Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 95-101, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.013

Influence of photoperiod on the development of diapause in larvae and its cost for individuals of a univoltine population of Dendrolimus punctatus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

Ju-Ping ZENG1,2, Yong WANG3, Xing-Ping LIU1
1 College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Zhimin Road 1225, Nanchang 330045, P.R. China; e-mail: zengjupingjxau@163.com; liuxp@eyou.com
2 State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P.R. China
3 Plant Protection and Quarantine Station, Hunan Province Agricultural Department, Changsha 410005, P.R. China; e-mail: wanghaohan2005@163.com

Larvae of Dendrolimus punctatus overwinter in diapause. In the Yangtze River Region, this species is multivoltine at altitudes below 400 m and univoltine above 700 m a.s.l. The photoperiodic response of the univoltine population, investigated at five day lengths (11.5, 12.5, 13.5, 14.5 and 15.5 h) at 27 + 1C, indicates that D. punctatus is a long-day species. Diapause was induced in 95-100% of the individuals by three short photophases (11.5-13.5 h), while diapause incidence decreased steeply with increase in day length down to 10% at 15.5 h. The critical daylength (CDL = day length resulting in a 50% incidence of diapause) is 14.6 h. When induced by critical or longer photophases (14.5 and 15.5 h), diapause terminated spontaneously, without any change in photoperiod or temperature. Diapause induced at shorter photophases was more intense and not terminated without activation by diapause averting conditions. Larvae in diapause lived for up to 190 d when kept under a 11.5 h photophase during which they remained sensitive to the photoperiodic signal. In transfer experiments, diapause was terminated after an increase in photoperiod, even if it was within the range of diapause inducing photoperiods: from 11.5 h to 13.5 h. This study revealed that the univoltine hill dwelling population of D. punctatus undergoes a facultative diapause. Although potentially multivoltine they are univoltine because of the low temperatures at that altitude.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae, Dendrolimus punctatus, photoperiod, critical daylength (CDL), diapause development, termination, cost of diapause

Received: October 3, 2011; Accepted: September 14, 2012; Published: January 2, 2013

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