Eur. J. Entomol. 110 (1): 87-93, 2013 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2013.011

Variation in male and female mating behaviour among different populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Penelope R. HADDRILL1, Michael E.N. MAJERUS1, David M. SHUKER2
1 Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK
2 School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Harold Mitchell Building, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9TH, UK; e-mail: david.shuker@st-andrews.ac.uk

Investigating the function of both male and female mating behaviours is essential in our attempts to understand the evolution of mating systems. Variation in mating behaviours among different populations within a species provides a useful opportunity to explore how behaviours may co-vary, although comparative studies are still rather few in number. Population variation in mating behaviour may also have important implications in terms of the evolution of reproductive isolation, the distribution of genetic diversity within and between populations, and the associated ability of those populations to adapt. Here we consider male and female mating behaviour in two populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, from the UK and Russia. We find that male and female mating behaviours differ between the populations in terms of the length of female rejection behaviour and the duration of mating, and that this variation is independent of which population an individual's mating partner is from. Our data confirm that patterns of sexual selection and reproductive behaviour are likely to vary across populations in the two-spot ladybird. The extent to which this variation is due to current ecological factors or population history remains to be verified for this species, as for many others.

Keywords: Coccinellidae, Adalia, mating behaviour, sexual selection, two-spot ladybird, UK population, Russian population

