  36. PENER M.P. & SIMPSON S.J. 2009: Locust phase polyphenism: an update. - Adv. Insect Physiol. 36: 1-286 Go to original source...
  37. PODGORNAJA L.I. 1983: Orthopteran insects of family Tetrigidae (Orthoptera) of the fauna of USSR. Leningrad: Nauka, 96 pp. [in Russian]
  38. PONIATOWSKI D. & FARTMANN T. 2009: Experimental evidence for density-determined wing dimorphism in two bush-crickets (Ensifera: Tettigoniidae). - Eur. J. Entomol. 106: 599-605 Go to original source...
  39. REHN J.A.G. & GRANT H.J. JR. 1955: Tetrix subulata (Orthoptera; Acridoidea; Tetrigidae) as occurring in North America. - Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 107: 145-165
  40. REINHOLD K. 1999: Energetically costly behaviour and the evolution of resting metabolic rate in insects. - Funct. Ecol. 13: 217-224 Go to original source...
  41. ROFF D.A. 1986: The evolution of wing dimorphism in insects. - Evolution 40: 1009-1020 Go to original source...
  42. ROFF D.A. 1994: Habitat persistence and the evolution of wing dimorphism in insects. - Am. Nat. 144: 772-798 Go to original source...
  43. ROFF D.A. 1996: The evolution of threshold traits in animals. - Quart. Rev. Biol. 71: 3-35 Go to original source...
  44. ROFF D.A. 2002: Life History Evolution. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, 527 pp
  45. ROFF D.A. & FAIRBAIRN D.J. 2007: The evolution of trade-offs: where are we? - J. Evol. Biol. 20: 433-447 Go to original source...
  46. SCHMITT T 2007: Molecular biogeography of Europe: Pleistocene cycles and postglacial trends. - Front. Zool. 4: 11. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-4-11 Go to original source...
  47. SCHWANDER T. & LEIMAR O. 2011: Genes as leaders and followers in evolution. - Trends Ecol. Evol. 26: 143-151 Go to original source...
  48. SIMMONS A.D. & THOMAS C.D. 2004: Changes in dispersal during species' range expansions. - Am. Nat. 164: 378-395 Go to original source...
  49. SIMPSON S.J., SWORD G.A. & LO N. 2011: Polyphenism in insects. - Curr. Biol. 21: R738-R749 Go to original source...
  50. SPENCE J.R. & ANDERSEN N.M. 1994: Biology of water striders -interactions between systematics and ecology. - Annu. Rev. Entomol. 39: 101-128 Go to original source...
  51. STEARNS S.C. 1992: The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 264 pp
  52. STOROZHENKO S.YU. 2009: An annotated list of grasshoppers and their allies (Orthoptera: Caelifera) of the Asian part of Russia. - Korean J. Soil Zool. 13: 10-24
  53. TOMKINS J.L. & HAZEL W. 2007: The status of the conditional evolutionarily stable strategy. - Trends Ecol. Evol. 22: 522-528 Go to original source...
  54. WEST-EBERHARD M.J. 2003: Developmental plasticity and evolution. Oxford University Press, New York, 794 pp
  55. WHITEMAN H.H., WISSINGER S.A., DENOEL M., MECKLIN C.J., GERLANC N.M. & GUTRICH J.J. 2012: Larval growth in polyphenic salamanders: making the best of a bad lot. - Oecologia 168: 109-118 Go to original source...
  56. WHITMAN D.W. 2008: The significance of body size in the Orthoptera: a review - J. Orthopt. Res. 17: 117-134 Go to original source...
  57. YAMASHITA H., KIRITANI K., TOGASHI K. & KUBOTA K. 2006: Wing dimorphism in three carabid species living in the grasslands of Mt. Omuro, Shizuoka, Japan. - Appl. Entomol. Zool. 41: 463-470 Go to original source...
  58. ZERA A.J. 2005: Intermediary metabolism and life history tradeoffs: lipid metabolism in lines of the wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, selected for flight capability vs. early age reproduction. - Integr. Comp. Biol. 45: 511-524 Go to original source...
  59. ZERA A.J. 2009: Wing polymorphism in Gryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae): proximate endocrine, energetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying morph specialization for flight vs. reproduction. In Whitman D.W. & Ananthakrishnan T.N. (eds): Phenotypic Plasticity of Insects. Mechanism and Consequences. Science Publishers, Enfield, pp. 609-653
  60. ZERA A.J. & DENNO R.F. 1997: Physiology and ecology of dispersal polymorphism in insects. - Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42: 207-231 Go to original source...
  61. ZERA A.J. & ZHAO Z. 2006: Intermediary metabolism and lifehistory trade-offs: differential metabolism of amino acids underlies the dispersal-reproduction trade-off in a wingpolymorphic cricket. - Am. Nat. 167: 889-900 Go to original source...