Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (3): 451-460, 2013 | 10.14411/eje.2013.060

Comparative analysis of maternal and grand-maternal photoperiodic responses of Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Natalia D. VOINOVICH, Nina P. VAGHINA, Sergey Ya. REZNIK*
Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia; e-mails: nataliavoinovitch@hotmail.com; nina@zin.ru; reznik1952@mail.ru

Maternal and grand-maternal photoperiodic responses of Trichogramma buesi, T. embryophagum, T. evanescens, T. piceum, T. principium, and T. telengai were investigated in laboratory conditions. During the experiment, grand-maternal and maternal generations developed at 20C and one of the 4 photoperiodic regimes: L : D = 12 : 12, 14 : 10, 16 : 8, and 18 : 6 (in total, 16 combinations) while the progeny developed at L : D = 12 : 12 and one of the 3 thermal regimes: 13, 14, and 15C. The proportion of diapausing individuals in the progeny of all the studied species was significantly dependent on the direct influence of temperature and on the maternal photoperiodic response. The influence of the photoperiodic conditions during development of the grand-maternal generation was statistically significant in 5 of the 6 studied species, being relatively weak in T. embryophagum and T. telengai, whose geographical ranges extend up to north-western regions of Europe (possibly, these wasps enter diapause so early that the grand-mothers of the diapausing generation develop under long day conditions). Comparative analysis showed that the thresholds of the maternal and grand-maternal photoperiodic responses coincided or almost coincided. The grand-maternal effect was stronger in the progeny of maternal females which developed under short day conditions than in those that developed under long day conditions. This pattern of interaction probably synchronizes the life cycle with seasonal changes because diapause is induced under decreasing day length and thus mothers of diapausing individuals develop at shorter daylength than do grand-mothers. We conclude that the grand-maternal and the maternal effects on Trichogramma progeny diapause are based on one and the same photoperiodic response. In nature, the grand-maternal effect increases the proportion of diapausing individuals in the progeny of females which have developed under short day conditions during two generations, thus achieving a "cumulative" photoperiodic effect.

Keywords: Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae, Trichogramma, diapause, photoperiod, temperature, maternal effect, grand-maternal effect, cumulative photoperiodic effect

Received: October 24, 2012; Accepted: January 24, 2013; Published: July 11, 2013

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