Received: August 16, 2012; Accepted: October 8, 2012; Published: January 2, 2013

Download citation

References

  1. ANDERSSON M. 1994: Sexual Selection. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 624 pp
  2. ARNQVIST G. & NILSSON T. 2000: The evolution of polyandry: multiple mating and female fitness in insects. - Anim. Behav. 60: 145-164 Go to original source...
  3. ARNQVIST G. & ROWE L. 2005: Sexual Conflict. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 360 pp
  4. BATEMAN A.J. 1948: Intra-sexual selection in Drosophila. - Heredity 2: 349-368 Go to original source...
  5. BRETMAN A., WEDELL N. & TREGENZA T. 2004: Molecular evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. - Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 271: 159-164 Go to original source...
  6. CABALLERO A. 1995: On the effective size of populations with separate sexes, with particular reference to sex-linked genes. - Genetics 139: 1007-1011
  7. CHARLESWORTH B. 2001: The effect of life-history and mode of inheritance on neutral genetic variability. - Gen. Res. 77: 153-166 Go to original source...
  8. CHARLESWORTH B. & CHARLESWORTH D. 1999: The genetic basis of inbreeding depression. - Gen. Res. 74: 329-340 Go to original source...
  9. COYNE J.A. & ORR H.A. 2004: Speciation. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, 545 pp
  10. DE JONG P.W., BRAKEFIELD P.M. & GEERINCK B.P. 1998: The effect of female mating history on sperm precedence in the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). - Behav. Ecol. 9: 559-565 Go to original source...
  11. EVANS J.P., GASPARINI C., HOLWELL G.I., RAMNARINE I.W., PITCHER T.E. & PILASTRO A. 2011: Intraspecific evidence from guppies for correlated patterns of male and female genital trait diversification. - Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 278: 2611-2620 Go to original source...
  12. HADDRILL P.R. 2001: The Development and Use of Molecular Genetic Markers to Study Sexual Selection and Population Genetics in the Two-spot Ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (L.). Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, 262 pp
  13. HADDRILL P.R., SHUKER D.M., MAYES S. & MAJERUS M.E.N. 2007: Temporal effects of multiple mating on components of fitness in the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). - Eur. J. Entomol. 104: 393-398 Go to original source...
  14. HADDRILL P.R., SHUKER D.M., AMOS W., MAJERUS M.E.N. & MAYES S. 2008: Female multiple mating in wild and laboratory populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata. - Mol. Ecol. 17: 3189-3197 Go to original source...
  15. HURST G.D.D., MAJERUS M.E.N. & WALKER L.E. 1993: The importance of cytoplasmic male killing elements in natural populations of the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). - Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 49: 195-202 Go to original source...
  16. HURST G.D.D., SLOGGETT J.J. & MAJERUS M.E.N. 1996: Estimation of the rate of inbreeding in a natural population of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) using a phenotypic indicator. - Eur. J. Entomol. 93: 145-150
  17. HURST G.D.D., SCHULENBURG J.H.G.V.D., MAJERUS T.M.O., BERTRAND D., ZAKHAROV I.A., BAUNGAARD J., VOLKL W., STOUTHAMER R. & MAJERUS M.E.N. 1999: Invasion of one insect species, Adalia bipunctata, by two different malekilling bacteria. - Insect Mol. Biol. 8: 133-139 Go to original source...
  18. KEARNS P.W.E., TOMLINSON I.P.M., VELTMAN C.J. & O'DONALD P. 1992: Non-random mating in the two-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata): II. Further tests for female mating preference. - Heredity 68: 385-389 Go to original source...
  19. KOKKO H. & RANKIN D.J. 2006: Lonely hearts or sex in the city? Density-dependent effects in mating systems. - Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 361: 319-334 Go to original source...
  20. MAJERUS M.E.N. 1994: Ladybirds. Harper Collins, London, 367 pp
  21. MAJERUS M.E.N. 1998: Melanism: Evolution in Action. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 364 pp
  22. MAJERUS M.E.N. & HURST G.D.D. 1997: Ladybirds as a model system for the study of male-killing symbionts. - Entomophaga 42: 13-20 Go to original source...
  23. MAJERUS M.E.N. & KEARNS P.W.E. 1989: Ladybirds. Richmond Publishing, Slough, 103 pp
  24. MAJERUS M.E.N., O'DONALD P. & WEIR J. 1982a: Evidence for preferential mating in Adalia bipunctata. - Heredity 42: 57-65 Go to original source...
  25. MAJERUS M.E.N., O'DONALD P. & WEIR J. 1982b: Female mating preference is genetic. - Nature 300: 521-523 Go to original source...
  26. MAJERUS M.E.N., SCHULENBURG J.H.G.V.D. & ZAKHAROV I.A. 2000: Multiple causes of male-killing in a single sample of the two-spot ladybird Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). - Heredity 84: 605-609 Go to original source...
  27. MICHALCZYK L., MILLARD A.L., MARTIN O.Y., LUMLEY A.J., EMERSON B.C., CHAPMAN T. & GAGE M.J.G. 2011: Inbreeding promotes female promiscuity. - Science 333: 1739 Go to original source...
  28. NUNNEY L. 1993: The influence of mating system and overlapping generations on effective population size. - Evolution 47: 1329-1341 Go to original source...
  29. O'DONALD P. & MAJERUS M.E.N. 1992: Non-random mating in Adalia bipunctata (the two-spot ladybird). III. New evidence of genetic preference. - Heredity 69: 521-526 Go to original source...
  30. PARKER G.A. & PARTRIDGE L. 1998: Sexual conflict and speciation. - Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 353: 261-274 Go to original source...
  31. PEMBERTON J.M., COLTMAN D.W., COULSON T.N. & SLATE J. 1999: Using microsatellites to measure the fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding. In Goldstein D.B. & SchlGtterer C. (eds): Microsatellites: Evolution and Application, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 151-164
  32. PERRY J.C. & ROWE L. 2010: Condition-dependent ejaculate size and composition in a ladybird beetle. - Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 277: 3639-3647 Go to original source...
  33. PERRY J.C., SHARPE D.M.T. & ROWE L. 2009: Conditiondependent female re-mating resistance generates sexual selection on male size in a ladybird beetle. - Anim. Behav. 77: 743-748 Go to original source...
  34. RANSFORD M.O. 1997: Sperm Competition in the 2-spot Ladybird, Adalia bipunctata. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 244 pp
  35. RITCHIE M.G. 1992: Setbacks in the search for mate-preference genes. - Trends Ecol. Evol. 7: 328-329 Go to original source...
  36. SAARIKETTU M., LIIMATAINEN J.O. & HOIKKALA A. 2005: Intraspecific variation in mating behaviour does not cause sexual isolation between Drosophila virilis strains. - Anim. Behav. 70: 417-426 Go to original source...
  37. SCHULENBURG J.H.G.V.D., HURST G.D.D., TETZLAFF D., BOOTH G.E., ZAKHAROV I.A. & MAJERUS M.E.N. 2002: History of infection with different male-killing bacteria in the two-spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata revealed through mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. - Genetics 160: 1075-1086
  38. SHAIKEVICH E.V., IVSHINA E.V. & ZAKHAROV I.A. 2012: Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA and distribution of cytoplasmic symbionts in the populations of two-spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata. - Russ. J. Genet. 48: 567-571. Go to original source...
  39. SHUKER D.M., BALLANTYNE G.A. & WEDELL N. 2006: Variation in the cost to females of sexual conflict over mating in the seed bug Lygaeus equestris (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). - Anim. Behav. 72: 313-321 Go to original source...
  40. TEMPLETON A.R. 1986: Coadaptation and outbreeding depression. In Soule M.E. (ed.): Conservation Biology - the Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 105-116
  41. TOMLINSON I.P.M., KEARNS P.W.E. & VELTMAN C.J. 1995: Nonrandom mating in the two-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata): The influence of weight on mating success. - Behav. Genet. 25: 467-474 Go to original source...
  42. TREGENZA T. & WEDELL N. 2002: Polyandrous females avoid costs of inbreeding. - Nature 415: 71-73 Go to original source...
  43. TRIVERS R.L. 1972: Parental investment and sexual selection. In Campbell B. (ed): Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man. Heineman, London, pp. 136-179
  44. WEBBERLEY K.M., HURST G.D.D., HUSBAND R.W., SCHULENBURG J.H.G.V.D., SLOGGETT J.J., ISHAM V., BUSKO J. & MAJERUS M.E.N. 2004: Host reproductive and a sexually transmitted disease: causes and consequences of Coccipolipus hippodamiae distribution on coccinellid beetles. - J. Anim. Ecol. 73: 1-10 Go to original source...
  45. WEBBERLEY K.M., TINSLEY M.C., SLOGGETT J.J., MAJERUS M.E.N. & HURST G.D.D. 2006: Spatial variation in the incidence of a sexually transmitted parasite of the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). - Eur. J. Entomol. 103: 793-797 Go to original source...
  46. WEINERT L.A., TINSLEY M.C., TEMPERLEY M. & JIGGINS F.M. 2007: Are we underestimating the diversity and incidence of insect bacterial symbionts? A case study in ladybird beetles. - Biol. Lett. 3: 678-681 Go to original source...